DOC

Community structure and regeneration types of Betula dahurica forest in Badaling forest center of Beijing

By Howard Roberts,2014-02-18 00:24
8 views 0
Community structure and regeneration types of Betula dahurica forest in Badaling forest center of Beijing

    Community structure and regeneration types of Betula dahurica forest in Badaling

    forest center of Beijing

    !:!!:::???盟?

    CommunitystructureandregenerationtypesofBetuladahurica

    forestinBadalingforestcenterofBeijing

    ZhangYongZhengZhihuaZhangZhi-xiang

    CollegeofBiologicalSciencesandBiotechnology,BeijingForestryUniversity,Beijing100083,PR.China

    AbstractUsingplantcommunityanalysismethods,weanalyzedthefloristiccharacteristics,speciescomposition,community

    structure,populationstructure,andspatialdistributionpa~emsofaBetuladahuricaforestonthe"1238"mounminofBadalingin

    Beijing,China.Theresultsshowthat:1)Thereare33plantspeciesintheB.dahuricacommunity,includingl8woodyplantspe

    cies.TheB.dahuricaforestisamonodominantcommunitywith75.9%dominance.2,Basedondiameteratbreastheight(DBH)

    sizeclassdistribution,thepopulationstructureofBdahuricaandAcermono---twoheliophyllousandpioneertreespecieis

    cascadetype,withbothinanincreasingstage.Thepopulationstructureof

    liamaltdshuricaandmongolica.two

    shade'toleranttreespecies,isinverse

    Jtype,andtheyhavemoreyoungseedlingindividualsandregeneratemorestably.Theyare associatedspeciesofthepioneertreespecies.ThepopulationstructureofQuercusmongolica,astheassociatedspeciesofclimax

    speciesinthecommunity,issporadic,anditsregenerationisfluctuatingandrandom.Fraxintl

srhynchopyllaisashadetolerant

    treespecieswhichhasaunibarpopulationstructureandclimaxcharacteristicsofpioneertrees

    pecies.Therelativefrequencyof

    youngseedlingsreached0.4.3)ThedominantspeciesB.dahuricaisstillinanincreasingstage,

    andtheregenerationofother

    speciesissteadyorpartlyinfluencesthecommunity,pu~ingthecommunityinthepioneerspe

    ciesstage.Fromthepopulation

    structureanddistributionfrequencyofrhynchophylla.theB.dahuricaforestwil1approachto

    aclimaxstateinthefuture.

    KeywordsBetuladahuricaforest,communitystructure,populationstructure,regenerationt

    ype

    1Introduction

    Communitystructureisanimportantfactorinforest

    managementandanalysis,asitgenerallyreflects

    characteristiesinthedevelopmentprocessofaforest

    standsuchasregenerationtype,competition,self

    sparsenessandinterference(MacArthurandMacAr.

    thur,19611.Biologicalcharacteranddevelopment

    trendsofallpopulationsinacommunityareveryim.

    portanttoitsappearance,structureandsuccession

    trends.Agestructurereflectsnotonlythedynamic

    processandtrends,butalsothefunctionandstatusof

    apopulationinacommunity(Peng,1993;Cheneta1.,

    20011.

    Betuladahuricaisadeciduousbroad.1eavedtree

    speciesreaching30mhighthatisdistributedinnorth

    andnortheastChina.Oneofthemajornaturalsecon

    daryforestsintheBeijingarea,thisvirginforestisa

    coniferousforest.B.dahuricaforestsdevelopedafter

    forestconservationperformedin1949andbecame

    distributedinDongling,Baihua,Songshan,La. bagoumen.YunmengandlingMountainsThere

    hasbeenminimalinformationreportedonthetom. munitystruclureofB.dahuricaforestsintheBeijing area.Inthisresearch,thepopulationstructure,tom. munitystructureandregenerationtypeofB.dahurica forestwerestudied.

    Authorforco~espondence.E-mail:zx.zhang@263net 2Studyareaandresearchmethods

    2.1Sitedescription

    TheBadalingforestcenterliesinYanqingCounty,60 krnawayfromthedowntownarea.Thegeographic locationofthecenteris40.17Nandll5.55,E.Its northeastedgeabutsYanqingCounty,thesouthnge

    bordersonChangpingCountyandthewestboundary isadjacenttoHuailaiCountyofHebeiProvince.The totalareaoftheforestcenteris2.940hIn.including 1,003.5hmofshrubforests.360hmofbroad.1eaved forests.52.2hInofconiferousandbroad.1eaved mixedforestsand1.478hmofaciculisilvae.The bedrockismadeupofgraniteandthesoilis

    black.browninthisarea.Themeanannualtempera. Parehereis10.8.Candthemeanprecipitationis651 mlT1.Thehighestelevationis1.238m(hereinafter called"l238"mountain)(Zhuetal2003).

    2.2Experimentalmethods

    Wesetupapermanentplotnearthe''1238"mountain withagradientofabout15.andtotalareaof4,500m (50m~90m).ThecanopyclosureextentofB.da- huricahereis70%.Foraconvenientinvestigation,the

ZhangYongeta1.:CommunitystructureandregenerationtypesofBetuladahuricaforestinB

    adaling

    plotwasdividedintofortyfive100mquadratsf10

    mX10m,.AllwoodyplantswithDBHofmorethan5 cmwereinvestigatedineachquadrat.Fortheseindi

    vidualplantswedistinguishedthefloristics,measured theDBHandheight,andrecordedthecoordinate situation.ForthewoodyplantswithDBHoflessthan 5cm,wedistinguishedthefloristicsandmeasuredthe height,numberandcoverage(%).Forherbageplants, wesetupfive1.mmicroquadrats(1mx1m)ineach quadratf10mX10m),distinguishedthefloristicsand recordedtheheight,numberandcoverageforeach plantspecies.

    2.3Populationstructureanddiversityindex Therelativebasalareaisusedtoindicatethedomi. nanceofeachspecies,andtheShannon-Wienerindex wasadoptedasthebiodiversityindex(Shannoneta1., 1949):

    Dsw?pflog2Pj

    i=1

    wherePistherelativeamountoftheithspeciesandS isthespeciesnumberinacomrnunity.

    Populationisabasiccommunitycomponent.i.e.. thepopulationstructurehasadirectimpactonthe comrnunitystructure.whichinturndemonstratesthe developmentendofthecomrnunity.Becauseitis diculttoidentifyexactlytheageofanindividual plant,thespatio.temporalsubstitutionmethodwas

    usedinapracticalstudy,i.e.weusedDBHsizein. steadofagetoanalyzethepopulationstructureand dynamiccharacteristics(Jin.1997).Wlesetevery5cm asaDBHclassanddepictedthechartOfDBHclass distribution.

    3Results

    3.1Speciescomposition

    Thereare33speciesplantsinB.dahuricaforest:9 arbors.9shrubsand15herbs.Intermsoflifetype.the deciduousbroad.1eavedeesincludeSyringareticu.

    teJuglansmandshuricaB.dahuricamand-

    shurica,mongolica,p.mongolica,Malusbaccata, A.monoandF.rhynchophylla.Thedeciduousshrubs andlianasincludeCorylusheterophylla.Sambucus williamsii,Abeliabiflora,Spiraeapubescens,Spiraea lobata.PhiladeZphuspekinensis.Hydrangeabret. schneideri,Corusbretschneideri,Syringapubescens. andCelastrusorbiculatus.Theherbsinclude Calamagrost~arundinacea,Saussureamongolica, Dioscoreanipponica,Adenophoradivaricata,Poten

    tillachinensis,Carexrigescens,Polygonatumodora- turn,Hemerocalliscitrine,Aconitumkusnezoffii,Viola acuminate,Phlomisumbrosa,V~ciaunijuga,Aster l53

    ageratoides,ThalictrumminusandRabdosiajaponica ItissuggestedthattheplantspeciesinB.dahurica forestisveryrichandthediversityindexofthecom' munityis1.25.

    3.2Verticalstructure

Theheightgradefrequencydistributionofplantsre

    flectsthediversifiedcharacteristicsre.g.shadetoler- anceandregenerationtype)oftreespeciesinthefor- estandlayerstructureofthecommunity(Ohsawaet a1.,1999).FromFig.1,exceptforherbagelayer,the woodycommunityhasbeeninvestigatedandcanbe dividedintotwolayers:arborlayerandunderwood layenThearborlayerspeciesincludeS.reticulate.J.

     mandshurica.B.dahurica.mandshurica,mongo

    lica.D.mongolica,baccataandA.mono.The heightofeesinthislayeris6-10mandthecoverage is70%aswel1.TheunderwoodlayerincludesB.da. hurica,T.mandshurica,mongolica,Q.mongolica, Acermono.seedlingsofFrhynchophyllaandother shrubs,withplantheightof0-4mandcoverageof 40%.TheherbagelayermainlyincludesC.arundina. ceaandS.mongolica.

    3.3SpeciescompositionofthearborlayerinB. dahuricacommunity

    Inaforestcommunity,thehighestlayeristhe"func

    tionsurface"whichcontactsmacroclimaticvariety Sporadictype

    0-55-10l0-Il5l5_2020--252530>30

    DBHclass(cm)

    Unibartype

    Frhchophylla

    ll?lll

    0-I55l010-I15l5_2020-I252530>30

    DBHclass(cm)

    Fig.1HeightgradefrequencydistributionofplantsinaB.da?

huricacommunity

    如加0

    ?uJ?00uJT1Z

    0

    ?uJ.1s00LuT1Z

154

    andplaysakeyroleincreatingaspecialmicroclimate withinthecommunity.Thehighestlayeristhepri

    marylayerfJiangeta1.,2004).0urinvestigation showsthatthereareeightplantspeciesinthearbor layerwhichcomprisethehighestlayer:S.reticulate,J maHdshurica.B.dahurica.maHdshurica.mongo

    lica,p.mongolica,^baccataandA.?0,?D(Table1). Thecommunitydiversityindexis0.40.B.dahuricais thedominanttreespeciesinthecommunitywith dominanceof75.9%.sowedeterminethatthearbor communityofB.dahuricabelongstoamonodomi. nanttype

    3.4YoungseedlingcompositionofB.dahurica forestinthecommunity

    YoungseedlingsinthecommunityarecomposedotB. dahurica.mandshurica,mongolica,Q.mongo

    lica.A.monoandF.rhynchopy,la(Table21.Com

    paredwiththearborlayer,itisshortofS.reticulate. mandshuricaandM.baccataalthoughF.rhyncho. py,aDpears.ThisshowsthatS.reticulate, mandshuricaandM.baccataaredistributedrandomly intheB.dahuricaforestwhileF.rhynchophvllnisa newspeciesthatinvadedthisforest.

    3.5Agestructureandregenerationtypeofthe mainpopulation

    Thepopulationstructureisanalyzedbyaspa

    tiotemporalsubstitutionmethod.Accordingtothe shapeofDBHclassdistributioninFig.2,thewhole treescanbedividedinto4populationstructures:spo

    radictype(Q.mongolica),inverseJtype(mand-

    shuricaandT.mongolica)unibartype(F.rhyncho. phylla)andladdertyper.dahuricaandA.mono). TheDBHclassdistributionofQ.mongolicaisdis

    continuouswiththreepeaks.Therearemoreyoung seedlingindividualsthanindividualsinhighDBHsize. hencetheyarenamedsporadictype.Thedeveloping Table1SpeciescompositionofthearborlayerinB.dahurica communities

    S.reticulate1

    3mandshurica3

    B.dahurica29l

    mandshurica75

    mongolica7

    9.mongolica3

    baccata2

    A.mono30

    39.57<0.10

    490.450.63

    59.362.6675.87

    12.250.9515.66

    1.602.492.05

    1.058.991.35

    78.820.10

3.360.094-29

    7.10~0.00

    13.752.15

    l4.603.32

    13.70~4-33

    16.05~2.84

    19.8711.86

    7.08~0.40

    11.06~6.17

    ForestryStudiesinChina,Vo1.9,No.2,2007 trendofthepopulationshowsthatitbelongstoa steadytypeofpopulationstructure.TheDBHclass distributionofmandshuricaandmongolicaap. peartobeaninverselyplacedletter"J".Sincethe DBHclassdistributioniscontinuouswithtwopeaks. i.e..theweakerpeakinlargeDBHclassandthe strongerpeakinsmal1DBHclass.itisnamedin. verseJtype.Thedevelopingtrendofthepopulation reflectsamaturesteadytypeofpopulationstructureF

    rhynchopvllaisdistributedonlyinsmallDBHclass. sowenameditunibartype.Anevolvingtypeof populationstructureisfoundbasedonthedeveloping trendofthepopulation.TheDBHclassdistributionof B.dahuricaandA.monoiscontinuousandthenum

    berofindividualsdecreasesgraduallyfromsmallto largeDBHclass.thereforewenameditladdertype. Accordingtothedevelopingtrendsofthepopulation, itbelongstoanevolvingtypeofpopulationstructure. 4Discussion

    Thebiologicalandecologicalcharacteristicsoftree

    speciesdeterminethestatusandfunctionwhether theysubstituteoraresubstitutedbyotherspeciesin communitysuccession.Thepopulationstructureis theintegratedexhibitionofthestatus,function,de. velopmentprocessandVendsoftreespecies.Thus. theregenerationtype,dynamicprocess,andtrendsof thecommunitycanbeconfirmedorspeculatedac

    cordingtothecharacteristicsofpopulationstructure (Daeta1.,2004).

    B.dahuricaishighlydominantinthecommunity withadominanceOf75.9%.sothepopulationstruc

    tureandevolutionofB.dahuricaplayakeyrolein definingthestructureanddevelopmenttrendsofthe wholecommunity.B.dahuricaisaheliophyllous species,normallyappearingaftershrubsduring communitysuccession.Betulaspp.isconsideredto bepioneersofshadetoleranttreespeciesre.g.Pinus andPicea)beforetheysettleddowninNorthChina (Zheng.1988;Suneta1..1994).SinceB.dahuricais inanincreasingstageasseenfromthepopulation structure,theB.dahuricacommunityisinthein

    creasingstageofpioneertreespecies.A.monois heliophyllousandtoleratesshadeslightly,anditis accustomedtodeepsoil(ZhangandLi,2006),soit Table2Speciescompositionandrelativefrequencyofarbor seedlingsinaB.dahuricacommunity

ZhangYongeta1.:CommunitystructureandregenerationtypesofBetuladahuricaforestinB

    adaling

    Sporadictype

Report this document

For any questions or suggestions please email
cust-service@docsford.com