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ch9 Bonds and Their Valuation (solutions_nss_nc_7)

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ch9 Bonds and Their Valuation (solutions_nss_nc_7)

    Chapter 7

    Bonds and Their Valuation

    Learning Objectives

After reading this chapter, students should be able to:

    ; List the four main classifications of bonds and differentiate among them. ; Identify the key characteristics common to all bonds.

    ; Calculate the value of a bond with annual or semiannual interest payments. ; Calculate the yield to maturity, the yield to call, and the current yield on a bond. ; Explain why the market value of an outstanding fixed-rate bond will fall when interest rates rise on new

    bonds of equal risk, or vice versa.

    ; Differentiate between interest rate risk, reinvestment rate risk, and default risk. ; List major types of corporate bonds and distinguish among them.

    ; Explain the importance of bond ratings and list some of the criteria used to rate bonds. ; Differentiate among the following terms: Insolvent, liquidation, and reorganization. ; Read and understand the information provided on the bond market page of your newspaper.

Chapter 7: Bonds and Their Valuation Learning Objectives 141

    Lecture Suggestions

    This chapter serves two purposes. First, it provides important and useful information on bonds per se. Second, it provides a good example of the use of time value concepts, so it reinforces the topics covered in Chapter 2.

    We begin our lecture with a discussion of the different types of bonds and their characteristics. Then we move on to how bond values are established, how yields are determined, the effects of changing interest rates on bond prices, and the riskiness inherent in different types of bonds.

    What we cover, and the way we cover it, can be seen by scanning the slides and Integrated Case solution for Chapter 7, which appears at the end of this chapter solution. For other suggestions about the lecture, please see the ―Lecture Suggestions‖ in Chapter 2, where we describe how we conduct our classes.

DAYS ON CHAPTER: 3 OF 58 DAYS (50-minute periods)

142 Lecture Suggestions Chapter 7: Bonds and Their Valuation

    Answers to End-of-Chapter Questions

    7-1 From the corporation’s viewpoint, one important factor in establishing a sinking fund is that its own

    bonds generally have a higher yield than do government bonds; hence, the company saves more

    interest by retiring its own bonds than it could earn by buying government bonds. This factor causes

    firms to favor the second procedure. Investors also would prefer the annual retirement procedure if

    they thought that interest rates were more likely to rise than to fall, but they would prefer the

    government bond purchase program if they thought rates were likely to fall. In addition, bondholders

    recognize that, under the government bond purchase scheme, each bondholder would be entitled to

    a given amount of cash from the liquidation of the sinking fund if the firm should go into default,

    whereas under the annual retirement plan, some of the holders would receive a cash benefit while

    others would benefit only indirectly from the fact that there would be fewer bonds outstanding.

    On balance, investors seem to have little reason for choosing one method over the other, while

    the annual retirement method is clearly more beneficial to the firm. The consequence has been a

    pronounced trend toward annual retirement and away from the accumulation scheme.

    7-2 Yes, the statement is true.

    7-3 False. Short-term bond prices are less sensitive than long-term bond prices to interest rate changes

    because funds invested in short-term bonds can be reinvested at the new interest rate sooner than

    funds tied up in long-term bonds.

    For example, consider two bonds, both with a 10% annual coupon and a $1,000 par value. The

    only difference between them is their maturity. One bond is a 1-year bond, while the other is a 20-

    year bond. Consider the values of each at 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% interest rates.

     1-year 20-year

     5% $1,047.62 $1,623.11

    10% 1,000.00 1,000.00

    15% 956.52 687.03

    20% 916.67 513.04

    As you can see, the price of the 20-year bond is much more volatile than the price of the 1-year bond.

    7-4 The price of the bond will fall and its YTM will rise if interest rates rise. If the bond still has a long term to

    maturity, its YTM will reflect long-term rates. Of course, the bond’s price will be less affected by a change

    in interest rates if it has been outstanding a long time and matures shortly. While this is true, it should be

    noted that the YTM will increase only for buyers who purchase the bond after the change in interest rates

    and not for buyers who purchased previous to the change. If the bond is purchased and held to maturity,

    the bondholder’s YTM will not change, regardless of what happens to interest rates. For example,

    consider two bonds with an 8% annual coupon and a $1,000 par value. One bond has a 5-year maturity,

    while the other has a 20-year maturity. If interest rates rise to 15% immediately after issue the value of

    the 5-year bond would be $765.35, while the value of the 20-year bond would be $561.85.

    7-5 If interest rates decline significantly, the values of callable bonds will not rise by as much as those of

    bonds without the call provision. It is likely that the bonds would be called by the issuer before

    maturity, so that the issuer can take advantage of the new, lower rates.

    7-6 As an investor with a short investment horizon, I would view the 20-year Treasury security as being more

    risky than the 1-year Treasury security. If I bought the 20-year security, I would bear a considerable

    amount of interest rate risk. Since my investment horizon is only one year, I would have to sell the 20-

    Chapter 7: Bonds and Their Valuation Integrated Case 143

    year security one year from now, and the price I would receive for it would depend on what happened to

    interest rates during that year. However, if I purchased the 1-year security I would be assured of

    receiving my principal at the end of that one year, which is the 1-year Treasury’s maturity date.

7-7 a. If a bond’s price increases, its YTM decreases.

    b. If a company’s bonds are downgraded by the rating agencies, its YTM increases.

    c. If a change in the bankruptcy code made it more difficult for bondholders to receive payments in

    the event a firm declared bankruptcy, then the bond’s YTM would increase.

    d. If the economy entered a recession, then the possibility of a firm defaulting on its bond would

    increase; consequently, its YTM would increase.

    e. If a bond were to become subordinated to another debt issue, then the bond’s YTM would increase.

    7-8 If a company sold bonds when interest rates were relatively high and the issue is callable, then the

    company could sell a new issue of low-yielding securities if and when interest rates drop. The

    proceeds of the new issue would be used to retire the high-rate issue, and thus reduce its interest

    expense. The call privilege is valuable to the firm but detrimental to long-term investors, who will be

    forced to reinvest the amount they receive at the new and lower rates.

    7-9 A sinking fund provision facilitates the orderly retirement of the bond issue. Although sinking funds

    are designed to protect investors by ensuring that the bonds are retired in an orderly fashion, sinking

    funds can work to the detriment of bond holders. On balance, however, bonds that have a sinking

    fund are regarded as being safer than those without such a provision, so at the time they are issued

    sinking fund bonds have lower coupon rates than otherwise similar bonds without sinking funds.

    7-10 A call for sinking fund purposes is quite different from a refunding call- a sinking fund call requires no

    call premium, but only a small percentage of the issue is normally callable in a given year. A refunding

    call gives the issuer the right to call all the bond issue for redemption. The call provision generally states

    that the issuer must pay the bondholders an amount greater than the par value if they are called.

    7-11 Convertibles and bonds with warrants are offered with lower coupons than similarly-rated straight

    bonds because both offer investors the chance for capital gains as compensation for the lower coupon

    rate. Convertible bonds are exchangeable into shares of common stock, at a fixed price, at the option

    of the bondholder. On the other hand, bonds issued with warrants are options that permit the holder

    to buy stock for a stated price, thereby providing a capital gain if the stock’s price rises.

    7-12 This statement is false. Extremely strong companies can use debentures because they simply do not

    need to put up property as security for their debt. Debentures are also issued by weak companies

    that have already pledged most of their assets as collateral for mortgage loans. In this latter case, the

    debentures are quite risky, and that risk will be reflected in their interest rates.

    7-13 The yield spread between a corporate bond over a Treasury bond with the same maturity reflects

    both investors’ risk aversion and their optimism or pessimism regarding the economy and corporate

    profits. If the economy appeared to be heading into a recession, the spread should widen. The

    change in spread would be even wider if a firm’s credit strength weakened.

    7-14 Assuming a bond issue is callable, the YTC is a better estimate of a bond’s expected return when

    interest rates are below an outstanding bond’s coupon rate. The YTM is a better estimate of a bond’s

    expected return when interest rates are equal or above an outstanding bond’s coupon rate.

144 Integrated Case Chapter 7: Bonds and Their Valuation

    Solutions to End-of-Chapter Problems

    9-1 With your financial calculator, enter the following:

    N = 10; I/YR = YTM = 9%; INT = 0.08 1,000 = 80; FV = 1000; PV = V = ? B

    PV = $935.82.

9-2 V = $985; M = $1,000; Int = 0.07 $1,000 = $70. B

     Current yield = Annual interest/Current price of bond

     = $70/$985.00

     = 7.11%.

    a. N = 10; PV = -985; INT = 70; FV = 1000; YTM = ?

    Solve for Rd = YTM = 7.2157% 7.22%.

    b. N = 7; Rd = 7.2157; PMT = 70; FV = 1000; PV = ?

    Solve for V = PV = $988.46. B

9-3 The problem asks you to find the price of a bond, given the following facts: N = 2 8 = 16; Rd =

    8.5/2 = 4.25; INT = 45; FV = 1000.

    With a financial calculator, solve for PV = $1,028.60.

    9-4 With your financial calculator, enter the following to find YTM:

    N = 10 2 = 20; PV = -1100; INT = 0.08/2 1,000 = 40; FV = 1000; Rd = YTM = ?

    YTM = 3.31% 2 = 6.62%.

    With your financial calculator, enter the following to find YTC:

    N = 5 2 = 10; PV = -1100; PMT = 0.08/2 1,000 = 40; FV = 1050; I/YR = YTC = ?

    YTC = 3.24% 2 = 6.49%.

    Since the YTC is less than the YTM, investors would expect the bonds to be called and to earn the

    YTC.( most likely yield=6.49%)

9-5 a. 1. 5%: Bond L: Input N = 15, Rd = 5, INT = 100, FV = 1000, PV = ?, PV = $1,518.98.

    Bond S: Change N = 1, PV = ? PV = $1,047.62.

    2. 8%: Bond L: From Bond S inputs, change N = 15 and Rd = 8, PV = ?, PV = $1,171.19.

    Bond S: Change N = 1, PV = ? PV = $1,018.52.

    3. 12%: Bond L: From Bond S inputs, change N = 15 and Rd = 12, PV = ?, PV = $863.78.

    Bond S: Change N = 1, PV = ? PV = $982.14.

Chapter 7: Bonds and Their Valuation Integrated Case 145

    b. Think about a bond that matures in one month. Its present value is influenced primarily by the

    maturity value, which will be received in only one month. Even if interest rates double, the price

    of the bond will still be close to $1,000. A 1-year bond’s value would fluctuate more than the

    one-month bond’s value because of the difference in the timing of receipts. However, its value

    would still be fairly close to $1,000 even if interest rates doubled. A long-term bond paying

    semiannual coupons, on the other hand, will be dominated by distant receipts, receipts that are t/2), and if r increases, these multipliers will decrease significantly. multiplied by 1/(1 + rdd

    Another way to view this problem is from an opportunity point of view. A 1-month bond can be

    reinvested at the new rate very quickly, and hence the opportunity to invest at this new rate is

    not lost; however, the long-term bond locks in subnormal returns for a long period of time.

9-6 a. Years to Maturity Price of Bond C Price of Bond Z

     4 $1,012.79 $ 693.04

     3 1,010.02 759.57

     2 1,006.98 832.49

     1 1,003.65 912.41

     0 1,000.00 1,000.00

     b. Bond Price PathsBond Price Paths

     Bond CBond C $1,000$1,000

     $800$800 Bond PriceBond PriceBond ZBond Z

     $600$600

    012345012345

    TimeTime

9-7 Percentage

     Price at 8% Price at 7% Change

    10-year, 10% annual coupon $1,134.20 $1,210.71 6.75%

    10-year zero 463.19 508.35 9.75

    5-year zero 680.58 712.99 4.76

    30-year zero 99.38 131.37 32.19

    $100 perpetuity 1,250.00 1,428.57 14.29

    7-8 The rate of return is approximately 15.03%, N = 6; PV = 1000; INT =100X0.14= 140; FV = 1090;

    I/YR = ? Solve for I/YR = 15.03%.

146 Integrated Case Chapter 7: Bonds and Their Valuation

    Despite a 15% return on the bonds, investors are not likely to be happy that they were called. Because if the bonds have been called, this indicates that interest rates have fallen sufficiently that the YTC is less than the YTM. (Since they were originally sold at par, the YTM at issuance= 14%.) Rates are sufficiently low to justify the call. Now investors must reinvest their funds in a much lower interest rate environment.

     NINTM9-9 a. V = ; BtN(1;r)(1;r)t1dd

    M = $1,000. INT = 0.09($1,000) = $90.

    1. V = $829: Input N = 4, PV = 829, INT = 90, FV = 1000, YTM = Rd = ? Rd = 14.99%. B

    2. V = $1,104: Change PV = 1104, YTM = Rd = ? I/YR = 6.00%. B

    b. Yes. At a price of $829, the yield to maturity, 15%, is greater than your required rate of return of

    12%. If your required rate of return were 12%, you should be willing to buy the bond at any

    price below $908.88.

    9-10 a. Solving for YTM:

    N = 9, PV = -901.40, PMT = 80, FV = 1000

    I/YR = YTM = 9.6911%.

    b. The current yield is defined as the annual coupon payment divided by the current price.

    CY = $80/$901.40 = 8.875%.

    Expected capital gains yield can be found as the difference between YTM and the current yield.

    CGY = YTM CY = 9.691% 8.875% = 0.816%.

    Alternatively, you can solve for the capital gains yield by first finding the expected price next year.

    N = 8, I/YR = 9.6911, PMT = 80, FV = 1000

    PV = -$908.76. V = $908.76. B

    Hence, the capital gains yield is the percent price appreciation over the next year.

    CGY = (P P)/P = ($908.76 $901.40)/$901.40 = 0.816%. 100

    c. As long as promised coupon payments are made, the current yield will not change as a result of

    changing interest rates. However, as rates change they will cause the end-of-year price to

    change and thus the realized capital gains yield to change. As a result, the realized return to

    investors will differ from the YTM.

    7-11 a. Using a financial calculator, input the following to solve for YTM:

    N = 20, PV = -1100, PMT = 60, FV = 1000, and solve for YTM = I/YR = 5.1849%.

    However, this is a periodic rate. The nominal YTM = 5.1849%(2) = 10.3699% 10.37%.

    Chapter 7: Bonds and Their Valuation Integrated Case 147

    For the YTC, input the following:

    N = 8, PV = -1100, PMT = 60, FV = 1060, and solve for YTC = I/YR = 5.0748%.

    However, this is a periodic rate. The nominal YTC = 5.0748%(2) = 10.1495% 10.15%.

    So the bond is likely to be called, and investors are most likely to earn a 10.15% yield.

    b. The current yield = $120/$1,100 = 10.91%. The current yield will remain the same; however, if

    the bond is called the YTC reflects the total return (rather than the YTM) so the capital gains yield

    will be different.

c. YTM = Current yield + Capital gains (loss) yield

    10.37% = 10.91% + Capital loss yield

    -0.54% = Capital loss yield.

    This is the capital loss yield if the YTM is expected.

    However, based on our calculations in part a the total return expected would actually be the YTC

    = 10.15%. So, the expected capital loss yield = 10.15% 10.91% = -0.76%.

    7-12 a. Yield to maturity (YTM):

    With a financial calculator, input N = 28, PV = -1165.75, PMT = 95, FV = 1000, I/YR = ? I/YR =

    YTM = 8.00%.

    Yield to call (YTC):

    With a calculator, input N = 3, PV = -1165.75, PMT = 95, FV = 1090, I/YR = ? I/YR = YTC =

    6.11%.

    b. Knowledgeable investors would expect the return to be closer to 6.1% than to 8%. If interest

    rates remain substantially lower than 9.5%, the company can be expected to call the issue at the

    call date and to refund it with an issue having a coupon rate lower than 9.5%.

    c. If the bond had sold at a discount, this would imply that current interest rates are above the

    coupon rate (i.e., interest rates have risen). Therefore, the company would not call the bonds, so

    the YTM would be more relevant than the YTC.

    7-13 The problem asks you to solve for the YTM and Price, given the following facts: N = 5 2 = 10, PMT = 80/2 = 40, and FV = 1000. In order to solve for I/YR we need PV.

    However, you are also given that the current yield is equal to 8.21%. Given this information, we can find PV (Price).

Current yield = Annual interest/Current price

     0.0821 = $80/PV

     PV = $80/0.0821 = $974.42.

    148 Integrated Case Chapter 7: Bonds and Their Valuation

Now, solve for the YTM with a financial calculator:

    N = 10, PV = -974.42, PMT = 40, and FV = 1000. Solve for I/YR = YTM = 4.32%. However, this is a periodic rate so the nominal YTM = 4.32%(2) = 8.64%.

    7-14 The problem asks you to solve for the current yield, given the following facts: N = 14, I/YR = 10.5883/2 = 5.29415, PV = -1020, and FV = 1000. In order to solve for the current yield we need to find PMT. With a financial calculator, we find PMT = $55.00. However, because the bond is a semiannual coupon bond this amount needs to be multiplied by 2 to obtain the annual interest payment: $55.00(2) = $110.00. Finally, find the current yield as follows:

    Current yield = Annual interest/Current price = $110/$1,020 = 10.78%.

    7-15 a. The bond is selling at a large premium, which means that its coupon rate is much higher than the

    going rate of interest. Therefore, the bond is likely to be calledit is more likely to be called than

    to remain outstanding until it matures. Therefore, the likely life remaining on these bonds is 5

    years (the time to call).

    b. Since the bonds are likely to be called, they will probably provide a return equal to the YTC rather

    than the YTM. So, there is no point in calculating the YTMjust calculate the YTC. Enter these

    values:

    N = 2 5 = 10, PV = -1353.54, PMT = 0.14/2 1,000 = 70, FV = 1050, and then solve for YTC

    = I/YR.

    The periodic rate is 3.2366%, so the nominal YTC is 2 3.2366% = 6.4733% 6.47%. This

    would be close to the going rate, and it is about what the firm would have to pay on new bonds.

    7-16 First, we must find the amount of money we can expect to sell this bond for in 5 years. This is found using the fact that in five years, there will be 15 years remaining until the bond matures and that the expected YTM for this bond at that time will be 8.5%.

N = 15, I/YR = 8.5, PMT = 90, FV = 1000

    PV = -$1,041.52. V = $1,041.52. B

    This is the value of the bond in 5 years. Therefore, we can solve for the maximum price we would be willing to pay for this bond today, subject to our required rate of return of 10%.

N = 5, I/YR = 10, PMT = 90, FV = 1041.52

    PV = -$987.87. V = $987.87. B

    You would be willing to pay up to $987.87 for this bond today.

    7-17 Before you can solve for the price, we must find the appropriate semiannual rate at which to evaluate this bond.

     2 EAR = (1 + I/2) 1 NOM20.0816 = (1 + I/2) 1 NOM

     I = 0.08. NOM

    Chapter 7: Bonds and Their Valuation Integrated Case 149

Semiannual interest rate = 0.08/2 = 0.04 = 4%.

Solving for price:

    N = 2 10 = 20, I/YR = 4, PMT = 0.09/2 1,000 = 45, FV = 1000

    PV = -$1,067.95. V = $1,067.95. B

    7-18 First, we must find the price Joan paid for this bond.

N = 10, I/YR = 9.79, PMT = 110, FV = 1000

    PV = -$1,075.02. V = $1,075.02. B

    Then to find the one-period return, we must find the sum of the change in price and the coupon received divided by the starting price.

    Ending price Beginning price ; Coupon receivedOne-period return = Beginning price

    One-period return = ($1,060.49 $1,075.02 + $110)/$1,075.02

    One-period return = 8.88%.

    7-19 a. According to Table 7-4, the yield to maturities for Albertson’s and Ford Motor Co. bonds are

    6.303% and 8.017%, respectively. So, Albertson’s would need to set a coupon of 6.3% to sell its

    bonds at par, while Ford would need to set a coupon of 8%.

b. Current investments in Albertson’s and Ford Motor Co. would be expected to earn returns equal

    to their expected present yields. The return is safer for Albertson’s. Looking at the table, we see

    that the Ford Motor Co. bonds were originally issued with a lower coupon but their yields have

    increased greatly (resulting in a spread of 320 basis points, compared to Albertson’s spread of

    149 basis points).

    7-20 a. Find the YTM as follows:

    N = 10, PV = -1175, PMT = 110, FV = 1000

    I/YR = YTM = 8.35%.

b. Find the YTC, if called in Year 5 as follows:

    N = 5, PV = -1175, PMT = 110, FV = 1090

    I/YR = YTC = 8.13%.

c. The bonds are selling at a premium which indicates that interest rates have fallen since the bonds

    were originally issued. Assuming that interest rates do not change from the present level,

    investors would expect to earn the yield to call. (Note that the YTC is less than the YTM.)

    d. Similarly from above, YTC can be found, if called in each subsequent year.

    If called in Year 6:

    N = 6, PV = -1175, PMT = 110, FV = 1080

    I/YR = YTC = 8.27%.

    150 Integrated Case Chapter 7: Bonds and Their Valuation

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