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IDs.UnitVI.docx - Welcome to Wikispaces - Free Wikis for Everyone

    Unit VI: Progressivism, First World War, Roaring Twenties, Depression and the New Deal, Foreign Policy, and World

    War II. Political History 1896 to 1945 and Foreign Policy 1914 to 1945.


    1. Democracy, Efficiency, Pragmatism Progressivism had a large part in all of these as it was a continuation

    to industrialization after the Civil War. It was also a fight against corruption and inefficiency in a

    democratic government. Pragmatism brought the American public face to face with the question of

    evolution as well as suggesting that the end justified the means.

    2. “Muckrakers” A nickname coined by Teddy Roosevelt for journalists who went after big businesses and

    other large industries.

    3. Henry Demarest Lloyd, Wealth Against Commonwealth An American writer who won fame by showing

    the practices of big business to the common people. One of the many muckracker novels of the late


    4. Thorstein Veblen, The Theory of the Leisure Class A muckraker novel that attacked the wealthy. Veblen

    was an economist who didn’t believe that the wealthiest were often the best of society.

    5. Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives A muckraker who exposed social and economic evils in the early


    6. Lincoln Steffens, The Shame of the Cities A muckraker novel that dealt with the poor people in cities.

    7. Frank Norris, The Octopus- A muckraker novel that discussed how railroads controlled a group of

    Californian famers.

    8. Ida Tarbell, History of the Standard Oil Company A series of articles that were published into a magazine

    by muckraker Ida Tarbell. Motivated people to want to outlaw monopolies.

    9. Johan Spargo, The Bitter Cry of the Children A muckraker novel that discussed the problems with forcing

    children to work. Called for better education, schools, and teachers.

    10. David Graham Phillips, The Treason of the Senate A novel that criticized the government, especially

    those in the Senate, for not representing the people.

    11. Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Woman and Economics Told women to get out of the house and do things. A

    strong feminist.

    12. Johan Dewy, The School and Society, “Progressive Education,” “Learn by Doing” An American

    philosopher and educator that founded the movement of Pragmatism. Claimed that only knowledge and

    reason could be used to solve problems and fought for school reform. He was influenced by Darwin’s


    13. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., Supreme court A famous justice of the Supreme Court during the early

    1900s. Called the "Great Dissenter" because he spoke out against the inposition of national regulations

    and standards, and supported the states' rights to experiment with social legislation. 14. Margaret Sanger American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900's. As a

    nurse in the poor sections of New York City, she had seen the suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy.

    Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later

    became Planned Parenthood.

    15. Edward Ross Sociologist who promoted "social psychology," the belief that social environment affected

    the behavior of individuals. He believed that practical solutions to current problems should be derived

    through the united efforts of church, state and science, and that the citizens should actively try to cure

    social ills rather than sit passively and wait for corrections.

    16. Richard Ely an economist and social scientist who was very active in the progressive movement; insisted

    that laissez-faire was outmoded and dangerous; argued that as times changed, economic theories and

    laws must be modified to be relevant.

    17. Initiative, Referendum, Recall An Initiative gave the people to propose a law and a referendum allowed

    the people to vote on proposed legislation. Recalls allowed the people to vote to cast out an elected

    official. Caused politicians to represent the people stronger.

    18. Direct Primary by 1910, the direct primary system was almost universal; part of the Wisconsin Idea to

    make the state government more responsive to the will of the people.

    19. Australian Ballot (Secret Ballot) introduced in 1888 as means of secret voting; it was strongly opposed

    by party machines, but then became gradually accepted; originally began in Australia; prevented bribery

    and corruption.


    Unit VI: Progressivism, First World War, Roaring Twenties, Depression and the New Deal, Foreign Policy, and World

    War II. Political History 1896 to 1945 and Foreign Policy 1914 to 1945.

    20. Tammany hall New York; the organization was ruled by Richard Crocker, who was a corrupt political

    manipulator; local Democratic machine. thththththth21. 16, 17, 18 and 19 Amendments 16 1913, authorized federal income tax. 17 1913, gave the thpeople the power to directly elect Senators. 18 1919, prohibited the sale and consumption of alcohol. th19 1920, gave women the right to vote.

    22. Charles Evans Hughes conducted an investigation of the big life insurance companies; the Republican

    nominee in the Election of 1912; stiff and ineffective speaker; secretary of state in the Harding


    23. Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire disaster in New York in 1911, which killed about 150 women because

    the building had no fire escapes; led to stricter municipal building codes and factory inspection acts. 24. WCTU, Women’s Christian Temperance Union A powerful feminist group that sought prohibition.

    25. Anti-Saloon League another powerful organization in the Progressive Era that opposed the consumption

    of alcohol for any reason.

    26. Square Deal one of Theodore Roosevelt’s policies that contained something for every class and person;

    attracted many different types of voters; adopted by his successor, Taft.

    27. Newlands Reclamation Act, 1902 Funneled the profits made from land sales in the West into federal

    irrigation projects; on of Roosevelt’s new laws, trying to pull attention away from the tariff and silver


    28. Forest Reserve Act, 1891 A forest conservation act. Many similar acts were passed during the

    progressive era.

    29. Anthracite Coal Strike, 1902, George F. Baer Baer led the large strike by the minor’s union.

    30. Elkins Act, 1903, Rebates strengthened the Interstate Commerce Commission’s hand against the

    railroads by making the receiving as well as the granting of rebates illegal and by forbidding the roads to

    deviate in any way from their published rates.

    31. Hepburn Act, 1906 Set stricter codes for the railroads and expanded the power of the ICC by giving them

    the power to set maximum rates.

    32. Mann-Elkins Act, 1910 passed during Taft’s administration; empowered the ICC to suspend rate

    increases without waiting for a shipper to complain and established the Commerce Court to speed the

    settlement of railroad cases.

    33. “Trustbuster” what Roosevelt was known for because he considered monopoly problem the most

    pressing issue of the times; he didn’t believe breaking up of bug businesses; jus the regulation of them;

    used the Sherman Antitrust Act to pursue companies like Standard Oil.

    34. Northern Securities Co. Case The Supreme Court ordered this company led by J. P. Morgan, James J. Hill,

    and E. H. Harriman to break-up because it was a trust.

    35. Meat Inspection Act After reading The Jungle, Roosevelt fought to lay down regulations for meat

    packing industries.

    36. Upton Sinclair, The Jungle bestseller; was a supposed to be a narrative about socialism, but instead

    exposed the filthy condition of the Chicago slaughterhouses; motivated Roosevelt to take action. 37. Pure Food and Drug Act 1906; forbade the manufacture and sale of adulterated and fraudulently labeled

    products; before this act, manufacturers were free to use any ingredients that they wished. Later turned

    into the FDA.

    38. Conservation Conference, 1908 organized by Roosevelt to discuss conservation measures; as a result of

    this meeting, most states created conservation commissions.

    39. Panic of 1907 “Roosevelt’s Panic”; sudden panic that struck the financial world; spread to the Stock

    Exchange when speculators found that they were unable to borrow money to meet their obligations;

    Roosevelt authorized the deposit of large amounts of government cash in New York banks; blamed the

    President for the following depression.

    40. Election of 1904: Candidates and Issues

    a. Republicans Roosevelt

    b. Democrats Judge Alton B. Parker of New York


    Unit VI: Progressivism, First World War, Roaring Twenties, Depression and the New Deal, Foreign Policy, and World

    War II. Political History 1896 to 1945 and Foreign Policy 1914 to 1945.

    c. Roosevelt swept up the country; people were suspicious of the party of Bryan; Roosevelt revived

    the Sherman Act, settled the Coal Strike, and pushed for moderate reforms; business interests

    regarded the Democrats as permanently and dangerously impulsive. Roosevelt won. 41. Election of 1908: Candidates and Issues

    a. Republicans - Taft

    b. Democrats - William Jennings Bryan

    c. Socialists - Eugene Debs

    d. Taft won over the issues of monopolies and tariffs.

    42. Mark Hanna –McKinley’s campaign manager who modernized campaigning techniques to allow him

    maximum publicity throughout the country. Disliked Roosevelt because he was unable to control him. 43. Scientific Management, Frederick W. Taylor developed his time-and-motion studies in the beginning of

    the century; his method was to make careful analyses of each step and movement in the manufacturing

    process and then teach the workers how best to perform each function; very effective. 44. Wisconsin “Laboratory of Democracy” A nickname for Wisconsin because it was a very progressive state

    and new ideas for government were often under creation there.

    45. Robert La Follette A great political leader who headed the progressive movement in Wisconsin. 46. Regulatory Commissions commissions that were designed to study the effects of the tariff on the


    47. Jane Addams, Hull House A settlement house in Chicago in 1889; objected strongly to American

    imperialism; a founder of the National Association For the Advancement of Colored People; opposed

    American involvement in WWI; worldwide peace advocator.

    48. Florence Kelley, Consumerism of the Consumers’ League whose slogan was “investigate, agitate,

    legislate”; the most effective women’s reform organization of the period; defended the shortened wok

    day for women.

    49. Home Rule for Cities gave the cities freedom from state control in dealing with local matters. 50. Tom Johnson, Sam (Golden Rule) Jones, Brand Whitlock, Hazen Pingree important progressive mayors;

    these city reformers often destroyed the machines by changing the urban political institutions. 51. City Manager Commission Plan Concentrating the responsibility and making it easier to coordinate

    complex activities by placing integrated executive and legislative powers in the hands of small elected


    52. William Howard Taft wanted a continuation of antitrust enforcement, environmental conservation, and

    a lower tariff policy to encourage foreign trade; elected in 1908; less successful in healing the Republican

    split between conservatives and progressives; failed to promote political harmony; had a lack of vigor and

    political ineptness.

    53. Department of Labor (from 1903 Department of Commerce and Labor, Bureau of Corporations also in

    1903) department that had the ability to investigate industrial combines and issue reports. 54. Payne-Aldrich Tariff, 1909 signed by Taft to reduce the tariff after the Republican Party fought the

    President’s battle for him.

    55. Ballinger-Pinchot Controversy got Taft into trouble with the conservationists; Ballinger was Taft’s

    Secretary of Interior; the Chief Forester Pinchot criticized Taft’s man for shaky decisions; Taft supported

    Balling but a more adept politician would have found a way to avoid a controversy. 56. Uncle Joe Cannon, Old Guard A Speaker of the House who held so much power he could make or break

    legislation from 1903 to 1910. He represented the Old Guard, which controlled Congress and his tactics

    led to resolutions in 1910 that limited the power of the Speaker.

    57. Senator George Norris Congressman from Nebraska who was a reformer Republican that authored the th20 Amendment and helped limit the arbitrary powers of the Speaker. Was an isolationist that tried to

    keep the U.S. out of WWI.

    58. Rule of Reason: Standard Oil Case, American Tobacco Case Theodore Roosevelt during his presidency

    filed a suit against Standard Oil and American Tobacco.

    59. “Dollar Diplomacy” An idea developed by Taft that stated that economic infiltration of foreign countries

    would help maintain stability and also bring the U.S. profits.


    Unit VI: Progressivism, First World War, Roaring Twenties, Depression and the New Deal, Foreign Policy, and World

    War II. Political History 1896 to 1945 and Foreign Policy 1914 to 1945.

    60. Secretary of State Knox Secretary of State under Taft that encouraged and protected U.S. foreign


    61. Manchurian Railroad scheme Under Taft, the U.S. planned to build a railroad to transport American

    goods inside China. This would help them corner the Chinese market.

    62. Roosevelt’s Osawatomie, Kansas Speech Roosevelt introduced his New Nationalism program during this


    63. Taft-Roosevelt Split A split in the Republican party caused the Old Guard to back Taft and the

    Progressives to back Roosevelt. This split the party too deeply, costing them the election. 64. Bull Moose Party The party which Roosevelt ran under for the 1912 election.

    65. Woodrow Wilson, New Freedom Wilson believed that monopolies must be broken up and that business

    must be regulated. Proposed the New Freedom economic plan which promoted competition. 66. Theodore Roosevelt, New Nationalism Theodore Roosevelt proposed a program called New Nationalism

    to compete with Wilson’s New Freedom. Government would coordinate and regulate the economy and


    67. Herbert Croly, The Promise of American Life A book that stated that Hamilitonian means must be

    applied to achieve Jeffersonian ends.

    68. Election of 1912 Candidates and Issues

    a. Republicans Taft

    b. Bull-Moose Party - Roosevelt

    c. Democrats Wilson

    d. Issues Issues included the way the economy should work and the war in Europe. 69. Eugene V. Debs, Socialist Party In 1900 the labor leader Eugene V. Debs ran for president on the Socialist

    ticket. He polled fewer than 100,000 votes. When he ran again in 1904, he got more than 400,000 and in

    later election, still more.

    70. Danial DeLeon, IWW, Wobblies, “Big Bill” Heywood In 1905 Debs, William “Big Bill” Heywood, of the

    Western Federation of Miners, Mary Harris “Mother” Jones, a former organizer for the United Mine

    Workers, Daniel DeLeon of the Socialist Labor party, and a few others organized a new union, the

    Industrial Workers of the World. The IWW was openly anti-capitalist.

    71. Pujo Committee This committee was created to decide what to do with the Philippines after the

    Spanish-American War.

    72. Federal Reserve Act Federal Reserve Act gave the country a central banking system for the first time

    since Jackson destroyed the Bank of the United States. The measure divided the nation into 12 banking


    73. Underwood-Simmons Tariff Most rates were reduced from nearly 40% to 29%. A graduated income tax

    was included in this measure to make up for lost tariff revenue. The “free list” (items not taxed) increased

    greatly because woolens, iron, steel, farm machinery, raw materials, and foodstuffs were added. 74. Income Tax Reinstituted after the passage of the Underwood-Simmons Tariff in anticipation of lost

    revenues from tariffs. Although income taxes had formerly been declared unconstitutional by the thSupreme Court, ratification of the 16 Amendment made income taxes legal.

    75. Federal Trade Commission, Cease and Desist Orders created in 1914, it was composed of five members

    who were to be appointed by the president and approved by the Senate. The FTC was to investigate

    corporate practices and, when necessary, issue “cease and desist” orders. Cease and desist orders were

    used to halt illegal activities of corporations under investigation by the FTC. 76. Clayton Antitrust Act, Labor’s Magna Carta (?) Extended the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 to give it

    more power against trusts and big business. It outlawed practices that had a dangerous likelihood of

    creating a monopoly, even if no unlawful agreement was involved.

    77. Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan Bryan was appointed to this position by Pres. Woodrow

    Wilson. Despite having little experience in foreign affairs, Bryan was able to negotiate treaties between

    some 30 nations during the tumultuous World War I period. His policies regarding Latin America,

    especially those involving Nicaragua, produced a lot of tension and problems. Bryan resigned on June 9,

    1915 because of a disagreement he had with Wilson’s policies regarding the war.


    Unit VI: Progressivism, First World War, Roaring Twenties, Depression and the New Deal, Foreign Policy, and World

    War II. Political History 1896 to 1945 and Foreign Policy 1914 to 1945.

    78. Arbitration Treaties treaties negotiated by U.S. as an effort to mediate the disputes between various

    countries. These treaties included an agreement for a one-year “cooling off” period, in which no nation

    could take action until after the one-year period. After the cooling-off period, nations could then choose

    to act as they saw fit. When serious crises presented themselves, however, the treaties became null and


    79. Panama Tolls Dispute Under the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (1901), agreement had been reached that all

    nations using the Panama Canal would be charged the same fees. However, in 1912, Congress passed a

    law saying that American ships could use the canal without paying these fees. Great Britain was infuriated

    and demanded that the law be repealed. After much arguing and discussion, Congress agreed to Wilson’s

    requests, and all was well once again.

    80. Colonel House Colonel Edwin House became President Wilson’s closest advisor and often served as

    liaison with members of Wilson’s administration as well as important men in the nation. In 1914, in an

    effort to prevent the outbreak of war, House was sent to Europe. In 1915, he was sent to Europe again in

    order to suggest a peace conference. House also served as an U.S. representative at conferences for

    coordination Allied activities. House helped to draft both the Treaty of Versailles and the Covenant of the

    League of Nations.

    81. Louis Brandeis, “Brandeis Brief” Associate Justice on the U.S. Supreme Court. In Muller v.Oregon (1908),

    Brandeis persuaded the Supreme Court that legislation regarding minimum-hours for women was both

    reasonable and constitutional. His brief, the “Brandeis Brief,” on this case consisted mainly of statistical,

    sociological, physiological, and economic information. This brief, in many ways, drastically changed the

    practice of law.

    82. La Follette Seaman’s Act Required a maximum of 56 hours of work per week, guaranteed standards of

    cleanliness and safety, right of seamen to sue for damages against negligent ship owners, right of crews to

    get half pay while in port, right of seamen to organize for all seamen.

    83. Federal Highway Act, 1916 an act approved by Wilson, it provided money from the government to build

    and maintain better roads, thereby providing competition for the monopoly held by railroads on the

    transportation and shipping industries.

    84. Adamson Act, 1916 established the eight-hour work day, as well as overtime pay guidelines concerning

    railroad workers who were working on interstate runs.

    85. Smith-Lever Act, Smith-Hughes Act (1917), established the first Food Administration that would do the

    following: fix food prices, coordinate purchases, license distributors, oversee exportation, encourage

    farmers to grow more crops, and act against hoarding and profiteering.

    86. Virgin Islands Purchased purchased in 1917 from Denmark, the Virgin Islands were a strategic move in

    order to protect the Panama Canal.

    87. Jones Act, 1916 (Philippines) In order to appease Filipinos and Americans alike, this “organic” law was

    passed, granting Philippine independence as soon as a stable government was in place. 88. Jones Act, 1917 (Puerto Rico) passed by Congress in 1917, it created territorial status for Puerto Rico,

    thereby making its people citizens of the United States.

    89. Mexican Revolution, Diaz, Huerta, Carranza A series of revolutions that caused mass confusion and

    destruction throughout the country. Dictator Porfirio Díaz was first overthrown because of the general

    dissatisfaction of the people. Díaz was replaced by Francisco Madero, who was then deposed by General

    Victoriano Huerta. Due to Huerta’s drunken and despotic dictatorship, Vensustiano Carranza then became

    dictator. Carranza remained president until 1920 when he was killed.

    90. Mexican Migration to the United States due to both poor economic conditions within Mexico as well as

    the civil unrest, many Mexicans migrated to the United States both in the 1800s and especially in the early

    1900s. Many of them worked in agriculture, namely as migrant workers.

    91. Watchful Waiting” President Monroe’s motto during the isolationism period when U.S. was trying to

    avoid getting involved in international affairs. During this period, referred to Wilson’s cautiousness.

    92. ABC Powers with another Mexican War seemingly on the horizon, several nations arranged a meeting in

    Niagara Falls, Canada in 1914 in order to smooth things over between Mexico and the U.S. These nation,

    Argentina, Brazil, and Chile (ABC Powers), managed to get the U.S. and Mexico to agree that Huerta would


    Unit VI: Progressivism, First World War, Roaring Twenties, Depression and the New Deal, Foreign Policy, and World

    War II. Political History 1896 to 1945 and Foreign Policy 1914 to 1945.

    give up his power. His successor, Carranza, did not acquiesce to the agreement. The U.S. removed its

    forces from Vera Cruz, extending diplomatic recognition to Carranza.

    93. Pancho Villa, Gerneral Pershing Carranza’s so-called “ally,” Pancho Villa, turned against the new

    president. Villa tried to weaken Carranza by exacerbating problems with the U.S. When Villa’s men struck

    Columbus, NM, killing 17 Americans, Wilson could no longer not act. He commissioned General John J.

    (“Black Jack”) Pershing to find Villa, dead or alive. Pershing failed to find the ever-elusive Villa and is

    quoted as saying, “Villa is everywhere, but Villa is nowhere.”

    94. Archangel Expedition 1917 U.S. troops went to the Soviet cities Murmansk and Archangel in order to

    reinforce non-Communist Russian troops. Rather than fighting against the Russian Communists, the U.S.

    troops defended ports.

    First World War

95. “Sick Man of Europe,” Ottoman Empire, Balkan Wars The Ottoman Empire (Turkey) was in league

    during World War I with the Central Powers. With its troops spread across Europe and elsewhere, areas of

    the Ottoman Empire, such as Macedonia and Albania, rebelled in an attempt to gain their independence.

    The Balkan Wars occurred even before the outbreak of World War I and signaled that the great Ottoman

    Empire would soon becoming to its end. It was officially broken up in 1918.

    96. Triple Entente: Allies an unofficial understanding between France, Great Britain, and Russia based on

    previous alliances. It was thought to counterbalance the Triple Alliance but was terminated when the

    Bolsheviks gained control in Russia in 1917.

    97. Triple Alliance: Central Powers an alliance that lasted from 1882 until 1915 between Germany, Austria-

    Hungary, and Italy.

    98. Loans to the Allies Before the United States was truly involved in WWI, President Wilson as early as 1914

    clandestinely began approving short term loans to the Allies in order to sustain trade. By the end of the

    war, the U.S. had loaned nearly $2 billion to the Allies.

    99. British Blockade starting shortly after the outbreak of WWI, the British illegal blockade of Germany and

    its allies was to prevent raw materials, foodstuffs, medicine, coal, and the like. The blockade lasted until

    after Germany signed the Treaty of Versailles.

    100. Lusitania, Arabic Pledge, Sussex Pledge The Lusitania, a British ship, was sunk by the Germans on May

    7, 1915. Americans were outraged because among the 1,200 or so killed, 128 dead were Americans. The

    Arabic Pledge was made by German ambassador Johann Heinrich von Bernstorff after the Germans sank

    the British ship the Arabic. This pledge said that the Germans would halt the practice of attacking

    unarmed passenger ships without warning as well as provide for the safety and well-being of crew and

    passengers of any passenger ships under attack. Another ship, the French Sussex, was attacked; however,

    the Sussex did not sink. After this outrage, Germany responded by changing their submarine policy with

    the promise that there would be no more sinking of passenger ships and that merchant ships would first

    be searched and provisions made for passengers and crew before being sunk.

    101. Election of 1916: Candidates and Issues

    a. Democrat: Woodrow Wilson; Electoral Votes: 277; Popular Vote: 49.3%

    b. Republican: Charles E. Hughes; Electoral Votes: 254; Popular Vote: 46.1%

    c. Issues: American policy toward nations at war remain neutral or get involved?

    102. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare this was the German practice of attacking all ships that were bound

    to countries it was at war with. Many neutral countries were outraged when their private shipping vessels

    were attacked by the Germans. Examples of this include the Lustiana, the Arabic, and the Sussex.

    103. Zimmerman Note an intercepted German dispatch revealing that Germany had proposed an alliance

    with Mexico. The proposed alliance said that Mexico would receive back Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona

    in the event of war with the U.S.

    104. Russian Revolutions, 1917, March and Bolshevik After centuries of being ruled by the czars, Russian

    peasants overthrew the Russian monarchy in 1917. The first government set up after the monarchs had

    be ousted was a weak democracy. Another revolution took place, overthrowing the government and

    establishing in its place a Communist regime. This regime was led by the Bolshevik party under Lenin.

    Lenin pulled Russia out of WWI.


    Unit VI: Progressivism, First World War, Roaring Twenties, Depression and the New Deal, Foreign Policy, and World

    War II. Political History 1896 to 1945 and Foreign Policy 1914 to 1945.

105. War Declared, April 1917 Following outrages such as the Zimmerman note and the attack on the

    Lusitania, the United States felt it could no longer remain neutral. War was declared on Germany in April,


    106. “Make the World Safe for Democracy” Despite the overwhelming support for the war effort, some

    people still had doubts. To appease the dissenters, Wilson coined this phrase as a reason for U.S.

    involvement in WWI.

    107. Creel Committee also known as the Committee of Public Information. Created by Wilson and headed

    by journalist George Creel, its purpose was to keep the public informed, or rather, to influence the public

    to accept Wilson’s idea of the better world that would be created after the war. CPI writers described the

    war as a crusade for liberty and democracy against the Germans and their allies.

    108. Bond Drives Finances for the war effort were scarce. Bond drives were held in order to get Americans

    to buy government war bonds in order to finance the war. Many people traveled around the country

    selling them and were extremely successful in raising funds.

    109. War Industries Board The board was created by Wilson to do the following for the war effort: allocate

    scarce materials, standardize production, fix prices, and coordinate American and Allied purchasing. 110. Bernard Baruch very rich financier and government advisor, Baruch had several important roles during

    WWI. He advised on national defense, was chairman of the War Industries Board, and helped to delineate

    the economic provisions of the Versailles Treaty.

    111. Herbert Hoover, Food Administration After the U.S. had entered WWI, Hoover became the Food

    Administrator (head of the Food Administration), a member of the War Trade Council, and chairman of

    the Interallied Food Council. As head of the Food Administration, Hoover was able to cut consumption of

    foods needed overseas and avoided the rationing of foods on the homefront. Yet he was able to keep the

    Allied forces nourished.

    112. Espionage Act, 1917; Sedition Act, 1918 The Espionage Act, signed by Wilson, imposed fines up to

    $10,000 and jail sentences up to 20 years for those aiding the enemy or obstructing justice. This act also

    gave the postmaster general the right to ban from the mail any materials that seemed to be treasonous or

    seditious. The Sedition Act was passed in 1918, and stated that anyone saying anything to discourage the

    purchase of war bonds was guilty of a crime. It also made illegal the stating or publishing of anything anti-


    113. Eugene V. Debs Imprisoned During World War I, Debs was a highly vocal and visible pacifist. He was

    convicted of violating the Sedition Act because of making an anti-war speech. He was sentenced to 10

    years in prison, thereby causing him to run his 1920 campaign for the presidency from behind bars. He

    was pardoned by President Harding in 1921.

    114. AEF the American Expeditionary Force. These were the first American ground troops to reach the

    European front. Commanded by General John J. Pershing, they did not find a significant role in the fighting

    until 1918. Also known as the “doughboys.”

    115. Selective Service: 1917 - A predecessor to the draft, this required that all men between the ages of 20

    and 45 had to register for possible military service.

    116. Black Migration to Northern Cities Because racism and lack of jobs were constant problems for

    Southern blacks, many of them migrated to Northern cities where jobs were more prevalent and racism

    more muted. However, the sudden surge of blacks in Northern cities led to a white backlash and more


    117. Aims of Allies and U.S. at Peace Conference The main gist of the aims of the Allies and U.S. at the

    Peace Conference was that the Germans compensate them for damages and such. President Wilson had a

    total of 14 points he wanted accomplished; however, only one ever came to fruition. The harsh financial

    and economical punishments sent Germany into a depression and would later aid in the rise of Hitler. 118. Wartime Manpower Losses WWI, because of its international battle stage, modern weapons, and old

    fighting styles, was much more violent and deadly than previous conflicts. More men were needed from

    countries throughout the world in order to fight, and therefore other people, such as women and children,

    had to fill the shoes of the men in factories and in other wartime industries.

    119. Fourteen Points the name given to Wilson’s plan to make the world “fit and safe to live in.” In his plan,

    he said that the peace treaty should not be secret but rather be negotiated in full view of world opinion.


    Unit VI: Progressivism, First World War, Roaring Twenties, Depression and the New Deal, Foreign Policy, and World

    War II. Political History 1896 to 1945 and Foreign Policy 1914 to 1945.

    The treaty should also guarantee freedom of the sees to all nations, tear down barriers of international

    trade, provide for a drastic reduction of weaponry, and boundaries throughout Europe should be redrawn

    so that no majority would have to live under a government not of its own selection. 120. Congressional Elections of 1918 Wilson deeply wanted a predominantly Democrat Congress so that his

    measures regarding foreign policy would be supported. His pleas for such a Congress were rejected by the

    public. In this election, the result was this: 47 Democrats and 49 Republicans in the Senate; 216

    Democrats and 210 Republicans in the House.

    121. Versailles Conference, Versailles Treaty This conference is where the Allies and the Central Powers met

    in order to negotiate a treaty of peace. On June 28, 1919 the Versailles Treaty was signed, thereby ending

    the war. The Germans suffered great punitive reparations for the war.

    122. U. S. Versailles Delegation This delegation, headed by Wilson, was the U.S. representatives to the

    Versailles Conference. Wilson, along with many other advisors and American political leaders, fought for

    14 specific points to be included in the final treaty. However, only one of these points was included the

    League of Nations.

    123. Big Four: Wilson, George, Clemenceau, Orlando refers to the “leaders” at the Paris peace conference

    who quickly took control of the negotiations: President Wilson, Prime Minister David Lloyd George (Great

    Britain), Premier Georges Clemenceau (France), Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando (Italy). 124. League of Nations Following World War I, many prominent world leaders felt that to keep in check any

    future international problems that a society of nations be formed. Wilson was a firm advocate of this idea,

    incorporating the proposal for the League of Nations into his Fourteen Points speech. At the Paris Peace

    Conference in 1919, Wilson was also the main advocate for the establishment of the League. The

    formation of the League in the next years was based on the Covenant, which was, in itself, a mini-League.

    The articles of the Covenant would later be used for the formation of the League of Nations. 125. Collective Security an agreement between countries for mutual defense and to discourage aggression.

    Article 10 of the League charter made use of this concept.

    126. New Nations, Self-Determination Following WWI, many new countries were formed because Germany

    as well as many Eastern European countries and former Russian territories were divided. Wilson and

    others wanted these new nations to have their own independent governments.

    127. Reparations this refers to the extreme financial penalties Germany had to pay the Allies in order to

    cover the costs spent during the war. These reparations eventually led to a severe depression in Germany. 128. Mandate System a system of trusteeships established by the Covenant for the administration of former

    Turkish and German territories. The obligations for the care of the territory were assumed by the

    mandate power. The system was administered by the League of Nations through a Permanent Mandates


    129. Article 10 (often written Article X) of the Versailles Treaty Article 10 promised to protect the territorial

    integrity and political independence of member nations.

    130. Article 231 of the Versailles Treaty This article was a very controversial one. It considered the Germans’

    legal liability versus the moral liability.

    131. Senate Rejection, Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Reservations Opposition to both the treaty and the

    League of Nations came especially heavily from the Senate. Senator Henry Cabot Lodge led the dissenters.

    As the chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Lodge, and his associates, opposed entry

    into the League of Nations until they were sure that, through very specific and limiting demands, U.S.

    interests would be protected.

    132. “Irreconcilables:” Borah, Johnson, La Follette There were some in opposition to the League of Nations

    who would have reconsidered their opposition had certain specifications had been made. 133. Red Scare, Palmer Raids As the Communist Party gained support in the U.S., American fear of

    Communism was growing as well. In 1920, Attorney General Palmer approved raids in 33 cities. Palmer’s

    raiders broke into meeting halls and homes without warrants. Some 4,000 “Communists” were jailed;

    some were even deported.

    134. Strikes: 1919, Coal, Steel, Police The striking fervor of 1919 began with strikes in anthracite coalmines.

    Then some 350,000 steelworkers went on strike as well. Even the police of Boston went on strike. These

    strikes badly damaged labor unions.


    Unit VI: Progressivism, First World War, Roaring Twenties, Depression and the New Deal, Foreign Policy, and World

    War II. Political History 1896 to 1945 and Foreign Policy 1914 to 1945.

135. Inflation During the First World War Temporary shortages had caused inflation. Inflation then caused

    labor problems. Labor unions had grown stronger during the war and were demanding wage increases.

    Over 4 million workers were on strike during 1919. Strikes and the like exacerbated shortages, causing

    greater inflation and more strikes. Unemployment was unusually high when prices, especially agricultural

    ones, dropped suddenly.

    136. Election of 1916: Candidates and Issues

    a. Democrat: Woodrow Wilson; Electoral Votes: 277; Popular Vote: 49.3%

    b. Republican: Charles E. Hughes; Electoral Votes: 254; Popular Vote: 46.1%

    c. Issues: American policy toward nations at war remain neutral or get involved?

    137. Brief Depression, 1920-1921 Following WWI, prices rose sharply, and consumers stopped buying.

    Unemployment jumped nearly 10% as industry and export trade virtually came to a halt.

    Roaring Twenties

138. Election of 1920: Candidates and Issues

    a. Democrat: James M. Cox; Electoral Vote: 127; Popular Vote: 34.6%

    b. Republican: Warren G. Harding; Electoral Vote: 404; Popular Vote: 61%

    c. Socialist: Eugene V. Debs; Electoral Vote: 0; Popular Vote: 3.5%

    d. Issues included Wilson’s “normalcy” and prohibition.

    139. Vice Presidential Candidates Calvin Coolidge ran with Republican candidate Warren G. Harding; F.D.

    Roosevelt ran with Democrat candidate James Cox.

    140. Normalcy After several tumultuous years on the international scene, most Americans were ready for a

    return to isolationism and the quiet “serenity” they had enjoyed during the post-Civil War, pre-World War

    I period.

    141. Esch-Cummins Transportation Act This act provided for a change in railroad regulation. It allowed for

    the railroads to return to private control. It also widened the powers of the ICC. 142. Harding Scandals: Charles Forbes, Harry Daugherty, Secretary of the Interior Fall, Teapot Dome, Harry

    Sinclair Before Harding’s death, rumors of corruption and scandals surfaced regarding the Veterans’

    Bureau, the Office of the Alien Property Custodian, and the departments of the Interior and Justice.

    Charles Forbes stole millions of dollars from the Veterans’ Bureau. That was only the surface of the

    corruption. Harry Daugherty, Attorney General under Harding, was charged with being implicated in the

    Teapot Dome affair and other scandals of the Harding administration. After Harding’s sudden death, the

    Teapot Dome scandal was exposed. It was a complex scandal that included the oil reserves at Teapot

    Dome, Wyoming, and at Elk Hills, California. In 1921, control of these reserves was given to the

    Department of the Interior. Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall, without competitive bidding, leased

    the Teapot Dome fields to Harry Sinclair, an oil operator. The fields at Elks Hill were given to Edward

    Doheny. It was later found out that Secretary Fall had been “loaned” large amounts of money from both

    Sinclair and Doheny. Fall was convicted of accepting bribes. Doheny and Sinclair were acquitted. 143. Harding’s Death, Coolidge Takes Over Due to both his bad health and increasing pressure regarding the

    numerous scandals in his administration, on August 2, 1923, President Harding died. V.P. Calvin Coolidge

    took over the presidency.

    144. Bureau of the Budget formed in 1921, the sole purpose of the Bureau was to prepare the annual

    budget for presentation in January. It was also to control the management of the budget, thereby

    improving and encouraging government efficiency.

    145. Secretary of Treasury Mellon, Tax Cuts Mellon, a wealthy financier, was appointed as Secretary of the

    Treasury by Harding. He also served under Coolidge and Hoover. Under his control, the government

    reduced debt from WWI by $9 billion, and Congress was able to cut income tax rates greatly. 146. Senator George Norris, Muscle Shoals Norris is often called The Father of Tennessee Authority and also

    served in Congress for 40 years. The Tennessee Authority was a series of dams and power plants created

    to supply electricity to poor areas of the United States.

    147. Election of 1924: Candidates and Issues Calvin Coolidge-nominated again-Republican

    a. Republicans were united, election was broadcast on radio. Platform: “Keep cool with Coolidge,


    Unit VI: Progressivism, First World War, Roaring Twenties, Depression and the New Deal, Foreign Policy, and World

    War II. Political History 1896 to 1945 and Foreign Policy 1914 to 1945.

    tax reduction, opposition to farm subsidies, eight-hour work day, end of child labor, anti-lynching

    law, protective tariff, collection of foreign debts, and staying out of the League of Nations.

    b. John W. Davis-Democrat, former ambassador to Great Britain. Platform: graduated income tax,

    tough enforcement of anti-trust laws, public works projects to alleviate unemployment, farm

    relief, tariff reduction, Philippine island independence, and a referendum on the League of


    c. Robert M. La Follette-Progressive-public management and conservation of natural resources,

    acknowledgement of worker’s rights, elimination of child labor, and dissolution of monopolies.

    d. Coolidge wins with 382 electoral votes. Davis: 136, Follette: 13

    148. McNary-Haughen Bill, Vetoes The McNary Haughen Bill was a plan to increase the prices of farm

    products. The government was permitted to buy and sell the products at the current world price and

    tariff. Coolidge, the president during the era, vetoed the bill twice. In the 1930’s agricultural programs, it

    led the way.

    149. Federal Farm Board Hoover permitted this act under the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1929. It was

    established this semipublic stabilization corporation with authority to buy up surplus wheat and cotton,

    however, he refused to countenance crop or acreage controls. The corporations poured out hundreds of

    millions of dollars without checking falling agricultural prices because farmers increased production faster

    than the corporations could buy up the excess for disposal abroad.

    150. Election of 1928: Candidates and Issues Coolidge decides not to run again.

    a. Hoover-easily won the Republican nomination-modern approach to capital and labor, opposed

    union busting and trust-busting, and was highly critical of Europe.

    b. Al Smith-Democrat-conservative platform, advocated social reform programs.

    c. Hoover: 58.2 % of popular vote, 444 electoral votes, Smith: 40.8% of popular, 87 electoral votes 151. Bruce Barton, The Man Nobody Knows, 1925 One of the advertising “geniuses” of the era, wrote a

    best-selling book, The Man Nobody Knows (1925), in which he described Jesus as the “founder of modern

    business,” the man who “picked up twelve men from the bottom ranks…and forged them into an

    organization that conquered the world.”

    152. H.L. Mencken, Editor of the Magazine The American Mercury Reflected the distaste of intellectuals for

    the climate of the times. Mencken, a Baltimore newspaperman and founder of one of the great

    magazines for the era, the American Mercury, was a thoroughgoing cynic. He coined the world booboisie

    to define the complacent, middle-class majority, and he fired superbly witty broadside s at

    fundamentalists, prohibitionists, and Puritans. “Puritanism,” he once said, “is the haunting fear that

    someone, somewhere, may be happy.”

    153. “The Lost Generation” Gertrude Stein named several of the writers of the time period as the “the lost

    generation.” She was referring to many of the restless young writers who congregated in Paris after WWI.

    These writers also thought that the U.S. was very materialistic and criticized how the people were always

    conforming to the “normal.”

    154. F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby Fitzgerald dissected a modern millionairecoarse, unscrupulous,

    jaded, in love with another man’s wife. Gatsby’s tragedy lay in his dedication to a woman who, Fitzgerald

    made clear, did not merit his passion. He lived in “the service of a vast, vulgar, meretricious beauty,” and

    in the end he understood this himself.

    155. Sinclair Lewis, Main Street, Babbitt Lewis was probably the most popular American novelist of the

    1920’s. Main Street (1920) portrayed the smug ignorance and bigotry of the American small town so

    accurately that even Lewis’s victims recognized themselves; his title became a symbol for provinciality and

    middle-class meanness of spirit. In Babbitt (1922), he created what many people considered the typical

    businessman of the 1920s, gregarious, a “booster”, blindly orthodox in his political and social opinions, a

    slave to ever cliché, and full of loud self-confidence but under the surface a bumbling, rather timid fellow

    who would have liked to be better than he was but dared not try.

    156. Theodore Dreiser, An American Tragedy A writer in the Naturalism movement, this book, written in

    1925, criticized repressive, hypocritical society. It tells about a weak young man trying unsuccessfully to

    rise out of poverty into upper class society who is executed for the murder of his pregnant girlfriend. 157. Ernest Hemingway, A Farewell to Arms Hemingway drew on his military experiences to describe the


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