DOC

Community participation mode of ecotourism in Tibetan area of Shangfi-La County, Yunnan Province

By Jon Lane,2014-02-18 00:23
7 views 0
Community participation mode of ecotourism in Tibetan area of Shangfi-La County, Yunnan Province

    Community participation mode of

    ecotourism in Tibetan area of Shangfi-La

    County, Yunnan Province EcologicalEconomy(2006)2:306?318

    U

    1.Thebasisofcommunitypartici[1ationof ecotolarisminShangri-LaTibetanarea

    In1980.theCanadianscholarC1andeMolinput forwardcol'Immniparticipatingecologyandcul

    turetourisminhisacade?吐cthesisIl1.Basedonthis.

    MexicoscholarH.obaJ10sLaseurainfirstusedthe term''ecommism"inhisbookin1983.andw&scoo- firmedbyIntemationalEnvironmantCo~erencein Mexic0l986t21.In1993.theEcotourismSocietyre- definedecotoarismandpointedoutilstwoimpor- rantconnotations,oneofwhichwasthatecomtwlsm wasakindofresponsibletourism.andtbeotherof whichwasthatecotourismshouldbenefitthe1ocal people.In1998.someforeignexpertsstudyingoa ecotourismcommunitypacticipationputforwarda newcoucept'"colnmunity.basedecotourism",and alsopointedoutthatecotonrismwasakindoftom- munityownedandmanagedtourism13].Thatwas thefoundationandcomofecotourism.Asmaybe infefredfromthis.thestudyon~OtOUfismhada closerelationshipwithconummnitvpafdcipationfrom

thebeginning.

    J.,BasisOne:enlightenmentfrompredecessors studies

    E-mailaddress:chengzhu@ynuedu.cn

    Author:CkengZhu(1975-),female.master,specializedin mudsmmanagement

    306

    .J.1Communityparticipationofecotourismmust beoverallandsystematic

    Ecotoufismairnsatpromotingthesustainable developmentoftourism,helpinglocalcommunity eliminateporerty.protectingnaturalenvironment andnationalculture.Inoldertorealizethispurpose, localcommunitywilltakepartinthedevelopmentof ecotourism,includingpolicydecisionmaking,

    operation,management.profitallocafion,protection andsoon.

    AusanscholarPeterE.Murphyisoneofthose whointroducedearnertheconceptofcommunity participationintosPddiesoiltourism.Hesaidinhis book,'1etourismindustryhasgreatpotentialof socialandeconomicbenefitsifitcrdevelopiaa

    moreopenandcommunityorientedapproachby whichtourismisconsideredasaIecalii~sou[ozrather thaninapurebusinessanddevelopmentapproach'' .Thsisacommunityapproach.fSeeFig.1)

    In1isfigureenvironmentalandaccessibility considerationshavebeentakenintoconsideration firstbecauseofeindustry'sdependenceonits

    resoul'e~baseandconnecfivitywithtourist-gener-

atingal.Tbepresenceofresourcesandapoten

    tialmarket,however,donotnecessarilymakeavi- ableindustry.sobusinessandeconomicconsider- ationsneedtobeconsiderednext.Inaddition.e

    factthattourismissodependentonJocalbospital- itymakesitmandatorythatdevelopmentproceeds

    ChengZ./EcologicalEconomy(2006)2:306-318 inaccordwiththedesiresandcustomsoflocal people,thussocialandculturalconsiderationsneed t0beinvolved.F.mallY.managementofacommunity productprovidesarangeofoptions.Afterplacedin acommunityperspective,tourismbecomesonlyone ofseveralfunctionsandopportunitiesforanarea, andmustbeplannedinaccordaneewitl1itsimpor- tanceandcontribution4_

    1.1.2Localcommunibenefitsfromecotourismcnn ensuretherealizationofthegoalofecotourism Inanyplaces.therewillnotthedrivingforceto protecttouristresourcesifthedevelopmentof ecotourismcannotbringanyeconomicprofits. Likewise.theuniquelocalcultureofoneplacemust disappearpartiallyorcompletelyinthemodemiza- tionprocesswithoutthesupportsandprotectionof tourismindustry.Itcanbeseenthatonlyifthe community'sprofitsfromecotOHrismcanbeguar- anteedtoarouseself-confidenceandsenseofpride oflocalpeopleintheirculturesothatwecanrealize thesustainabledevelopmentandtheprotectionof environmentandtraditionalculture.

    1.2BasisTow:agreatdealofproblemsneedstobe solvedintourismdevelopment

    1.2.1Fragileecos),stem

    ShangriLaCountyislocatedonthesoutheast

    eraedgeoftheTibetanQinghaiPlateau,belonging

    totheeasternpartofthefamousthreefivervalIcy. theHengduanMountains.Northwesternandnorth. easternpartsofitarenumeroushighmountains.1ike theShangri.Lasnowmountain.mosttheelevations above5.000m.Whileitssouthwesternandsouth. easternpartsgodowntotheJinshaRivervalIcy onlywiththeelevationabout1.000m.Sotheeco

    systemofShangri.LaCountyischaracterizedwith typicallandscapeofthehighmountain,deepvalley andsteepslopes.Becauseofitshighelevationand steeptopography,agriculturaldevelopmentismainly restriedbythedeficiencyofheatandcrushzone. Itstraditionalindustryisanimalhusbandry.andgen

    erallythedegradationofalpinepastureisseverer andsevererduetoover.grazing.Thecountyislo. catedinthebeltoftransitionofthesubtropicalev

    ergreenbroad-leafvegetationtothealpineandfrigid conifervegetation.AndtheeastwestHengduan

    MountalasandJinshaRiverdeepvalleymakeita regionofabundantbiodiversitywithcombinedthe biotaofNorthTemperateZoneandthatoftropical zoneinSoutheastAsia.Inaddition.1ocaleco.envi

    ronmentalprotectionisseriouslythreatenedbythe Fig.1.Majorcomponentsforacommunityorientedtourisms~amgy

    ChengZ./EcologicalEconomy(2006)2:306-318 forestrybasedongreat.scaledeforestationofwild woods.Forexample.inordertofacilitatevisitors' entrance.thehorseteainshavebeenorganizedin theBitaLakescenicspottocarrypassengers.But thetrampleofdensehorse.ridinghasdestroyedthe shrubandgrasslayerandthegroundplantlayerso seriouslytocausesoilbarenessandcompactionof thesoilforlackofstipulatedroutesandessential protectivemeasures.Ifitgoesonlikethis.soilero. sionandtheflowoforganicmattersandsoilinto lakesandriverswillresultinthelakeandfiversedi. mentationoreventhelakedegradation.Naturalen. vironmentalprotectionisfacingchallenges. 1.2.2UnderdevelopedSOCinteconomy

    ThesocialeconomyofShangri.LaCounty

    emergedfromthewombofserfsystemofliberation before.Eventhoughsocialeconomyhasgotgreater developmentafterliberation.thereisstillverygreat disparitycomparedwithdevelopedareainitsdeve1. opmentlevelbecauseofpoortrafficcondition,low startingpointofdevelopmentandweakeconomic base.Thesocialproductivitylevelisextremely backward.Theaveragelevelofthequalityofthe populationisrelativelylow.Accordingtoprelimi

    narystatistics.illiteraterateofpopulationover15 ageareupt059.34%(1990).People'slifeisreplen

    ishedandsupportedbythecountryforalongtime. Itisoneofnationa1.1evelpoorcountiesinYunnan Province.Notonlythepoorareaislarge,butalso

thepoordegreeisdeeply.

    J.2.3Threatenedculturalcontinuityanddevelop

    ment

    Tibetanreligionhasoccupiedanimportantplace foralongtime.ItmakesShangriLaCountypreserve

    intactprimitivereligioncultureandstrongTibetan traditionalculture.Butbecauseoftheneedsofeco

    nomicandsocialdevelopment,ithasstartedopen. inguptotheoutsideworldsince1996.Fromthen on,therehavebeenalargenumberofoutsidersget

    tingintoShangriLa,whichhasaffectedprimitive religioncultureandnationalculture.Localcultural continuityanddevelopmentarefacingserious challenges.Atthesametime,SongtsanlinLama 308

    Temple,oneofthethirteenimportantTibetantemples inTibetanarea.wasbuiltmorethan300yearsago.It wasdestroyedseriouslyintheCultureRevolution; meanwhile,littleprotectionhasfallenintodespair, andsomeofthemevenviolatethedoctrinesand stipulationsofTibetanreligious.Howitcanbe rebuilt?WheIedoesthefundcomefrom?Thoseare importantproblemsfacedwimatthistime. 2.Communityparfldpativemodeofecotourismin TibetanareaofShungri?LaCounty

    Thecommunityparticipativemodelshouldin

    volvethecommunityparticipationoperation,com

    munityparticipativemanagement,andcommunity participationprotection.

    2.JCommunityparticipationoperationmodel

    Touristsarethecoreofcommunityparticipation operationmodel,soitscontentinvolveseating, lodging,communication,sightseeing,shopping,and entertainment.

    2.J.1Tibetanfoodreception

    ThecoreofthefoodmodelinShangri.LaisTi

    betanfoodwithfolkcharacteristics.Thismodelis quitedifferentfromthetraditionalnomatterinre

    ceptionform,mealtimes,andfoodkinds.Itisthe receptionmodelwithuniqueTibetancharacteristics. r11Background

    Traditionaltourismrestaurantreceptionisthe modelthatsuitsthepubficintheformofdesk.Most ofthefoodisthelocalmeatandvegetables;anditis cookedintofamilytaste.Formarketdemands,300 questionnaireswerehandedouttosurveythecon

    ditionoftourismreceptionfacilitiesinShangriLa

    andtourists'satisfaction.Theresultshowsthat 63.05%touristsarenotsatisfiedwiththepresent foodservicewithoutcharacteristics.Andmorethan 54.14%touristswouldliketotryTibetanfood.Ithas offeredreliablebasisforourfurtheroptimization design.

    r21Tibetanfoodstyle

    Duetospeciallivingenvironment,Tibetan

    ChengZ./EcologicalEconomyf2006)2.'306-318 peoplehavetheirownfoodtraditionandculture. Theylikebeef,mutton,highlandbarleyetc.Allof thesefoodsCanimprovepeople'Santi-coldability

    andimmunity.Tibetanpeoplearenotgoodat cooking,buttheykeepsomespecialcookingproce- dureallalong,suchastheextractionofSuYoubutter, themakingofhighlandbarleywine,andSOon.En- joyingTibetanfoodisexperienceofbeingmeltedin theTibetanculture.

    (3)Mode

    Tibetanfoodisthemostpopularhere;andthere areusually4mealsperday.Whenenjoyingspecial lOCalfoods,touristsCanwatcholdandtraditional cookingprocedures.

    2.J.2Familylodgingreception

    Thefamilyreceptiondevelopswiththedevelop- mentofecotourism.Itneedslegginvestment.and quicklytakeseffectwithcontinuousprofits.Depen- dentonTibetanvillages,thepeoplehereneedn't buildinalargescale.Theonlythingtheyneedtodo iStoimprovethetransportation,sanitaryconditions, facilitiesforreceptionetc.ThecommunitywillalSO benefitfromthismode1.

    (1)Locationoffamilyreceptionhouses

    Familyreceptionhousesshouldbelocatedin theplacethatiSconvenientnexttotheroadwitll completeTibetculture,forexamplethemodelfamily receptionofnationalityecotourismandthe''Home ofLivingBuddha"inXiageivillage.

    a.XiageiisatypicalnaturalTibetanvillage.Itis locatednexttothemainroadfromthecitytoBita Lakescenicspot.18kilometersfarawayfromthe Shangri.Lacity.Thereare18familieslivinginthis

beautifulTibetanvillage.

    b."HomeofLivingBuddha"iSonthewayto

    SongtsanlinlamaTemple,nearbySongtsanlinLama TempleandShangri-Lacity.Angweng,aLivingBud- dhainSongtsanlinLamaTemple,Wassecularizedin theCultureRevolution.ComparewithXiageivillage, 兰竺竺!r_-lhinniltlwc0wYorkbutterlZ?nBe曲?璐ri'cec.k?

    Watc~gfoodpH'ce

    Rice,11o(:x~e,瑚潮food.

    vegetableso~p,becon

    Tetan

    food

    sel~lce

    modelLea^tokeTtfood

    

    Butt~t...ri'ce鞠瑚姆,

    —叶Z?nT]~etanckee

    L七锄to五埔-Tt?矗^'cnln11b.e.~oodle,id

    g}__ymKb.dey

    Fig.2.Tibetanfoodreceptionmode

    Fig.3.Familylodgingreceptionmode

    309

    ChengZ/EcologicalEconomy(2006)2:306?318 IrishouseisfIlUofreligionatmosphere.TouristsCall seeTibetanBuddhistscriptureandvisitscripture halls.TheLivingBuddhawillpronouncebenedic

    tionoverthetourists.

    (2)''T|leecotourismreceptionfamily"

a.Training

    Wechose8familiesinXiageivillageinApril, lI9andtrainedthem.

    b.Mode

    W_eaimtohavethetouristsenjoyTibetanlife andTibetanculture.Inaword,wewantthetourists to''become"Tibetan.

    (3)''HomeofLivingBuddha''

    Asafamilyreception,HomeofLivingBuddhais mollflexible.Inthishome,touristsCanfindwhata hfeofLivingBuddhaiSandwhatTibetanBuddhist ceremonyiS.andcaIlknowthemaster'slifeexperi- enceSOthattheyCangetadeeperunderstandingof theTibetan'Smysteriousll~gioncultureinShangri

    IA

    2.1.3Specialtourismtransportationreception Transportationisaveryimportantfactorin 31O

    ecotourism.Itdoesnotonlyconcernthequalityof ecotourism.andtheenvironmentCanalSObepro

    tectedbyspecialtransportationtools.Finally,the communitybenefitsCanbebroughtout.

    (11Background

    ThereiSatransportationproblemtOdeveloptOur- isminBitaLakespot.Thenativegovernmenthas twoplanstobuildroadstOtheLake;theyareeast- roadandwest-road.Butinfact,itiSveryharmfulfor BitaLake.Firstly,buildingaroadwilldestroythe environmentandhighmountainecosystemofBita Laketheprovincialnaturereservearea.Secondly,

Report this document

For any questions or suggestions please email
cust-service@docsford.com