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    BOOK 5

    Lesson Twelve

    PSALMS 107-150 (A-2, page 3 introduction) THE FIFTH, OR DEUTERONOMY BOOK.


    He sent His Word, and healed them, and delivered them from all their destruction.”

     (Psalms 107:20; 147:15, 18).


     A -1 Ps. 107 Deliverance by the healing word.

     E Pss. 108 (E-1), 109 (E-2), 110 (E-3). The true David‟s Humiliation, Deliverance, Exaltation.108: 6

    ), 112 (G-2), 113 (G-3). Praise, Three Hallelujah Psalms. The first two beginning, G Pss. 111 (G-1

     And ending, with “Hallelujah.” (Ps. 111 Being Praise for

     Jehovah‟s works; 112, for His ways; and 113, for Himself).

     H Pss. 114 (H-1), 115 (H-2). Deliverance from Egypt, and Egypt‟s idols.

     G Pss. 116 (G-4), 117 (G-5), 118 (G-6). Praise. Three Psalms. The first two ending with “Hallelujah,”

     And the third beginning and ending with “O give thanks.”

    A-2 Ps. 119 Quickening and sustaining by the revealing word.

    H Pss. 120 (H-3) 134 (H-4). Deliverance from Sennacherib typical of Israel‟s future deliverance.

     Fifteen Psalms arranged in Five Triads. G Pss. 135 (G-7), 136 (G-8). Praise two Psalms linked together by one combined structure.

H Ps. 137. Deliverance of captives. Sennacherib‟s captives.

G Ps. 138. Praise.

    H Ps. 139. Deliverance from an evil heart. (Compare Ezekiel 36:26, Jer. 31:33).

G Pss. 140 (G-9) 144 (G-13). Prayer and Praise.

    E Ps. 145. The true David leading the praises of his people (Ps. 144:9). G Pss. 146 (G-14) 150 (G-15). Praise. Five Hallelujah Psalms, each beginning and ending with


    X Ps. 151 The unknown Psalm found in the LXX by David.

    XX Psalms Dead Sea Scrolls



Deuteronomy is man‟s name for this book of the Psalms. It comes from the Greek Septuagint (LXX), and

    means “the second Law.” It was given because Deuteronomy was a repetition of the Law, with some variations, to suit the needs of the new generation in the Land. The title in the Hebrew Canon is ‘elleh haddebarim, “These

    are the Words.” It is the book that contains the words of God; and consists almost wholly of the testimonies,

    statutes, judgments, &c., of Jehovah.

It was from this book that the Saviour made His three quotations, when He met the tempter (Satan) with the

    threefold “It is written.” It follows the Book of the Wilderness; and gives the reason for all the trials of the pilgrimage: “The Lord thy God led thee these forty years…that He might make thee know that man doth not live by bread only, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of the Lord doth man live.” (Deut. 8:2, 3).

    The natural life, the giving of which is recorded in Genesis is nothing worth if man be not begotten by the Word,

    and if the new nature thus given be not nourished by the Word. For only thus can man be truly said to “live.”

Hence, in this Deuteronomy Book of the Psalms we have the same leading subject. It teaching, like that of the

    other books, is Dispensational; and it is grouped around the Word. All blessing for Man (Book 1), all blessing

    for Israel (Book 2), all blessing for Zion (Book 3), all blessing for the Earth and its Nations (Book 4), is bound

    up in the Word and Law of God. The breaking of that Law had been the source of Man’s sorrow, Israel’s

    dispersion, the Temple’s ruin, and the Earth’s misery. It will yet be seen that all blessing for Man, the

    gathering of Israel, the building of Zion, and restoration for the earth, is bound up with the Word of God, and

    with His Law written by His Spirit on the fleshy tables of the heart (Jeremiah 31:31-34, Ezekiel 36:24-38).

What a wonderful thing for one to be brought to say “O how I love Thy Law!” (Psalm 19:97), when the

    breaking of that Law had brought in all the suffering! But it will be noted that this is said only after (in Psalm

    118) the Resurrection of the Righteous Magnifier of that Law has been celebrated.

    This is the theme of the Deuteronomy-Book of the Psalms. It consists of forty-four Psalms, in which the title Jehovah occurs 293 times; and Jah. 13; while Elohim occurs only 41 times (4 of which are with Jehovah); El,

    10 times; Eloah, twice.

While the structure of the other books consists of two or three sections, this book is, like the Law of God itself,

    a perfect whole. It is the only book that has an even number of Psalms. It first Psalm (107), as is the case with the first Psalms of the other books, is at once its keynote and epitome.

    Hebrew Shehith = graves, or pits (from Shahath = to destroy), occurs only here and in Lam. 4:20. The two passages, taken together, tell us that it is not merely the written Word that delivers from deep afflictions, but that the Living and Divine Word (Jesus Christ), Who was “taken in their pits,” is the alone Deliverer of His

    People from their graves.

It will be noted that Psalm 119 is characteristic of the Deuteronomy Book of the Psalms; while Psalm 84 is

    characteristic of the Leviticus Book, and Psalm 90 of the Numbers Book. We cannot imagine these as being appropriate to any other Books.

The Quickening and Sustaining Word. This is characteristic of Psalm 119. Compare vv. 25, 37, 40, 50, 88, 93,

    107, 149, 154, 156, 159 (eleven occurrences). Moreover, the verb hayah (=to breathe, to live, to continue to

    live) is used sixteen times in this Psalm, always in the sense of keeping alive or continuing in life. See the

    following Hebrew senses, Kal (Future), vv. 17, 77, 116, 144, 175. Piel (Pret.), vv. 50, 93. Piel (Imperative), vv.

    25, 37, 40, 88, 107, 149, 154, 156, 159.



    In this connection, how suitable to Hezekiah. Note the Distress, that is the subject of the first Psalm of each of the five groups of “the songs of the Degrees;” and Hezekiah‟s earnest prayer.

The Songs of the Degrees are 15 in number (Pss. 120-134, (H, page 1). They correspond in number with the 15

    years added to Hezekiah‟s life. Ten are by Hezekiah (corresponding with the number of “the Degrees” by

    which the shadow of the sun went backward on the sun-dial of Ahaz, (2 Kings 20:8-11). Five are by others (4

    by David and 1 by Solomon). Solomon‟s Psalm occupies the center (Ps. 127); and, of the 7 on either side, 2 in

    each 7 are by David; and 10 (5 in each 7) by Hezekiah.

    In each 7 the name of Jehovah occurs 24 times, and Jah once in the third Psalm of each 7. In the central Psalm Jehovah occurs 3 times.

The fifteen Psalms are arranged in five groups of 3 each. In each group, the subject of the first is Distress; the

    second is Trust in Jehovah; while the third speaks of Blessing and Peace in Zion.

They are here in fulfillment of Hezekiah‟s promise recorded in Isaiah 38:20.

    Isa 38:20

    20 "The LORD was ready to save me; therefore we will sing my songs with stringed instruments all the days of

    our life, in the house of the LORD." NKJV

    The last five Hallelujah Psalms (Pss. 146-150) (G, page 1) are an echo and reminiscence of the whole of the five books of the Psalter: -

    G J Psalm 146 GENESIS. Compare v. 4 with Gen. 2:7; v. 5 with Gen. 28; v. 6 with Gen. 1.

     K Psalm 147 EXODUS. Compare v. 4 (“names”) with Ex. 1:1; vv. 2, 20 with the building

     Up of the nation (Ex. 1:7-20); and vv. 15, 19 with Ex. 20.

     L Psalm 148 LEVITICUS. Compare v. 14 (“a People near unto Him”) with Lev. 10:3.

     K Psalm 149 NUMBERS. Compare vv. 5-9 with Num. 14:21; 24:17-24. The nations ruled

     And blessed by the Saints.

     J Psalm 150 DEUTERONOMY Compare v. 2 with Deut. 3:24.


    The number of the words that are frequently repeated in Psalm 119 has been variously given and enumerated by expositors and commentators. It will be better to give them here on the authority of the Massorah.

The rubric on verse 122 is as follows: “Through out the whole of the Great Alphabet [i.e. the Alphabetic

    Psalm, 119] there is in every verse one of the following ten expressions: Derek (=Way), „Eduth (= Testimony),

    Pikkudim (= Precepts), Mizvah (= Commandment), „Imrah (= Saying), Torah (= Law), Mishpat (=

    Judgment), Zedek, Zedakah, and Zaddik (= Righteousness), Hok, and Hukkah (= Statutes). Dabar (= Word),

    which correspond to the Ten Commandments; except one verse, in which there is none of these: viz. verse 122.”

     (Massorah, Ginsburg‟s Edition, Vol. 2).

    The following list includes all the “Ten Words” given with every occurrence in the Psalm, together with the first occurrence of each word.

    1. Way (Derek) is from darak, to tread with the feet, and denotes the act of walking. Hence it is used of a

    going, or way, or journeying. The first occurrence is found in Genesis 3:24. It occurs in this Psalm

    thirteen times: vv. 1, 3, 5, 14, 26, 27, 29, 30, 32, 33, 37, 59, 168.



    2. Testimonies (‘eduth remember the letter „is the letter yod) is from ‘ud, to turn back again, to go over

    again, to reiterate, hence, to testify. The first occurrence is found in Genesis 21:30 (edah). It occurs in

    this Psalm twenty-three times; nine times as (‘eduth), vv. 14, 31, 36, 88, 99, 111, 129, 144, 157; and

    fourteen times as (‘dah, which is fem. Singular,), vv. 2, 22, 24, 46, 59, 79, 95, 119, 125, 138, 146, 152,

    167, 168.

    3. Precepts (Pikkudim) is taken from pakad, to take oversight or charge: hence, mandates enjoined on

    others. It occurs only in the Book of Psalms (see Ps. 19:8; 103:18; 111:7). In Psalm 119 it‟s used

    twenty-one times: vv. 4, 15, 27, 40, 45, 56,63,69,78,87,93,94,100,104,110,128,134,141,159,168,173.

    4. A commandment (mizvah) is taken from zavah, to set up, constitute. Hence, constitutional commands.

    First occurrence is found in Genesis 26:5. In Psalm 119 it occurs twenty-two times: vv.

    6,10,19,21,32,35,47,48,60,66,73,86,96 (in the singular sense), 98,115,127,131,143,151,166,172,176. 5. Word (‘imrah) is from the root word ‘amar, to bring forth to light; hence, to say. The verb is very

    regularly followed by the words used; hence ‘imrah means an utterance and the purport of it. Not the

    same as dabar (which is number 10 below), which refers to the articulate utterance of it. The first

    occurrence in Scripture is found in Genesis 4:23, and is rendered “speech.” In the plural sense only

    once, Psalm 12:6 (the only place where the plural is found). In Psalm 119 it occurs nineteen times: viz.

    11,38, 41,50,58,67,76,82,103,116,123,133,140,148,154,158,162,170,172. With dabar the two occur

    forty-two times.

    6. Law (torah) is from yarah, to project, issue: hence, to point out, to show (Proverbs 6:13). Then, to

    instruct, teach. The Torah contains Jehovah‟s Instructions to His People, pointing out to them His will.

    First occurrence is found in Genesis 26:5 (plural). In Psalm 119 it occurs twenty-five times: always in

    the singular sense: viz. vv1, 18, 29, 34, 44, 51, 53, 55, 61, 70, 72, 77, 85, 92, 97, 109, 113, 126, 136, 142,

    150, 153, 163, 165, 174.

    7. Judgment (Mishpat) is from the word shaphat, to set upright, erect (compare the English word right,

    and the German word richten and recht); hence, to judge. The word Mishpat means judgment. Its first

    occurrence is found in Genesis 18:19 (in Jehovah‟s mouth). In Psalm 119 it occurs twenty-three times

    (always in the plural, except four times), viz.: vv. 7, 13, 20, 30, 39, 43, 52, 62, 75, 84, 91 (ordinances),

    102, 106, 108, 120, 121, 132 (as thou usest to do), 137, 149, 156, 160, 164, 175.

    8. Righteousness, Right, &c. (Zedek, in the masc. Sense), is from the word zadak, to be right, upright,

    just, righteous. Hence the noun of this word means rightness. By comparing the first occurrence

    (Leviticus 19:15) with the second (Leviticus 19:36) we get the idea that the word has special reference

    to equal balancing. The word Zedek (masc.) occurs twelve times, and is rendered as “righteousness:” vv.

    123, 142 (second), and 144, 172; “right,” v. 75 (in the marg. its righteousness); “righteous,” vv. 7, 62,

    106, 138, 160, 164; “justice,” v. 121. Zedakah (fem.), first occurrence, is found in Genesis 15:6. In

    Psalm 119, “righteousness,” vv. 40, 142 (first). Zaddik (adjective), spoken of a king (2 Samuel 23:3),

    once, in v. 137. The three words fifteen times in all.

    9. Stature (hok and hukka) is taken from the word hakak, to hew, cut in, engrave, inscribe; hence, to

    decree, or ordain. The noun = a decree or ordinance. First occurrence, Gen. 26:5 (Hukkah fem.). In Ps.

    119 it occurs twenty-two times: viz: vv. 5, 8, 12, 16 (Hukkah, fem.), 23, 26, 33, 48, 54, 64, 68, 71, 80,

    83, 112, 117, 118, 124, 135, 145, 155, 171.

    10. Word, Words (dabar), is from dabar, to arrange in a row; hence, to set forth in speech. It refers to the

    articulate form of what is said, whether spoken or written (cp. #5 above); to the mode or manner by

    which the ipsissima verba are imparted. The first occurrence is in Gen. 11:1 (“speech”). In Ps. 119 it

    occurs twenty-four times, three of them in pl., vv. 9, 16, 17, 25, 28, 42 (twice), 43, 49, 57 (pl), 65, 74, 81,

    89, 101, 105, 107, 114, 130, (pl), 139 (pl.), 147, 160, 161,169.



Ps 107:1-43

    107:1 Thanksgiving to the LORD for His Great Works of Deliverance Oh, give thanks to the LORD, for He is good! For His mercy endures forever. 2 Let the redeemed of the LORD

    say so, Whom He has redeemed from the hand of the enemy, 3 and gathered out of the lands, from the east and from the west, from the north and from the south. 4 They wandered in the wilderness in a desolate way; they found no city to dwell in. 5 Hungry and thirsty, their soul fainted in them. 6 Then they cried out to the LORD in their trouble, And He delivered them out of their distresses. 7 And He led them forth by the right way, which they might go to a city for a dwelling place. 8 Oh, that men would give thanks to the LORD for His goodness, And for His wonderful works to the children of men! 9 For He satisfies the longing soul, and fills the hungry soul with goodness. 10 Those who sat in darkness and in the shadow of death, Bound in affliction and irons --

    11 Because they rebelled against the words of God, And despised the counsel of the Most High, 12 Therefore

    He brought down their heart with labor; They fell down, and there was none to help. 13 Then they cried out to

    the LORD in their trouble, And He saved them out of their distresses. 14 He brought them out of darkness and the shadow of death, and broke their chains in pieces. 15 Oh, that men would give thanks to the LORD for His goodness, And for His wonderful works to the children of men! 16 For He has broken the gates of bronze, and

     Fools, because of their transgression, And because of their iniquities, were cut the bars of iron in two. 17

    afflicted. 18 Their soul abhorred all manner of food, and they drew near to the gates of death. 19 Then they

    cried out to the LORD in their trouble, And He saved them out of their distresses. 20 He sent His word and

     Oh, that men would give thanks to the LORD for healed them, and delivered them from their destructions. 21

    His goodness And for His wonderful works to the children of men! 22 Let them sacrifice the sacrifices of thanksgiving, and declare His works with rejoicing. 23 Those who go down to the sea in ships, who do business on great waters, 24 they see the works of the LORD, And His wonders in the deep. 25 For He commands and

    raises the stormy wind, which lifts up the waves of the sea. 26 They mount up to the heavens, they go down again to the depths; their soul melts because of trouble. 27 They reel to and fro, and stagger like a drunken man, and are at their wits' end. 28 Then they cry out to the LORD in their trouble, And He brings them out of their

     Then they are glad because they are quiet; so He distresses. 29 He calms the storm, So that its waves are still. 30

    guides them to there desired haven. 31 Oh, that men would give thanks to the LORD for His goodness, And for His wonderful works to the children of men! 32 Let them exalt Him also in the assembly of the people, and praise Him in the company of the elders. 33 He turns rivers into a wilderness, and the water springs into dry ground; 34 A fruitful land into barrenness, for the wickedness of those who dwell in it. 35 He turns a wilderness

    into pools of water, and dry land into water springs. 36 There He makes the hungry dwell, that they may establish a city for a dwelling place, 37 and sow fields and plant vineyards, that they may yield a fruitful harvest. 38 He also blesses them, and they multiply greatly; And He does not let their cattle decrease. 39 When they are diminished and brought low Through oppression, affliction and sorrow, 40 He pours

    contempt on princes, And causes them to wander in the wilderness where there is no way; 41 Yet He sets the

    poor on high, far from affliction, And makes their families like a flock. 42 The righteous see it and rejoice, and all iniquity stops its mouth. 43 Whoever is wise will observe these things, and they will understand the loving kindness of the LORD. NKJV

    Psalm 107:1-43 (A-1, page 1) THE DELIVERING AND HEALING, OR LIVING WORD. A-1 B Ps. 107:1-3 Praise for Jehovah‟s loving-kindness.

     C Ps. 107:4-32 Distress and Deliverance.

     C Ps. 107:33-41 Judgment and Blessing.

     C Ps. 107:42, 43 Praise for Jehovah‟s loving kindness.

The first Psalm of Book 5. This book contains fifteen by David, one by Solomon (127), and the rest anonymous

    (probably by Hezekiah), certainly not later than his day.



    107:1. The Lord. Hebrew Jehovah. Mercy = loving kindness, or grace; as in v. 43.

    107:2. Redeemed. Hebrew ga’al, to redeem by purchase. See Exodus 6:6, and compare Exodus 13:13. Hand.

    Put by Figure of Speech Metonymy (of Cause), for the power exercised by it. Enemy = adversary, or strait


    107:3. Gathered. This is the subject of this last book. Gathered by His Word; and according to His Word. The

    lands, &c. Figure of Speech Topographia, for emphasis. The Psalm looks forward to the final ingathering of the

    Nation of Israel. South = sea: i.e. the Red Sea.

Ps 107:1-3

    The fifth book in the fivefold division includes several smaller collections or groups of psalms. The Psalms of

    Ascents (120-134) and the Hallelujah (Psalms 111-113,115-117,146-148-149-150) are evidently the nucleus

    around which the other psalms were grouped together. Prior to the fivefold division, there was probably a

    threefold arrangement in which Books IV and V were one large collection. An over-all liturgical purpose is

    evident throughout, resulting in a deep sense of public worship, which culminates in the closing words of Ps

    150: "Let everything that hath breath praise the Lord. Hallelujah!"

    Ps 105, 106, and 107 constitute a trilogy of praise and thanksgiving, in spite of the book division here. The different character of verses 33-42 has suggested too many that this passage was added later. The differences in ontent and style make this suggestion plausible although not mandatory. c

    (From The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1962 by Moody Press) Ps 107:1-3

    Verse 1-3. The Call to Thanksgiving. O give thanks unto the Lord. The recipients of this call are the redeemed of the Lord. Isa 62:12 uses this term to apply to the captives returning from Babylon, but a wider usage of the

    term may well be meant.

Psalm 107:4-32 (C, page 5) DISTRESS AND DELIVERANCE.

    C F-1 Ps. 107:4, 5 Trouble. Wanderers. (Wilderness).

     G-1 Ps. 107:6- Cry.

     H-1 Ps. 107:-6, 7 Deliverance.

     J-1 Ps. 107:8, 9 Praise, and Reason.

     F-2 Ps. 107:10-12 Trouble. Rebels.

     G-2 Ps. 107:13- Cry.

     H-2 Ps. 107:-13, 14 Deliverance.

     J-2 Ps. 107:15, 16 Praise, and Reason.

     F-3 Ps. 107:17, 18 Trouble. Fools.

     G-3 Ps. 107:19- Cry.

     H-3 Ps. 107:-19, 20 Deliverance.

     J-3 Ps. 107:21, 22 Praise, and Injunction.

     F-4 Ps. 107:23-27 Trouble. Wanderers on Deep.

     G-4 Ps. 107:28- Cry.

     H-4 Ps. 107:-28-30 Deliverance.

     J-4 Ps. 107:31, 32 Praise, and Injunction.

Ps 107:4-32

    The Reasons for Thanksgiving. They wandered ... cried unto the Lord ... and he led them forth. The psalmist

    uses four vivid illustrations of God's deliverances to reinforce his call to thanksgiving. After each incident he repeats the call in the form of an interjection. This fourfold refrain keeps central the theme of thanksgiving. God's care over lost travelers (vv. 4-9), over captives (vv. 10-16), over the sick (vv. 17-22), and over

    seafarers (vv. 23-32) calls for thankful remembrance. In each instance, the author describes the helpless condition of those in trouble, their cry to God, and the deliverance He gives.



Psalms 107: The division between Book 4 and 5 of the Psalter is late and improperly placed: Psalms 107, with

    its allusions to earlier traditions, belongs with Psalms 103-107. Furthermore, the opening of Psalms 107,

    Praise the Lord, for He is good; His steadfast love is eternal!” connects it to Psalms 105 and 106; the

    connection is even more striking if the word “Hallelujah” is restored at the beginning of the psalm, following the LXX. The last verse clarifies the psalm‟s purpose: The wise man will take note of these things; he will consider the steadfast love of the Lord, namely that these beneficent events reflect God‟s steadfast love or

    hesed” (see 5:8).

    The psalm may be divided into two large units: verses 1-32 and 33-43; several scholars believe that two originally separate psalms have been combined. In contrast to the latter unit, the former, after an introduction

    (verse 1-3), is divided into stanzas (verses 4-9; 10-16; 17-22; 23-32), each of which has the double refrain In

    their adversity they cried to the Lord, / and He rescued them from their troubles (verses 6, 13, 19, 28) and Let

    them praise the Lord for His steadfast love, / His wondrous deeds for mankind (verses 8, 15, 21, 31), followed

    in each stanza by a single, concluding verse.

This section shares many motifs with Job. The psalm shows some signs of late biblical Hebrew and verses 1-2

    are likely influenced by Isaiah 62:12 and 43:5; it is thus a postexilic psalm. The Rabbis used this psalm as the basis for requiring a special blessing thanking God from those who survived the desert, those released from

    prison, seafarers, and those who were seriously ill (Talmud b. Ber. 54b). 1-2: Compare the opening of (Psalms

    118). 2-3: A reference to the return from the Babylonian exile.

107:4-9 Deliverance in the wilderness, symbolizing the difficulties of the exile and the return. The theme of

    God‟s care in the wilderness became particularly important in the early postexilic period as the return from

    Babylonia was viewed by Deutero-Isaiah as a second exodus (see Isaiah 43:16-21). The Targum through its additions (verse 4, “He [David, author of Psalms] is prophesying concerning His nation Israel;” (cf. verse 10

    “concerning Zedekiah…”) makes it clear that this psalm is to be read in reference to specific events in Israel‟s

    past. Jewish Study Bible

107:7. He led them forth. When this is the case, the way is always “right.” The right way. Because it is His

    way: not the shortest, or most direct, or most pleasant; but it is the way of Grace and Favor. It is the way of

    Trial (Deuteronomy 8:2-4); the way of Safety; the way of Divine Provision and Miraculous Supplies; and it

    ends “right.” th book. All blessing is bound up in 107:20. He sent His Word = He sends. This is the keynote to the whole 5

    this. Note the prophetic reference to Jesus Christ, the Living Word (Psalm 119).

    107:23. They that go down, &c. In the Hebrew text, vv. 23-28 is marked by “inverted Nuns” (i.e. the Hebrew

    letter Nun (N), inverted). There are nine altogether (Ref. See Ginsburg‟s Massorah, 15, Vol. 2, page 259).

    There are two in Numbers 10:35, 36, and seven in this Psalm. Verses 23-28 each have one; also v. 40. These

    inverted letters are used as our [“brackets” are], to indicate that, in the opinion of the Sopherim (translators),

    the verses so marked should be transposed. But this is only an opinion, arrived at from not seeing the Structure of the Psalm, which, when examined, leaves nothing “inexplicable”, as the transition from v. 38 to v. 39 is said

    to be.

Psalm 107:33-41 (C, page 5) JUDGMENT AND BLESSING.

    C M Ps. 107:33, 34 Judgment.

     N Ps. 107:35-38 Loving kindness.

     M Ps. 107:39, 40 Judgment.

     N Ps. 107:41 Loving kindness.



    -22: Two general 107:10-16: Verse 10 is a reference to the exile; verse 14 to a release from exile. 17

    descriptions of those who are being punished for misdeeds, they too will be forgiven. (21-26, 40). Each of these

    verses begins with an inverted Hebrew letter “nun,” adapted from a sign used in Greek manuscript editing, to indicate that lines are isolated or separated from the surrounding material (the same indication occurs in Numbers 10:35-36), but their use here is enigmatic.

23-32: The stanza, longer than the others, deals with the dangers of sailing (see Jonah Chapters 1-2). 32: This

    clarifies that “praise” must be public; although the temple is a natural site for this, an assembly of the elders is

    not elsewhere associated with the Temple. 33-36: These verses concerning the return to Israel, hark back to verses 4-9, and show close affinities to Deutero-Isaiah. Jewish Study Bible

107:35. And. Note the Figure of Speech Polysyndeton in vv. 35-38, emphasizing each item that goes to make

    up the fullness of blessing.

    107:38. Suffered not, &c. The Figure of Speech Tapeinosis = will abundantly multiply.

    107:39. Again, &c. So far from the transition from v. 38 to 39 being “inexplicable,” or v. 40 being an

    interpolation,” the perfection of the repetition of the subject (“judgment”) is shown by the Structure above.

    107:40. In the wilderness, where there is no way = a pathless waste. Wilderness. Hebrew tohu. Rendered

    without form” in Genesis 1:2, describing what “the world that then was” had become by the disruption.

Ps 107:33-43

    The Providence of God. He turned rivers into a wilderness ... wilderness into a standing water. These verses

    describe the blessings and curses apparent in God's rule of nature and mankind. They may serve as a general conclusion drawn from the more particular situations described in verses 4-32. However, the illustrations given are quite different from those of previous passages. This fact, plus the lack of any note of thanksgiving, the

    didactic purpose, the emphasis upon wisdom in the closing verse, and the lack of any refrain, certainly

    suggests that these verses were designed for a separate occasion.

    (From The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1962 by Moody Press)

“The wise man will take note of these things; he will consider the steadfast love of the Lord.”

     Kethuvim Psalm 107:43 Tanakh The Holy Scriptures.

107:37-39 Blessings in the land. 40-42: A qualifier, using typical psalmic language, noting that only the needy

    and upright prosper. 43: In several places, the steadfast love of the Lord seems to be a technical term for the past beneficent acts of God in history (89:2; Isaiah 63:7). Jewish Study Bible

Ps 108:1-13

    108:1 Assurance of God's Victory over Enemies (Ps 57:7-11; 60:5-12) A Song. A Psalm of David.

    O God, my heart is steadfast; I will sing and give praise, even with my glory. 2 Awake, lute and harp! I will awaken the dawn. 3 I will praise You, O LORD, among the peoples, and I will sing praises to You among the

    nations. 4 For Your mercy is great above the heavens, And Your truth reaches to the clouds. 5 Be exalted, O

    God, above the heavens, and Your glory above all the earth; 6 that Your beloved may be delivered, Save with Your right hand, and hear me. 7 God has spoken in His holiness: "I will rejoice; I will divide Shechem and measure out the Valley of Succoth. 8 Gilead is Mine; Manasseh is Mine; Ephraim also is the helmet for My head; Judah is My lawgiver. 9 Moab is My wash pot; Over Edom I will cast My shoe; Over Philistia I will triumph." 10 Who will bring me into the strong city? Who will lead me to Edom? 11 Is it not You, O God, who cast us off? And You, O God, who did not go out with our armies? 12 Give us help from trouble, for the help of man is useless. 13 Through God we will do valiantly, for it is He who shall tread down our enemies.




Psalm 108:1-13 (E-1, page 1) THE TRUE DAVID‟S DELIVERANCE.

    E-1 S Ps. 108:1-6 God spoken to. Prayer.

     T Ps. 108:7, 8 Israel. God spoken of.

     U Ps. 108:9, 10 Enemies.

     S Ps. 108:11, 12 God spoken to. Prayer.

     T Ps. 108:13- Israel. God spoken of.

     U Ps. 108:-13 Enemies.

Of David. Pss. 108-110 relate to the true David (Jesus Christ), and His humiliation, deliverance, and triumph.

    The first of fifteen Davidic Psalms in this fifth book. This subject appears in each book as the root and source

    of all blessing. Instead of a new Psalm being written for this subject here, a composite Psalm is formed by a

    combination of parts of Pss. 57:7-11 and 60:5-12.

    108:1. My glory. Put by Figure of Speech Metonymy (of Effect), for the heart or tongue that gives the glory.

Ps 108:1-13

    In this psalm are combined a hymn and a lament, both of which are found in other psalms. Verses 1-5 occur

    lso in Ps 57:7-11, while vearses 6-13 are found in Ps 60:5-12 with only minor variations. Since the divine

    name Yahweh is used in verse 3 rather than the ('Adonay) of Ps 57, the present psalmist undoubtedly drew his

    material from the two earlier works. Perhaps the combination was formed to meet the needs of a new historical

    situation. (Cf. the previously mentioned psalms for further comments.)

Thus the psalm, though made up of parts of two separate psalms, is complete and continuous in itself. There is

    no break or discrepancy in the current of thought, but the unity is as perfect as though it had been an original composition. It is to be remarked, also, that though in the original psalms the parts which are used here have a different connection, and are separately complete there, yet as employed here, they seem to be exactly suited to

    the new use which is made of the language; and though the original "reasons" for the use of the language do not

    appear here, yet there is a sufficient reason for that language apparent in the psalm as rearranged.

    To an Israelite, also, there might be a new interest in the use of the language in the fact that words with which he was familiar, as employed for other purposes, "could" be thus combined, and made applicable to a new

    occasion in the national history.

    (From Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1997 by Biblesoft)

Psalms 108: After a unique superscription, verses 2-6 duplicate 57:8-12 and verses 7-14 duplicate 60:7-14. As

    in other cases (see Psalms 13 Introduction), there are slight variations in these duplicates, suggesting that there was some flexibility in the transmission of passages. It is not clear why these two passages should be joined in this fashion, but it is noteworthy that verse 7, the first verse from the second passage, serves as a logical

    continuation of (verse 6).

    108:6 is a request, and in its new home, verse 7 offers the motivation or justification for that request. The result of the join fits the structure of communal petitions. The reuse of sections from one passage to create a new passage was accepted practice in the ancient world (see Isaiah 2:2-4). For medieval commentators, the

    problem of repeated passages was more severe. Radak, for example glosses: “and he [David] repeated it here,

    and we do not know why.” On specific verses, see the notes to Psalms 57 and 60. Jewish Study Bible



Ps 109:1-31

    109:1 Plea for Judgment of False Accusers. To the Chief Musician. A Psalm of David.

    Do not keep silent, O God of my praise! 2 For the mouth of the wicked and the mouth of the deceitful have opened against me; they have spoken against me with a lying tongue. 3 They have also surrounded me with words of hatred, and fought against me without a cause. 4 In return for my love they are my accusers, but I give myself to prayer. 5 Thus they have rewarded me evil for good, and hatred for my love. 6 Set a wicked man over him, and let an accuser stand at his right hand. 7 When he is judged, let him be found guilty, and let his prayer become sin. 8 Let his days be few, and let another take his office. 9 Let his children be fatherless, and his wife a widow. 10 Let his children continually be vagabonds, and beg; Let them seek their bread also from their

    desolate places. 11 Let the creditor seize all that he has, and let strangers plunder his labor. 12 Let there be none

    to extend mercy to him, nor let there be any to favor his fatherless children. 13 Let his posterity be cut off, and in the generation following let their name be blotted out. 14 Let the iniquity of his fathers be remembered before the LORD, and let not the sin of his mother be blotted out. 15 Let them be continually before the LORD, That

     because he did not remember to show mercy, but He may cut off the memory of them from the earth; 16

    persecuted the poor and needy man, that he might even slay the broken in heart. 17 As he loved cursing, so let it come to him; as he did not delight in blessing, so let it be far from him. 18 As he clothed himself with cursing as with his garment, so let it enter his body like water, And like oil into his bones. 19 Let it be to him like the garment that covers him, And for a belt with which he girds himself continually. 20 Let this be the LORD's

    reward to my accusers, And to those who speak evil against my person. 21 But You, O GOD the Lord, Deal with me for Your name's sake; because Your mercy is good, deliver me. 22 For I am poor and needy, and my heart is wounded within me. 23 I am gone like a shadow when it lengthens; I am shaken off like a locust. 24 My

    knees are weak through fasting, and my flesh is feeble from lack of fatness. 25 I also have become a reproach to them; when they look at me, they shake their heads. 26 Help me, O LORD my God! Oh, save me according to Your mercy, 27 that they may know that this is Your hand --That You, LORD, have done it! 28 Let them curse,

    but You bless; When they arise, let them be ashamed, But let Your servant rejoice. 29 Let my accusers be

     I will greatly clothed with shame, and let them cover themselves with their own disgrace as with a mantle. 30

    praise the LORD with my mouth; Yes, I will praise Him among the multitude. 31 For He shall stand at the right hand of the poor, to save him from those who condemn him. NKJV


    E-2 D Ps. 109:1-5 Prayer for himself.

     F Ps. 109:6-15 Enemies. They‟re cursing.

     H Ps. 109:16-20 Reward of those who curse his soul.

     D Ps. 109:21-27 Prayer for himself.

     F Ps. 109:28, 29 Enemies. They‟re cursing.

     H Ps. 109:30, 31 Deliverance from those who condemn his soul.

109:1. Of. Genitive of Relation: i.e. Whom I praise. Compare Deuteronomy 10:21.

Deut 10:21

    21 He is thy praise, and he is thy God, that hath done for thee these great and terrible things, which thine eyes

    have seen. KJV

    109:3. Without a cause. Compare John 15:25.

John 15:25

    25 But this cometh to pass, that the word might be fulfilled that is written in their law, they hated me without a

    cause. KJV


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