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Applied Linguistics and Literature

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Applied Linguistics and Literature

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    APPLIED LINGUISTICS AND LITERATURE (MA):

    METHODOLOGY TEACHING LITERATURE IN EFL SITUATIONS

COURSE ORGANIZOR: Dr Sami

COURSE DESCRIPTION:

    Teaching methodology is not necessarily a collection, description, and prescription of a tradition or an orientation in the teaching of a subject. A teaching methodology, rather, is a dynamic, creative, and involving approach to the study of a subject and aims at a better understanding of the subject, encourages the learner‟s involvement, and provides for the teacher‟s development. An explication of this methodology functions as an introduction to this course.

    An understanding of language skills and intergration of these skills is basic to the understanding of literature as a resource in language classrooms. To achieve this understanding, I have provided articles and books written on the subject of integration of literature and language learning which cover areas such as: Language as communication and discourse; Why use literature in EFL classes? How can literature serve EFL goals? What techniques and methods can we use in employing literature in EFL classes? Distinction between literary and non-literary texts; What is an appropriate literary text for EFL situations? Can stylistics help in linking literature to language studies?

    I have also provided sample units from major resource books for the integration of language and literature. They show how we can actually go about using literary texts in EFL classes.

    CONDUCT OF COURSE: The class will meet once a week for 2 hours. This course will be conducted primarily by the students with some introductory lectures in each session. Students will be expected to take part in class discussions and submit one major paper. Regular attendance and informed participation in both class discussions and examinations are essential. Please come to class willing to discuss the readings or the topic at hand. Your participation in your class, with an active and willing and patient spirit, will be an important part of your class‟s ability to turn in a strong group project. And please, ask

    questions: of me, of each other and of yourself.

    If you are absent, you are responsible for learning what you missed in class and for keeping up with assignments. Unexcused and excused absences count the same. More than three absences will certainly affect your work. Lateness counts as half an absence. More than thirty minutes late counts as a full absence.

STUDENT PAPER:

    You are expected to submit one major term paper on an assigned topic by the end of the

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    term. The word limit for your term papers is 10000-15000 words.

EVALUATION AND REQUIREMENTS:

    Informed and active class participation: 40 marks

    Student paper: 40 marks

    Final examination: 20 marks

    Total: 100 marks

    TUTOR’S AVAILABILITY: If you are working on a topic or a specific problem and truly become stuck, consult the other members of your class first. If you are unable to reach them,

    or if they are unable to help you, please contact me in person. I am quite happy to help you

    with specific, project related questions. The only questions I do NOT answer are: “What does this word mean?”; “What happened in class on Monday or Tuseday?”; “What is the

    homework?”, and, in relation to a piece of work, “Is this O.K?” or similar open-ended

    questions. These are questions you should be able to answer by looking at the syllabus and

    maintaining contact with your class and reference books.

REFERENCES:

Adeyanju, T.K. “Teaching Literature and Human Values in ESL: Objectives and

     Selection.” ELT Journal 32 (1978): 133-138.

    Alptekin, C. “The Question of Culture: EFL Teaching in Non-English Speaking

     Countries.” ELT 38 (1984): 14-20.

    Arthur, B. “Reading Literature and Learning a Second Language.” ELT 18

     (1968)199-210.

    Ayse, A., and E. Yalcin. “Literature in the EFL Class: A Study of Goal-Achievement

     Incongruence.” ELT 44/3 (July 1990): 174-180.

    Baird, Alexander. “The Study and Teaching of Literature.” ELT 30 (1976): 281-286.

    Barton, Geoff. “How Non-Fiction Can Make Us Better Readers.” The Use of English

     52, No. 2 (Spring 2001): 139-151.

    Blatchford, C.H. “Should Literature be Part of ESOL?” Forum. 7 (4) (1974): 64-49.

    Bortolussi, M., and P. Dixon. “The Effects of Formal Training on Literary

     Reception.” Poetics 23 (1996): 471-487.

    Bottral, R. “The Teaching of English Poetry to Students Whose Native Language Is

     Not English.” ELT 8 (1953): 39-44.

    Brumfit, Christopher. “Reading Skills and the Study of Literature in a Foreign Language.”

    TESOL 16 (1982): 184-198.

    Brumfit, C.J. Assessment in Literature Teaching. Macmillan, 1992.

    -----. Language and Literature Teaching. Pergamon, 1985.

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    Brumfit, C.J., and B. A. Carter. Literature and Language Teaching. OUP, 1987. Bullough, G. “Analytical Criticism in Literature Study.” ELT 9 (1955): 115-122. Carter, R. A. Language and Literature: An Introductory Reader in Stylistics. George

     Allen and Unwin, 1982.

    Carter, R., and M. N. Long. “Testing Literature in EFL Classes: Tradition and

     Innovation.” ELT 44/3 (july 1990) 215- 221. -----. The Web of Words. CUP, 1987.

    Carter, R., and Simpson. Language Discourse and Literature. Unwin Hyman, 1989. Carter, R., et al., eds. Literature and the Learner: Methodological Approaches. ELT

     Documents: 130. Modern English Publications, 1989.

    Clarke, D. F. Talk About Literature. Edward Arnold, 1989. Collie, J., and S. Slater. Literature in the Language Classroom. CUP, 1991. -----. Short Stories for Creative Language Classroom. CUP, 1993.

    Collins, A. “How Many Miles to Babylon: (An Approach to a Classic Novel).” Sigma

     3 (1990): 5-8.

    Cook, V.J. “What Should Language Teaching Be About.” ELT (1983): 129-134. Cowling, R. A. “Observations on the Teaching of English Literature to foreigners.”

     ELT 8 (1962): 27-33.

    Deignan, A., et al. “Teaching English Metaphors Using Cross-Linguistic Awareness-

     Raising Activities.” ELT 51/4 (Oct. 1997): 352-360. Deyes, T. “Discourse Analysis and Literary Interpretation.” ELT 36 (1982): 119-124. thDuff, Alan, and Alan Maley. Resource Books For Teachers: Literature. 12 ed.

     Oxford: OUP, 2003.

    Edwards, P, and D.R. Carroll. “Teaching English Literature to West African

     Students.” ELT 18 (1963): 38-44.

    Elliott, Roger “Encouraging Reader-response to Literature in ESL Situations.” ELT

     44/3 (July 1990): 191-8.

    Ellis G., and McRae. The Extensive Reading Handbook. Penguin, 1991. Enricht, D.J. “Splendours and Miseries of a Literature Teacher.” ELT 13 (1958): 7-10 Fish, Stanley. Is There a Text in This Class? Harvard UP, 1980. Gajdusek, Linda “Toward Wider Use of Literature in ESL: Why and How.” TESOL

     22, No.2 (June 1988): 227-257. Gatbonton, E.C., and G.R. Tucker. “Cultural Orientation and the Study of Literature.”

     TESOL 5 (1971): 137-143.

    Gerber, Ulrich. “Literary Role Play.” ELT 44/1 (July 1990): 199-203. Gower, Roger. “Can Stylistic Analysis Help the EFL Learner to Read Literature?”

     ELT 40/2 (April 1986): 125-130.

    Gower, R., and Margaret Pearson. Reading Literature. Longman, 1986. Hayes de Hunees, D. “The Teaching of English Literature.” ELT 10 (1955): 3-11. Hall, Geoff. “You Take from a Book What You Bring to It or, The Uses of Literature

     in the Language Classrooms Revisited.” Sigma 6 (March 1992): 17- 21. Harris, Joseph. “The Course as Text/The Teacher as Critic.” College English 55, No.

     7 (Nov. 1993): 785-769.

    Hill, Jennifer. Using Literature in Language Teaching. Modern English Publications,

     1991.

    Hirvela, A., and J. Boyle. “Literature Courses and Student Attitudes.” ELT 42 (1988):

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     179-184.

    Isenberg, N. “Literary Competence.” ELT 44 (1990): 181-190. Kay, Judith, and Rosemary Gelshenen. Discovering Fiction: A Reader of American

     Short Stories. 2 vols. CUP, 2001.

    Lazar, Gillian. “Metaphorically Speaking.” Sigma 1 (1989): 4-7. -----. “Using Figurative Language to Expand Students‟ Vocabulary.” ELT 50/1 (Jan.

     1996): 43.

    -----. “Using Novels in the Language-Learning Classroom.” ELT 44/3 (July 1990):

     204-213.

    MacKay, Ray. “Lexicide and Goblin-spotting in the Language/Literature Classroom”

     ELT 46/2 (Apr. 1992): 199-207.

    Maley, A., and A. Duff. The Inward Ear: Poetry in the Classroom. CUP, 1989. -----. Drama Techniques in Language Learning. CUP, ?

    -----. The Mind‟s Eye. CUP, 1988.

    Maley, A., and Sandra Moulding. Poem into Poem. CUP, 1985. Marshall, M. “Love and Death in Eden: Teaching English Literature to ESL

     Students.” TESOL 13 (1979): 331-340.

    Martin, Alex, and Robert Hill. Modern Novels. Prentice Hall, 1996. McCormick, Kathleen. The Culture of Reading and the Teaching of English.

     Manchester UP, 1994.

    McKay, J.W. “Developing Reading Skills Through Literature.” Reading Literature

     and Young People Through Literature. Ed. H.W. Painte. 1971. 50-57. McKay, S. “Literature in ESL Classroom.” TESOL 16 (1982): 529-536. McRae, J., and R. Boardman. Reading Between the Lines. CUP, 1984. Morgan, Dan “Connecting Literature to Students‟ Lives.” College English 55, No. 5

     (Sep. 1993)

    -----. “English Teaching in Foreign Universities.” ELT 1/2 (1950): 31-35. Murdoch, G. S. “Where Do We Go From Here? Anxieties about the Development of

     Literature Courses.” Sigma 4 (1991): 5-10.

    Pattison, B. “The Litearture Lesson.” ELT 18 (1964): 59-62. -----. “Some Notes on the Teaching of Literature.” ELT 8 (1954): 75-80. -----. “The Teaching of Literature.” ELT 7 (1963): 59-62. Povey, John “The Teaching of Literature in Advanced ESL Classes.” Teaching

     English As a Second or Foreign Language. Eds. M. Celle Murcia, and L.

     McIntosh.Newsbury House Publishers, 1979. 162-186.

    Reeves, James. Teaching Poetry. Heinemann, 1977.

    Rosenblatt, L.M. Literature as Exploration. Heinemann, 1975. Shackleton, Mark “Using Literary Texts in the EFL Class.” Modern English Teacher

     1/4 (1992): 51-55.

    Short, Mick. Reading, Analysing and Teaching Literature. Longman, 1989. Spack, Ruth “Literature, Reading, Writing, and ESL: Bridging the Gaps.” TESOL 19

     No. 4 (Dec. 1985): 703-726. Spolsky, E. “I Come to Bury Caesar, Not to Praise Him: Teaching Resisting

     Reading.” ELT 43 (1989): 173-179.

    Wallwork, J. F. “Prose Literature in Africa.” ELT 14 (1965): 167-176. Widdowson, H.G. Explorations in Applied Linguistics II. OUP, 1984.

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    -----. Stylistics and the Teaching of Literature. Longman, 1975. -----. “Talking Shop: On Literature.” ELT 37 (1983): 30-35. Willis, M. “What‟s the Moral of the Story? Teaching American Literature in Japan.”

     Forum 26/4 (1988): 35-37.

    Zyngier, S. “Teaching a Short Story.” Forum 26/3 (1988): 22-5.

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    Applied Linguistics and Literature Applied Linguistics and Literature

    Literature in EFL Situations Literature in EFL Situations

    Course Description Course Description

     Teaching methodology is not necessarily a collection, description, and prescription of a Teaching methodology is not necessarily a collection, description, and prescription of a tradition or an orientation in the teaching of a subject. A teaching methodology, rather, tradition or an orientation in the teaching of a subject. A teaching methodology, rather, is a dynamic, creative, and involving approach to the study of a subject and aims at a is a dynamic, creative, and involving approach to the study of a subject and aims at a better understanding of the subject, better understanding of the subject,

    Is teaching a science or an art? Is teaching a science or an art?

     Rules of thumb Rules of thumb

     Variables Variables

     Accomodation / Convergence Accomodation / Convergence

Rules of thumb Rules of thumb

    Course description, continued Course description, continued

     encourages the learners involvement, and provides for the teachers development. encourages the learners involvement, and provides for the teachers development.

    An explication of this methodology functions as an introduction to this course. An explication of this methodology functions as an introduction to this course.

    Why do you think it is important to stimulate learners to take an active role in learning? Why do you think it is important to stimulate learners to take an active role in learning? Age of technology and mass media Age of technology and mass media

     Mass Man = pawns / passive receivers Mass Man = pawns / passive receivers

     Heuristic educational method: encourage the spirit of inquiry and research Heuristic educational method: encourage the spirit of inquiry and research

    Course description, continued Course description, continued

     An understanding of language skills and intergration of these skills is basic to the An understanding of language skills and intergration of these skills is basic to the

    understanding of literature as a resource in language classrooms. understanding of literature as a resource in language classrooms.

    Why is it important to know about the integration of language skills in this course? Why is it important to know about the integration of language skills in this course? Reading is a communicative interaction Reading is a communicative interaction

     Widdowson, H.G. Linguistic Skills and Communicative Abilities. Teaching Widdowson, H.G. Linguistic Skills and Communicative Abilities. Teaching

    Language as Communication 1978. Language as Communication 1978.

    Basic Questions Basic Questions

    Why literature? Why literature?

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    How to teach literature in EFL classes? How to teach literature in EFL classes?

    Why Literature? Why Literature? Why literature in general? Why literature in general?

     Why literature in particular? Why literature in particular?

     Why poetry? Why poetry?

     Why drama? Why drama?

     Why novels and stories? Why novels and stories?

    Why literature in general? Why literature in general? Literature is interactive and suggestive. Literature is interactive and suggestive.

     J. Derrida: undecidability of literatute J. Derrida: undecidability of literatute

     E. Pound: Literature is language loaded with meaning. E. Pound: Literature is language loaded with meaning. D.H. Lawrence: Never trust the teller, trust the tale. D.H. Lawrence: Never trust the teller, trust the tale. Kurosawas Rashomon (1951) Kurosawas Rashomon (1951)

    Why different people have different interpretations of the same text? Why different people have different interpretations of the same text?

     D. Diderots Jacques the Fatalist: Has not everyone his own character, his own tastes D. Diderots Jacques the Fatalist: Has not everyone his own character, his own tastes

    and passions according to which he either exaggerates or attenuates everything? and passions according to which he either exaggerates or attenuates everything?

    Examples Examples William Shakespeare: William Shakespeare:

    Shall I compare thee to a summers day? Shall I compare thee to a summers day?

Daisy Miller by Henry James Daisy Miller by Henry James

    Is literature always interactive? Is literature always interactive? The right approach: responsive reading. The right approach: responsive reading.

     Do not lock the work into one meaning by biographical and historical analysis. Do not lock the work into one meaning by biographical and historical analysis.

     Haafez, Alfred Tennyson, Einol Ghozaat Hamedaani Haafez, Alfred Tennyson, Einol Ghozaat Hamedaani Povey, John. The Teaching of Literature in Advanced ESL Classes. Teaching English Povey, John. The Teaching of Literature in Advanced ESL Classes. Teaching English

    as a Second or Foreign Language. 1979. as a Second or Foreign Language. 1979.

    Why literature in general? Why literature in general? William Heard Kilpatrick: We learn what we live. William Heard Kilpatrick: We learn what we live.

     Examples: Examples:

     Mathematics Mathematics

     English English

     Sepehri Sepehri

    Why literature in general? Why literature in general? The literary culture of the language The literary culture of the language

     The English language and literary allusions: The English language and literary allusions: Dickensian condition Dickensian condition

    Waiting for Godot Waiting for Godot

    Like Job himself Like Job himself

    Waiting like Penelope Waiting like Penelope

    Like Lolita Like Lolita

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Married a Clytemnestra Married a Clytemnestra

     Pinocchio Pinocchio

     An infantile Guy Fawkes An infantile Guy Fawkes

     Like Zorro / Robin Hood Like Zorro / Robin Hood

     He is like Icarus He is like Icarus

     These small presses are Lilliputians to Oxfords Gulliver These small presses are Lilliputians to Oxfords Gulliver

     An Ozymandias complex An Ozymandias complex

     A strictly Cromwellian regime A strictly Cromwellian regime

A Sisyphos-like character A Sisyphos-like character

     A Scrooge A Scrooge

     Like James Bond Like James Bond

     A Billy Bunter A Billy Bunter

     A Peter Pan A Peter Pan

     Like Robinson Crusoe Like Robinson Crusoe

     My Man Friday My Man Friday

     Big Brother is watching Big Brother is watching

     His Achilles heel His Achilles heel

     To hector people To hector people

They are like Yahoos. They are like Yahoos.

     This is a Trojan Horse. This is a Trojan Horse.

     To tantalize someone. To tantalize someone.

     The Sirens caught him. The Sirens caught him.

     A Quixotic character. A Quixotic character.

     A Horation Alger hero. A Horation Alger hero.

     A Herculean task. A Herculean task.

     Catch-22 Catch-22

    Why literature in general? Why literature in general?

     Expose students to different types of structures, format, register and textual Expose students to different types of structures, format, register and textual

    organization. organization.

     Ex: Ex:

    Novels and plays: polyphony Novels and plays: polyphony

    Poetry: figurative language Poetry: figurative language

     Palmer, Gill. Reaching the Parts that Other Literatures Dont Reach. Palmer, Gill. Reaching the Parts that Other Literatures Dont Reach.

    Why poetry, in particular? Why poetry, in particular?

     Rhythmic language, memorability Rhythmic language, memorability

    Ex: Ex:

    Nursery rhymes and songs Nursery rhymes and songs

    Why drama, in particular? Why drama, in particular?

     Maria Montessori: Learning by doing. Maria Montessori: Learning by doing.

     Plato: You must train the students to their studies in a playful manner and without any Plato: You must train the students to their studies in a playful manner and without any

    air of constraint. air of constraint.

     9 Performances Performances

     Maley, Alan. Down from the Pedestal: Literature as Resource. Maley, Alan. Down from the Pedestal: Literature as Resource.

Without any air of constraint! Without any air of constraint!

Learn in a playful manner Learn in a playful manner

    How? Text Selection How? Text Selection

     The main criterion is INTEREST. The main criterion is INTEREST.

     Texts related to common areas of human experience. Texts related to common areas of human experience.

     Meaningful material Meaningful material

     Ex: Love stories for young learners; philosophical stories for adult learners. Ex: Love stories for young learners; philosophical stories for adult learners.

    What? Authenticity of Language What? Authenticity of Language

     Literature is language intended for native speakers. Literature is language intended for native speakers.

     What other authentic forms exist? What other authentic forms exist?

     Familiarity with many different forms of linguistic uses and conventions through Familiarity with many different forms of linguistic uses and conventions through

    literature. literature.

Register change: decorum = suiting the style to the characters age, profession, social Register change: decorum = suiting the style to the characters age, profession, social

    class, . class, .

     Irony, sarcasm Irony, sarcasm

     Parody Parody

     Metaphors and similes Metaphors and similes

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     Ambiguity and puns Ambiguity and puns

    WHAT sort of literature is suitable? WHAT sort of literature is suitable?

     Language: contemporary or modern language Language: contemporary or modern language

     Subject: depends on students needs, cultural background, interests, age, . Subject: depends on students needs, cultural background, interests, age, .

    How? Contextualization How? Contextualization Contextualizing / orientation devices: set induction/ warming-up and pre-reading Contextualizing / orientation devices: set induction/ warming-up and pre-reading

    activities activities

    Readers content schema Readers content schema

     Example: Iranian football player in Germany Example: Iranian football player in Germany

    How? Contextualizing devices How? Contextualizing devices Intrinsic contextualizing devices for global or microlinguistic reading. Intrinsic contextualizing devices for global or microlinguistic reading.

     Extrinsic contextualizing devices: background information, literary school, social Extrinsic contextualizing devices: background information, literary school, social

    history, biographical considerations, philosophical approach, . history, biographical considerations, philosophical approach, .

    Assignments Assignments

     Gower, Roger. Can Stylistic Analysis Help the EFL Learner to Read Literature? Gower, Roger. Can Stylistic Analysis Help the EFL Learner to Read Literature?

     MacKay, Ray. Lexicide and Goblin-spotting in the Language / Literature Classroom. MacKay, Ray. Lexicide and Goblin-spotting in the Language / Literature Classroom.

     Carter, Ronald, and Richard Walker. Literature and the Learner: Introduction. Cart