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Unit_2_Sentence

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Unit_2_Sentence

    Unit 2 Sentence

    Objectives: 1) to know the types of sentences.

     2) to know what effective sentences are.

     3) to identify common errors in sentences.

     4) master the sentence skills and use them in writing.

1. Types of Sentences

1.1 Classification by Structure

    A. Simple简单句

     e.g. I enjoy playing tennis with my friends every weekend.

     I enjoy playing tennis and look forward to it every weekend.

     My friends and I play tennis and go bowling every weekend. B. Compound并列句

     e.g. I enjoy playing tennis, but I hate playing golf.by using a coordinating conjunction

     I enjoy playing tennis; however, I hate playing golf. (by using a sentence connector)

     I enjoy playing tennis; I have playing golf. (by using a semicolon) C. Complex复合句

     e.g. Although I enjoy playing tennis, I hate golf.

     I hate golf although I enjoy playing tennis.

    D. Compound-complex并列复合句

     e.g. I hate playing golf, but I enjoy playing tennis even though I am not very good at it.

     If students wish to park in the campus parking lots, they must pay for a permit, or the

    campus police will tag their cars.

    1.2 Classification by Communicative Function

    A. Declarative陈述句

    e.g. We looked upon our youth as the future of our motherland.

    I havent finished my work yet.

    B. Interrogative疑问句

     e.g. Is there going to be a film tonight? What is ecology? C. Imperative 祈使句

     e.g. Go on reading Lesson Six. Lets talk about it any more.

    D. Exclamatory感叹句

     e.g. What a long time we have been waiting! What a polluted lake that is!

    Pay attention to: a. Capitalize the initial letter of a sentence.

     b. Use full stop, question mark, or exclamation mark to end a sentence.

2. Sentence Patterns

2.1 Five BasicSentence Patterns

    1. SV (S=subject主语; V=verb谓语动词)

    e.g. The students work very hard. The river rolls to the sea.

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2. SVC C=complement补足语?

    e.g. He is one of my students. Tom was elected chairman of the committee.

    3. SVO O=object宾语?

    e.g. The students wrote an excellent essay. I cut myself.

    4. SVOiOd Oi=indirect object间接宾语!Od=direct object直接宾语?

     e.g. We gave the classroom an thorough cleaning.

     Her husband brought her a handsome present.

    5. SVOC

     e.g. The cold weather is turning the leaves yellow.

     Everyone reported him to be the best man for the job.

    2.2 Twenty-Four Verb Patterns

    1) SV + direct object

     e.g. The villagers like the new doctor. I cannot express myself in English. 2) SV + (not) to infinitive

    e.g. We must try to get everything ready in time.

     I am to attend the meeting next week.

    I hoped not to keep you waiting more than a minute.

    They seemed not to understand it.

    常用于这句型的动词有,attempt, dare, decide, desire, expect, hope, intend, learn, need, offer, pretend,

    promise, propose, purpose, refuse, want, wish等。

    3) SV + noun/pronoun + (not ) to infinitive

     e.g. I asked the children not to make too much noise.

     They encouraged me to learn English by radio.

    常用于这句型的动词有,advice, allow, ask, beg, cause, choose, command, decide, encourage, expect, force, get, hate, invite, know, leave, like, love, order, permit, persuade, prefer, remain, request, teach, tell, want,

    warn, wish等。

    4) SV + noun/pron. + (to be) + complement

     e.g. Everyone reported him (to be ) the best man for the job.

     Do you think him (to be) the best student in our class? 5) SV + noun/pron. + infinitive(without to)

     e.g. He didnt notice anyone enter the room.

     I listened to him repeat what Mrs. Smith had said the day before.

    常用于这句型的动词有,feel, have, hear, know, let, listen to, look at, make, notice, see, watch等。

    6) SV + noun/pron. + -ing participle

     e.g. We saw him walking along the street.

     When I came home, I heard her practicing singing in my room.

    常用于这句型的动词有,catch, feel, find, get, have, hear, imagine, keep, leave, listen to, look at, notice,

    observe, perceive, see, set, smell, start, watch等。

    7) SV + object + adjective

     e.g. We found the house empty. The gate was painted white. 常用于这句型的动词有,beat, boil, cut, drive, find, get, hold, keep, leave, like, make, paint, see, set, turn, want,

    wash, wipe, wish等。

    8) SV + object + noun

     e.g. We chose him our monitor. The baby was named Tom.

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    常用于这句型的动词有,appoint, call, choose, elect, entitle, find, make, name, nominate(命名?。

    9) SV + object + past participle

     e.g. We found her greatly changed. He did not make his voice heard. 10) SV + object + adverb, prepositional phrase, etc.

    e.g. He took his coat off. He put the book on the table.

     The Chinese people are working hard in order to build China into a still stronger socialist

    county.

    11) SV + that clause

     e.g. I believe (that) you have done your best. I dont suppose (that ) its the rush hour yet.

    常用于这句型的动词有,admit, believe, command, confess, declare, demand, deny, doubt, expect, explain, feel(觉得?, hear;听说?, hope, imagine, intend, know, mean, mind;当心?, notice, propose, request, report, say, see;看出??show, suggest, suppose, think, understand, wish, wonder(觉得奇怪?。

    12) SV + noun/pron + that clause

     e.g. My secretary reminded me that I had a meeting to attend that evening.

     We satisfied ourselves that the plan would work.

    常用于这句型的动词有,assure, inform, promise, remind, teach, tell, warm等。

    13) SV + conjunctive + to infinitive

     e.g. We shall learn how to use the meter. He cannot decide what time to leave. 14) SV+ noun/pron + conjunctive + to infinitive

     e.g. Will you show me how to operate the machine?

     He will tell you when to begin the work.

    15) SV + wh-words clause

     e.g. I wonder whether the material is heat-resistant.

     Does he know when she will return from abroad?

    常用于这句型的动词有,ask, consider, decide, discover, explain, find out, forget, guess, inquire, know, learn, observe, remember, see, settle, tell, think, understand, wonder等。

    16) SV + noun/pron + wh-words clause

     e.g. He told me how they had put the plan into practice.

     She asked me where I was off to.

    常用于这句型的动词有,advise, ask, inform, show, teach, tell.

    17) SV + -ing participle

     e.g. I remember meeting him a year ago.

     These machines want taking care of.

    常用于这句型的动词有,admit, advise, avoid, consider, defend, enjoy, excuse, finish, forbid, mind, miss, practise, risk, suggest, give up, can't help等。

    18) SV + direct object + to/for + object

     e.g. He offered a Chinese-English dictionary to me.

     My mother bought a new jacket for me yesterday.

     Dont throw stones at the dog.

    间接宾语前需要加to 的常用动词有,allow, bring, deny, do(带来?? give, grant, hand, leave, lend, offer, owe, pass, pay, permit, promise, read, refuse, render, restore, sell, send, show, teach, tell wish, write等。

    间接宾语前需要加for 的常用动词有,bring, buy, cash, choose, fetch, get, leave, make, order, paint, play(演奏??save, sing, spare等。

    19) SV + indirect object + direct object

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     e.g. Will you lend me some money? Her husband bought her a new dress.

     My teacher asked me a question.

    20) SV + (for) + complement

     e.g. The meeting lasted five hours. We waited (for) more than two days. 21) SV

     e.g. The clock doesnt work. The sun rose.

    22) SV + predicative

    e.g. He is a teacher. The leaves have turned read.

    除了be 系动词外?还有一些动词也可以用作系动词?1)表感官的动词?feel, smell, taste, sound, look,

    appear, seem 等。2) 表转变变化的动词?become, get, grow, turn, go,等。 3)表延续的动词 remain, keep, seem,

    hold, stay, rest等。4)表瞬时的动词 come, fall, set, cut, occur 5)其他动词 eat, lie, prove, ring, run, shine, sit,

    stand, continue, hang等。

    23) SV + adverbial adjunct

    e.g. The sun sets in the west. They will come as soon as they are ready. 24) SV + prep + prepositional object

     e.g. You may count on my help. He succeeded in solving the problem.

Task 1 Correct the following sentences:

    1. I read the letter and placed it.

    2. He didnt do his homework made his mother angry.

    3. Come with me and you will help me do the work.

    4. Yesterday the storm destroyed my house and I was out.

    5. The wind is so strong.

    6. The building had the appearance of being renovated.

    7. The boy said he was too short to reach the book and would I get it for him? 8. The thief ran out of the house and then turns at the corner and disappears. 9. He went away and a book was taken with him.

    10. Imagination is always endless, some of which are really above reality.

3 Short and Long Sentences

    3.1 Short Sentence

    Consider the following paragraph:

    Example 1 I returned to my room. There was a note under my door. It was from Bill. He said he was in the town looking for a job. He hadnt found anything yet. He was sorry to have missed me.

     ?When I returned to my room, I found a note from Bill under the door. He said he was in the town looking for a job, but hadnt found anything yet. He added that he was sorry to have missed me.

    Example 2 That day it was very cold. A fierce wind was blowing. It was snowing hard.

    ?With a heavy snow and a fierce wind, it was really a cold day. Example 3 Wang stood there before us. He talked in a low voice. His voice was earnest. We felt in him sincerity and dedication. These qualities are not common to ordinary men.

    ?As Wang stood before us talking in his low but earnest voice, we felt in him sincerity and dedication not common to ordinary men.

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Task 2 Rewrite the following paragraph to make it clearer.

    Some working women find special ways to cope with resistance from their husbands. Take my mothers situation. She is a teacher. My father is a fine old Southern gentleman. He is opposed to her teaching. He was raised on old-fashioned beliefs. He thinks men should work and women should stay at home. He wouldnt object to her job if the family needed a second income. We dont need it. But my mother likes her job and wont give it up. So theyve solved the problem by

    making an agreement: He buys the necessities, and she buys the luxuries.

The following is for your reference to Task 2.

    Some working women find special ways to cope with resistance from their husbands. Take my mother, who teaches. My father, a fine old Southern gentleman, opposes her teaching because he was raised to believe that men should work and women should stay at home unless the family needed a second income. Though our family doesnt need a second income, my mother likes her

    job and wont give it up. To solve the problem, they have agreed that he buys the necessities, and she buys the luxuries.

3.2 Combined Use of Short and Long Sentences

    Example 1 Ultimately, it is not for our teams, our schools, or our coaches that we players love to score, but for ourselves.

    ?Ultimately, it is not for our teams, our schools, or our coaches that we players love to score. It is

    for ourselves.

    Example 2 Ancient Greek philosopher Diogenes wrote

     The rich man believes he possesses his big house, his expensive clothes, his horses and servants and his bank accounts. He does not. He depends on them. He worries about them. They possess him. He is their slave.

    Example 3 Then, suddenly, all of the young people were up out of their seats, screaming and shouting and crying, doing small dances of joy. All except Vingo.

    Example 4 They damage almost everything of ours, from books to clothes, from toothpaste to cases. They affect our normal life, ruin our happy school days. They are our great enemy.

    Example 5 The traveler came up to an old gray building and climbed the stairs leading to the second floor. He stopped in front of a room with the number 5 printed on its door, took out an old envelope from his black handbag, checked the address written on it and put it back in his bag. Then he rang the bell.

Consider the following example from Tess of the Durbervilles by Thomas Hardy.

     She (Tess) was embarrassed to discover that excitement at the proximity of Mr. Clares breath

    and eyes, which she had contemned蔑视in her companions, was intensified in herself

3.3 Ways to Combine Short Sentences:

    Consider the sentences: 1. Mechanical energy can be changed into electrical energy. Electrical energy can be changed into mechanical energy as well.

    (Rewrite)

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1. Compound sentence

     e.g. 1a. Residents reported a huge flying saucer. It was only a hole in the clouds.

     1b. Residents reported a huge flying saucer, but it was only a hole in the clouds.

     2a. John is coming here tomorrow. You might as well come with him.

     2b. John is coming here tomorrow, so you might as well come with him. 2. Simple sentence

     e.g. 1a. We should scorn difficulties strategically. We should pay full attention to them tactically (战术上).

     1b. We should scorn difficulties strategically but pay full attention to them tactically.

     2a. The parade went past the square. It looked like a river.

     2b. The parade went past the square and looked like a river. 3. Complex sentence

     e.g. 1a. I entered the store. A little camera caught my eye.

     1b. As I entered the store, a little camera caught my eye.

     2a. My uncle has just received a research grant. He is a chemist.

     2b. My uncle, who is a chemist, has just received a research grant. 4. ing/-ed participle

    e.g. 1a. We adopted this method. Our team raised the average yield by 40 percent.

    1b. Adopting this method, our team raised the average yield by 40 percent.

    2a. She was moved by his sincerity. She finally accepted his offer.

    2b. Moved by his sincerity, she finally accepted his offer. 5. Prepositional phrase

    e.g. 1a. He is a responsible man. He has his shortcomings.

    1b. He is a responsible man in spite of his shortcomings.

    2a. Tom is relaxing. He has had a hard day on the farm.

    2b. Tom is relaxing after a hard day on the farm.

    6. A part of predicate ;谓语的一部分?

    e.g. 1a. Her answer came. It was a quick and sharp one.

    1b. Her answer came quick and sharp.

    2a. Tom sat down on a box. He was discouraged.

    2b. Tom sat down on a box discouraged.

    3a. He rose from the table. He seemed to be a sort of hero.

    3b. He rose from the table a sort of hero.

    7. With + complex object复合宾语)

     e.g. 1a. So many cars were coming and going in the street.

     1b. The street with so many cars coming and going was unexpectedly quiet.

     2a. Zhejiang is noted for its tea. Longjing is the best.

     2b. Zhejiang is noted for its tea with Longing being the best.

     3a. He left home. His wife became a hopeless soul.

     3b. He left home with his wife a hopeless soul.

    8. Absolute construction ;独立结构?

     e.g. 1a. He lay there half asleep. His head was on the arm of his seat.

     1b. He lay there half asleep, his head on the arm of his seat.

     2a. John was sick. Henry had to do the work.

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     2b. John being sick, Henry had to do the work.

     3a. The woman lay on the couch. Her face was covered with a cloth.

     3b. The woman lay on the couch, her face covered with a cloth.

    9. Compound adjective;复合形容词?

     e.g. 1a. He wore a thin shirt. The shirt can be seen through.

     1b. He wore a see-through shirt.

     2a. There was an air on his face. His facial expressions suggested I told you so.

     2b. There was an I-told-you-so air on his face.

3.4 Issues in Sentence-Making

    A. Length of a sentence

    Example: On hearing the peddlers小贩cry, I put down the book I had been reading and went to

    the balcony, where I saw a lot of people with small basins in their hands rushing to the peddler, around whom people began to jostle推挤with each other and finally lined up into a long queue.

     ?I was reading a book when a peddlers cry came into my ear. Putting the book aside, I went

    to the balcony. Down below, I saw many people rushing to the peddler with small basins in their hands. A large crowd began to jostle around the peddler, and finally lined up into a long queue.

B. Logic in a sentence

    Examples: 1a. Entering the room, nobody was found in it.

     1b. Entering the room, I found nobody in it.

     2a. I read in todays New York Times about a position with your company for which I

    am applying.

     2b. I am applying for the position with your company which I read about in todays

    New York Times.

    Task 3 Try to find the problems in the following paragraph and rewrite it. (The following paragraph is an example of over-coordination, or writing with too many compound sentences.)

    th John F. Kennedy was the 35 President of the United States, and he was born in Brookline, Massachusetts in 1917. His father was Ambassador to England, so he was exposed to politics at an early age. Kennedy decided to enter the political arena竞技场, so he ran for Congress from

    Massachusetts, and he was elected to the Senate in 1953. His term ended in 1960, for he was elected President that same year at the age of 43. He was the first Roman Catholic, and he was the youngest man ever to occupy the presidency. He had planned to run again in the 1964 election year, but he was assassinated on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas. Kennedy served America for such a short time, yet he inspired people all over the free world because of his youth, his spirit and his style.

Key For Your Reference

    thJohn F. Kennedy, who was the 35 President of the United States, was born in Brookline,

    Massachusetts in 1917. Because his father was Ambassador to England, he was exposed to politics early in life. Deciding to enter the political arena, he ran for Congress form Massachusetts and was

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    elected to the Senate in 1953. His term ended in 1960 as he was elected President that same year at the age of 43. He was not only the first Roman Catholic but also the youngest man ever to occupy the presidency. He had planned to run again in the 1964 election year, but he was assassinated on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas. Although Kennedy served America such a short time, he inspired people all over the free world because of his youth, his spirit and his style. (This version

    is an example of the effective use of subordination. Notice how the sentences have been combined.)

4 Loose Sentence(松散句) and Periodic Sentence;掉尾句?

    4.1 Loose sentence: a sentence in which the essential elements, in the main clause, come first, followed by subordinate parts, modifiers, etc., as in a compound sentence.

     e.g. a. You cannot make great progress in English without good study habits.

     b. There was a lamp burning on the table in the empty room and a little cat lying near the lamp.

     c. He was sitting before the fire in a large armchair when we entered.

     d. She was offered a professional contract after winning the Olympic gold medal for figure skating, according to the newspaper reports.

    4.2 Periodic sentence: a sentence in which the essential elements, in the main clause, are withheld until the end or separated as by modifiers or subordinate clauses.

     e.g. a. Without good study habits, you cannot make great progress in English.

     b. On the table burned a lamp in the empty room, and near it lay a little cat.

     c. Having passed the house every day for two years, and knowing that the man was a cripple (跛子), I could not believe what the next-door neighbour told me.

     d. The one absolute, unselfish friend a man may have in this selfish world, the one that never deserts him, the one that never proves ungrateful or treacherous, is his dog.

4.3 Combined use of both loose and periodic sentences in writing

    Example 1 The Mid-Part of Phobia(恐怖症)

    In the evening, I suspected that there must be someone hiding somewhere. I searched every corner carefully, but found nobody. So I closed the door and moved the table against the door in order to prevent any misfortune. Deep that night when I lay in bed, a strange sound, as if someone were trying to break in, which made my hair stand on end, was heard. I had a cold sweat all over.

    How I regretted that I had come back alone! In order to banish the fear I hid myself deep in my quilt. The fear that the bad man might discover that a young girl was in the room alone prevented me from breathing freely

Example 2 The First Paragraph of The Strangest Person I Ever Met

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     There are some people that you never pay attention to, even though you meet them everyday; however, there are some that you can never forget, even though you meet them only once in your life time. It was not until I had met an unforgettable person that I believed the truth of

    it.

    Compare:

     a. It was not until I had met an unforgettable person that I believed the truth of it.

     b. I believed the truth of it when I met an unforgettable person one day. (loose)

5 Ways to Establish Links between Sentences

    1. Reference and repetition.

    e.g. a. The chancellor has announced new economy measures. He will defend

    his views tomorrow.

     b. He decided to take an axe. He thought this would be needed to cut

    down the tree.

     c. This is what you should do. You should be very honest.

    2. Conjunction.

    e.g. I do not know this person. Furthermore, I have never spoken to him.

     All the figures have been checked. In spite of this, the totals are still

    wrong.

     The price of imports is going up. As a result, our inflation is becoming

    worse.

     The evening began with dinner. After this, music and dancing were

    enjoyed in the ballroom.

    3. Substitution.

     e.g. These chocolate biscuits are stale. Get some fresh ones.

     She thinks we should take an umbrella. I think so too.

    4. Lexical relationships and paraphrasing.

     e.g. Last years increase in wages has held down profits. There must be no

    further wage demands. (repetition)

     I saw a boy climbing in the window. The lad was not more than ten years

    old.(synonyms)

     Peter went red. He knew he had been silly.

     Mr. Wilson won many middle-class votes in the election. He appealed to

    scientists and technologists to support his party.

    5. Ellipsis (omission of words or phrases)

     e.g. It didnt rain last month. It will soon.

    6) Patterning (parallel)

     e.g. It is possible that your plan will succeed. It is equally possible that it will

    fail.

     I have always believed in democracy. And I have always said so.

     Upstairs Fred thumped and bumped and tossed and turned. And downstairs

    Ted moaned and groaned and crashed and thrashed all over the bed.

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Task 4 Put the following jumbled paragraph into right order.

    1)in England, however, the tungsten-tipped() spikes(尖状物) would tear the

    thin tarmac(沥青碎石路面) surfaces of our roads to pieces as soon as the protective layer of snow or ice melted. 2) road maintenance crews try to reduce the danger of skidding by scattering sand upon the road surfaces. 3) we therefore have to settle for the method described above as the lesser of two evils. 4) their spikes grip the icy surfaces and enable the motorist(驾驶员) to corner safely where non-spiked tyres

    would be disastrous. 5) its main drawback is that if there are fresh snowfalls the whole process has to be repeated, and if the snowfalls continue, it becomes increasingly ineffective in providing some kind of grip for tyres. 6) these tyres prevent most skidding and are effective in the extreme weather conditions as long as the roads are regularly cleared of loose snow. 7) such a measure is generally adequate for our very brief snowfalls. 8) whenever there is snow in England, some of the country roads may have black ice. 9) in Norway, where there may be snow and ice for nearly seven months of the year, the law requires that all cars be fitted with special steel spiked tyres. 10) motorists coming suddenly upon stretches of black ice may find themselves skidding off the road.

The right order should be:

     8) whenever there is snow in England, some of the country roads may have black ice. 10) motorists coming suddenly upon stretches of black ice may find themselves skidding off the road. 2) road maintenance crews try to reduce the danger of skidding by scattering sand upon the road surfaces. 7) such a measure is generally adequate for our very brief snowfalls. 5) its main drawback is that if there are fresh snowfalls the whole process has to be repeated, and if the snowfalls continue, it becomes increasingly ineffective in providing some kind of grip for tyres.

     9) in Norway, where there may be snow and ice for nearly seven months of the year, the law requires that all cars be fitted with special steel spiked tyres. 6) these tyres prevent most skidding and are effective in the extreme weather conditions as long as the roads are regularly cleared of loose snow. 4) their spikes grip the icy surfaces and enable the motorist(驾驶员) to corner safely where non-spiked tyres

    would be disastrous.(4 and 6 are interchangeable)

     1)in England, however, the tungsten-tipped() spikes(尖状物) would tear the

    thin tarmac(沥青碎石路面) surfaces of our roads to pieces as soon as the protective layer of snow or ice melted. 3) we therefore have to settle for the method described above as the lesser of two evils.

6. Common Writing Problems

    1. sentence fragment:

    A sentence fragment is part of a sentence that begins with a capital letter and ends with a period, making it look like a complete sentence.

    ; I think this (CAI) computer assisted instruction is good and prefer to choose this way in

    my school life. Because its environmental. And it can give us many convenience.

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