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1 Unit 1 Buildi

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1 Unit 1 Buildi ...

    Unit 1 Building the futurebare, grandchild, shower, boil, ?。单元教学目标 power, electrical, petrol, fossile fuel,

    技能目标 Skill Goals coal, non-renewable, oilfield, coal ? Read an essay about food aid and seam, foreseeable, poison,, development aid, and a feature story about alternative, solar, solar energy, sustainable development

    increasingly, generator, storage, ? Listen to a conversation between a student

    and his grandfather about development tank, heat, flour, wind turbine, plant, ? Discuss development and interview a power plant, tentative, operator, government official systematic ? Write an essay about the development of

    2. 认读词汇 your city or town

    severity, crisis, infrastructure, ? Prepare and present a report about how your

    community, loan, repayment, city or town supports sustainable

    contest, sustainable, carbon development

    dioxide, hydroelectricity, conscious, windmill, turbine, ?. 目标语言 hydroelectric, transmit, How to discuss probability of the nevertheless, future 3. 词组 It will (not) put pressure on, on top of, at It is(not) going to risk, without doubt , at a crossroads, be dependent on, in It will definitely(not) debt, show off , put into practice, It will certainly(not) in danger , contribute to, push It will surely(not) for It will probably(not) 4. 重点词汇 It should(not) claim, target, switch, dependent, It is (not) likely to Linking words It may(not) 1. firstly, secondly, thirdly, in It might(not) the end It could(not) 2. for one thing, for another ,as a 1. 四会词汇 result rainfall, cattle, catastrophe, Irish 3. however, on the contrary politician, statesman, mosquito, 4. on top of this, further more yearly, claim, global, target, 1.Geldof intended the concert to raise pregnant, elderly, unemployed, money for and public awareness of the crossroads, currently, short-term, famine.(page 2,lines 6-7)

    long-term, switch, import, smoothly, 2.Theres a saying that goes

    irrigation, electricity, dependent, (page3,lines31-33)

    3.In addition to air and water pollution, male, breadwinner, housewife,

    which are well-recognized, noise homeless, wire, conventional, pollution, which is rare in rural areas, output, belly, artificial, firstly, grain, is serious in cities due to many things

    secondly, nutritional, thirdly, dignity, like heavy traffic.

    (page103,lines27-30) repay, interest, finance, weaken, 4.Apart from academic knowledge, campaign, squeeze, designer, casual, they will also learn the skills they need handy, typewriter, basement, for their future careers.(page

    105,lines7-8) creativity, catering, sleepy, eagle,

    5.On top of this, education also plays a passer-by, grand, grand opening,

    key role in building a peaceful and hand-sewn, belt, handkerchief,

    prosperous society. (page 105,line 9) bookworm, counter, suitcase, bell,

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    6.This is a simple idea, but one which 据可能性大小回答问题的英语表is hard to put into 达。第三部分提供文章写作的几个practice..(page14,lines20-21) 基本部分(introduction, mainbody, 7.The pipes have oil or water inside conclusion)及其它要点(to use them, which is either heated and sent objective language, provide facts and to a storage tank until needed or used figures, give examples, discuss future to boil water in a generator probability)?培养学生综合运用语(page15,lines70-73) 言的能力。 1.6 Project提供一篇关于可持续发展的?。 教材分析与教材重组 报道(Reporting on sustainable 1? 教材分析 development)?要求学生阅读后进行本单元以Building the future为话实际调研。对本城市可持续发展作题?学生通过Welcome to the unit专项采访并形成报告?最后呈现给关图片和问题的讨论?Reading部分全班同学?着重培养学生分析问题Give a man a fishProject部分A gift 的能力和英语写作能力。 for the future以及Workbook Building hope相关文章的学习?唤起2? 教材重组 学生对人类生存问题的关注?启发学生2.1 Welcome to the unit Workbook 对贫穷和人类发展所带来的能源危机Page 102 Reading A设计为一个课等问题作思考并谈谈自己的认识和解时?让学生就Building the future决问题的途径。 solutions to the problem of poverty? 1.1 Welcome to the unit 以四幅图导出development等话题展开充分讨论。 本单元话题—Building the future,2.2 Reading ???AD设计为阅读课。 学生就图片讨论解决贫穷的短期与2.3 Reading ??? 将阅读文章中的重长期手段?城市高速发展的利弊以点语言现象和E/ F部分以及Workbook及未来的能源问题等。 A1A2D1设计为阅读语言学习课。 1.2 Reading是一篇获奖论文?文章阐2.4 Word power 设计为一节词汇课。 述了饥荒是全球威胁健康的头号杀2.5 Grammar A BWorkbook C1,C2手?介绍了目前知名人士和联合国合?设计成语法课。 为解决非洲及发展中国家饥饿问题2.6 Task???Skills building 1/2 设计所做出的努力?同时指出?唯有食成写作课。 物援助是短期措施?辅之以改善基2.7 Task???Skills building 3 础设施和教育才是长远的解决贫困 Reading Bon page 103, Listening on 问题的有效方法。 page 104, Writing A on page 105整合?1.3 Word power 其一旨在介绍不同的设计成课堂拓展活动课。 行业术语?尤其是新兴行业如2.8 ProjectWorkbookB1/ B2/D2以及IT(information technology industry),Part B on page 105设计为语言综合实其二引入同义词学习?让学生在英践课。 语学习中注意词义差别和使用范 围。 3? 课型设计与课时分配 1.4 Grammar and usage 通过各类关联1st Period Speaking nd词学习?让学生了解关联词在文章2-3rd Periods Reading 结构中的作用?并通过相关练习?4th Period Word Power

    让学生学会关联词的运用。 5th Period Grammar and Usage th6-7th Periods Task 1.5 Task分为三部分?第一部分为识别th8 Period Project 情感用词?如Emotive adjectives,

     Hyperbole, Tone of voice,通过此部?. 分课时教案 分知识的学习?学生可以更好地了 解说话人对事情的感受)第二部分

    The First Period Speaking 提供了讨论未来可能性的常用句式

    Teaching goals 教学目标 和表达?并通过采访有关城市发展

    1. Target Language目标语言 规划的话题?让学生体会并掌握根

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     a. 重点词汇和短语

    Picture 1 at a very high rate, a short-term solution

    to the problem of poverty,

    b. 交际用语

    Is your city developing at a very fast

    rate?

    Do you think that?

    Why or why not?

    What will it look like?

    In my opinion,

    From my point of view,

    Because

    For one thing, ; for another

    2. Ability goals 能力目标

    Enable the students to improve speaking

    ability by talking about food aid, poverty,

    development and energy for the future..

    3. Learning ability goals 学能目标

    Help the students learn how to talk about the problems faced by man presently and

    Picture 2 how to express their own idea about the

    solutions to the problems.

    Teaching important and difficult points

    学重难点

    To encourage the students to talk about the

    problems faced by man presently and how to

    express their own idea about the solutions to

    the problems.

    Teaching methods 教学方法

    Individual work, , pair work, group work.

    Teaching aids 教具准备

    A computer and a projector.

    Teaching procedures and ways 教学过程与

    方式

Step ?Greetings and Lead-in

    Greetings

    T: Good morning/afternoon, boys and girls!

    Ss: Good morning/afternoon, teacher!

    T: Today Id like to show you two pictures. T: What can you see in the pictures? Look carefully and then tell me what you are

    S1: I can see the crops fail to grow due to a thinking about?

    likely drought. Maybe too much pollution (Show the follow two pictures:)

    has changed the earth, so the climate is

    becoming more and more terrible. I am

    afraid people there are suffering hunger

    now.

    T: There is something in what you have said.

    S2:A lot of smoke is coming from the chimneys

    of factories, which shows a development in

    our industries, but at the same time, a lot of

    coal is being burnt, causing serious

    pollution. As a result of it, it is hard for

    peasants to grow crops. We can see some

    fields are deserted in picture 1.Peasants

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    will hardly get anything, which will lead to factories, roads, and bridges. Too many poverty. people living in the city consume a lot of

    natural resources.. Cars and factories give

    off waste gases polluting the environment. Step ? Welcome to the unit

    T: I cant agree more. T: Very good! I am sure most of you will have

    Picture 4 the same sense. What we are worried is

    T And the last picture? what man are facing at the present time.

    S: In the last picture, we can see a new kind of Now lets look at the pictures in our text

    energy is used. I think oil is becoming less book. There are 4 pictures here. Have a

    and less. We need new kinds of energy to discussion about what each picture is about

    serve man. Wind energy is a good kind of with your neighbor.

    energy for the future. (3-5 minutes later)

    T: Yes, wind turbines are used to produce Picture 1

    electricity. Wind energy is clear and T Who will be the first to tell me something

    renewable , just like solar energy or wave about the first picture?

    energy, which will do good to the S: The first picture shows us grain and a hand.

    environment. T: What is the question asked in the first

     picture about?

    Write down some key words and phrases on S: Not all of the people over the world have

    the blackboard during the course. Go over enough to eat and some even die of hunger.

    the words so that the students can learn to People in the developed countries wont turn a

    use them in their discussion. blind eye to the problem and they will offer

     some of the grain to the people in need so that

    Step ? Discussion they can survive.

    T: Your explanation is quite to the point. But T: Now, some of you state out their can the problem of hunger be solved in this understanding of the pictures, which I think

    way for all the needy people in the world? is very valuable. We really need to think Is it a short-term solution? about the problems that we human beings S: Yes, I think so. Because After the given have to face at the present time. Next, food is used up, they also have the please look at the questions below the possibility to suffer hunger, and it is not pictures.

    likely for others to support them forever. Questions:

    T: Dont you think we have to think about the 1. Is your city developing at a very fast problem carefully? rate? What will it look like in twenty

    years time? Picture 2

    T: What about the second picture? What is the 2. Do you think that giving food and man doing? money to poor people will solve all S: He is building something. their problems? Why or why not?

    T: Why is he working so hard? 3. Do you think that development may be S: He might be poor and need money badly. bad for a country in some ways? Why T: Do you think training people to make a or why not?

    living is a short-term or long-term solution T: Ill divide you into groups of four and give to the problem of poverty? you four or five minutes for a discussion. S: I think only by grasping the skills of Then each group has to speak out your making a living can support themselves and opinion.

    their family. Its a long-term solution. (5 minutes later)

    T: As to the first question, Group1, please! Picture 3

    T: Good understanding! What about the third S1: Yes, our city is developing at a very high picture? rate. In recent years, a lot of buildings are S: A village has been developed into a city. going up and roads are becoming wider and Tall buildings, bridges and motorways have wider. We are sure it will be more beautiful been constructed. The city is developing than what is now. More and more people fast. People find jobs and earn more money. will live a better life. Maybe the size of it T It seems good. But are there any problems will double that of today. The population with the development of our city? will increase by 20%. People dont have to

    S: I am afraid there are surely some. Trees work 8 hours a day. How happy we will be have been cut down in order to build in 20 years‟ time.

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T: Good imagination! Any different answers?

    S2: Indeed, our city is developing fast. More Step ? Reading

    and more material fortunes will be produced. T: Just now, we discussed the problems of It will become more convenient to go to poverty, development and energy,. We are work. More people will have a car and they trying to find proper solutions to poverty and will go to work by car instead of bus or the contradiction between development and subway. Meanwhile, a lot of problems will pollution and energy crisis. All of you have also come about., such as lack of petrol, done a good job. Now lets turn to page 102.

    pollution, etc. People wont be as close as Here is an article about a non-government nowadays. We are afraid new problems will organization which helps to improve peoples

    be hard to deal with. We have to keep a cool living conditions. Read the passage and mind in the rate of developing our city. answer the questions below.

    T: How thoughtful you are! Actually, we cant Organize students into small groups of four ignore the problems that the development of and let students ask and answer questions in the city will bring about. the group.

    T: Wonderful. Now, lets come to the next Check answers with the whole class.

    question. OK, Group 2, please?

    S1: We think giving food and money is Sample answers:

    enough. Needy people will be thankful for 1.Habitat for Humanity is a non-governmental the food and money you give. With food organization(NGO) that aims to build houses they survive. With money, they can buy for poor people around the world. what they want. After they overcome the 2. Habitat houses are built by volunteers. trouble of the time-being, they are sure to 3.Because the Fullers believed that people try their best to think up a way out. should actively improve their own lives, those T: Do you have the same opinion?. who received a house must also spend several S2:We dont think in the same way. We think hundred hours helping build their homes of giving food and money is only a short-term others.

    solution to the problem of poverty. What 4. Habitat houses are not free, but they are less will they do when the food and money are expensive than other houses because the used up? They will return to their traditional organization does not profit from them. People life style and farming way. Soon they will borrow money from Habitat for Humanity as become poor once more. Shall we give an interest-free loan and repay it over many them food and money to keep them alive for years.

    ever? Its hardly possible. A long-term 5.Yes. Today there are volunteers all around solution is to educate them and improve the world. In 2000, Habitat for Humanity their farming methods and technology so opened its office in China in Kunming, that they are well informed farming Yunnan province.

    effectively. That is a real way to help them

    out. Step ? Homework T: Shall we cheer for their wonderful Preview Reading part presentation? Surf the internet or some information in other T: What about the last question? Would Group sources on the following questions: 3 like to give us the answer? 1. What do you think are the most serious S1: Surely, development is good for the city. If problems the developing world is facing? we dont want to fall behind, we have to (Hunger, disease, poverty, wars, natural quicken our steps of development. Yet, as disasters, etc.) some students have said before, we cant 2. Can you find some good ways to solve turn a blind eye to the problems that are these problems? (Providing food aid to brought about with development such as people, teaching them how to grow food, pollution, energy crisis and over-expanding training doctors and providing cheap of the city. medicines to hospitals, training people to S2: We suppose development will somehow make a living, giving development aid if do harm to our country. Natural resources a natural disaster hits a country in the such as coal, oil will becoming scarce for developing world.) they are limited and unrenewable. What will we leave to our younger generations? An over-explored earth? That is unfair!

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    country in the developing world.) The Second Period Reading(?) Ask students to report their findings to the Teaching goals 教学目标 whole class. Let them focus on one problem

    and provide some possible solutions. Students 1.Target language 目标语言

    can take their notes they took for their ideas. a.重点词汇和短语.

     rainfall, destroyed harvest, famine relief Teacher takes notes of their findings on the funding, put pressure on, on top of, stand at a blackboard while students state out their ideas. crosswords, make everything run smoothly, be dependent on, make for their families,

    Step ? First Reading fight poverty, fill one‟s belly

    T: Good. Today well take up a passage with b.重点句子

    the title Give a man a fish.What does the One way to do this is title refer to? Does the essay talk about fish Another important thing to remember is or fishing? that Ask students to predict the content of the 2.Ability goals 能力目标 essay from the title. Ask students to focus Enable students to learn to understand a title on the following questions: and how the text is developed. What does the title mean? 3.Learning ability goals 学能目标 What does the title deprive from? Enable students to learn the target language What is the result of giving a man a and to understand the reading passage on the single fish? whole. What proverb do you think of when you Teaching important Points 教学重点 read the title? Help students to grasp the passage on the Introduce students to the proverb: Give a man whole. a fish, and you feed him for a day. Teach a Teaching difficult points教学难点 man to fish , and you feed him for a lifetime . Help students to grasp the reading strategy of understanding a title T: Please go over the passage quickly. While Teaching methods教学方法 reading, think about how to answer the three Task-based teaching, discussion questions in Part A on Page 2

    Teaching aids 教具准备 (2-3minutes later)

    A recorder, a projector and slides

    T: Now, the first questionWhen was Live Teaching procedures and ways 教学过程与

    Aid held? 方式 S: It was held on 13 July 1985 in two locationsin London and in Philadelphia Step ? Revision and Lead-in T: Youve got it. Next questionWhat does Greetings WEP stand for? T: Good morning, boys and girls. S: WEP stands for the World Food Program. S: Good morning, teacher. T: Very good. The Last QuestionHow many T: Yesterday we had a discussion about people has the WEP helped since it was whether the development is bad or not for a established? city or a country and whether giving food S: It has helped more than one billion people and money to needy people can solve the since it was set up. problem of hunger. Have prepared the two questions I gave you last time? Step ? Second Reading 1. What do you think are the most serious T: Excellent. Youve prepared well. Now, lets problems the developing world is facing? listen to the tape of the essay. Before (Hunger, disease, poverty, wars, natural listening, go over the questions in Part C1 disasters, etc.) carefully. Think about them when you are 2. Can you find some good ways to solve listening to the tape. these problems? (Listen to the tape of the passage) (Providing food aid to people, teaching them T: Now lets deal with the questions in Part how to grow food, training doctors and C1. providing cheap medicines to hospitals, Check answers as a class. training people to make a living, giving Answers: development aid if a natural disaster hits a

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C1 fill his belly for a lifetime

    1 Because it raised $100 million for famine

    victims in Ethiopia and also raised public T: After questions and answers, I am sure we attention. It also put great pressure on understand why the title is set. Can you tell politicians to do something about the famine. me ?

    2 In 1963, the United Nations set up the World S: All the efforts such as raising money, giving Food Programme(WFP) aiming to reduce the food are mentioned in the first part of the problem of world hunger. A number of passage. We can compare the efforts to fish. programmes have been organized and the The second part of the text begins with a WFP has helped more than one billion people saying Give a man a fish, and you food around the world. him for a day. Teach a man to fish , and you 3.Because poverty still exists after the food feed him for a lifetime . Then two

    has been eaten up. suggested ways are offered, which are 4.Things like transport, irrigation, electricity, long-term solutions to the problem of postal service, telephones and schools are poverty. That is to teach a man to fish .So included. they can support themselves for a lifetime. 5.Development aid together with food aid. T: Good! Lets go over the reading strategy of 6.Because the future of developing countries understanding a title.

    lies in the hands of young people.

    7.Because if you give a man a fish, you can (Go over Reading Strategy.)

    only feed him for a day. Teach a man to fish , Draw students attention to the Reading

    you feed him for a lifetime . Strategy of the essay and ask them to focus on

     the usual way to understand a title of an essay. Ask students to read the second paragraph Have them focus on the structure of this essay. again and locate the specific information The first two paragraphs introduce the theme asked about in Part C2. Tell students that of the essay, world hunger. The third many programmes have been organized to try paragraph develops this theme and exams to problem of world hunger while each some of the ways that hunger is dealt with and focuses on a different aspect. Have students asks whether these ways are sufficient to deal finish the exercises individually and then with this problem. The fourth paragraph check the answers as a class. quotes the proverb that gives the essay its title

     and further develops the theme. The fifth Answers: paragraph and sixth paragraphs look at C2 1 Food for Work alternate ways to fight world hunger. The final

    2 Food for Life paragraph focuses on using the proverb to unit

    3.Food for Growth the text and prove the proverbs relevance to

     the unit theme.

    (Slide shows some key words while students

    are answering the questions) Step ? Third Reading

    Key words on the screen: Divide students into groups of 4. Let Ss retell

     the severity of the catastrophe the text(students can finish either part of the

     raise money for famine victims following two with the hint words on the

     sent as food aid and famine relief funding screen)

     1) efforts of celebrities and the United WEP Nations to help to solve the problem

     Food-for-Life program of hunger.

     Food-For-Growth program 2) long-term solutions to problem of

     Food-for-Work program hunger.

     food aid alone Sample:

     merely a short-term solution

     switch from importing food to producing it 1) A concert was held on 13 July 1985 by an

     a country‟s infrastructure Irish musician called Bob Geldof. He

     create jobs, not to dependent on others intended to cause people‟s attention to the

     Long-term solution severity of catastrophe in Ethiopia. He

     Education and training raised $100 million which was sent as food

    a rapidly growing output aid and famine relief funding. His efforts

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drew a lot of attention around the world. b.重点句子

     In trying to fight worldwide hunger, the Geldof intended the concert to raise money for United Nations set up WEP in 1963,which and public awareness of the famine. has organized a number of programs. The Theres a saying that goes WEP has helped more than one billion Ability goals 能力目标 people. Enable students to grasp the usage of some key words, phrases and patterns. 2).To help poor countries or developing Learning ability goals 学能目标 countries, food aid alone is not enough. Its Enable students to develop their ability of merely a short-term solution to a long-term using the key expressions and patterns they problem. What they actually need is to stop have learned. poverty by fighting the causes of it. One Teaching important 教学重点 way is to improve a countrys infrastructure. Deal with language study of the passage Thus everything is likely to run smoothly. Teaching difficult points 教学难点 Jobs are created for people. People will Help students to use the key expressions and become independent. So development aid patterns they have learned. together with food aid may be the long-term

    Teaching methods 教学方法 solution to the problem of poverty. Another

    Discussion, practice, way is to educate and train the young and

    Teaching aids 教具准备 women. In this way, they can learn to use

    advanced technology to communicate with A projector and slides

    the outside world and to increase growing Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与

    output. 方式 As a conclusion, we should teach a man to fish so that he can fill his belly for a Step ?Revision and Led-in life-time instead of giving him a single fish Greetings so that he can eat only for a day. T: Hello, everyone. S: Hello, teacher. Step ? Consolidation. T: Remember the title of the passage we T: By now, weve understood the passage well. discussed yesterday? Lets do some exercises as consolidation S: Yes. Its Give a man a fish. T: In what way do we offer aid to the needy Do Part D. people having the same result of giving a man D: 1d a fish? 2e S: We only give them food or money. 3c T: In what way should we offer our aid having 4f the same result of teaching a man to fish? 5i S: We should train their living skills and 6a improve their knowledge, so that they can be 7b independent. 8h T: Not a bad idea! Thats what we got from 9g yesterdays period. Now let me see how well Step ? Homework you have prepared your homework. 1. Review the text and prepare Part F with Check Part F

    a partner Ask some pairs to report their answers to the 2. Do Workbook A1, A2. class.

     Sample.

    1. Half a year ago, I gave away 100 yuan to The Third Period

    a boy whose family was so poor that they Reading(?) couldn‟t afford his tuition. Both his Teaching goals 教学目标 parents are unemployed. Not only I but Target Language 目标语言 also most of our neighbors donated money

    to him. With our help, he returned to a.重点词汇和短语

    school. What a good thing! But Im afraid shock, put pressure on, according to, claim,

    he will encounter the same difficulty next target, without doubt, merely, dependent on,

    semester. I wish his parent could find a lie, pretend, equally, switch from,

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    way of making their living so that they lie, pretend, fill ones belly.

    can be independent.

    2. I think the infrastructure of a country is Explanations to some patterns as follows:

    important. Improving the infrastructure of 1. Geldof intended the concert to raise

    a country means more jobs related to money for and public awareness of the

    transport, postal services, school etc. will famine.

    be created for people. Its a helpful 2. Theres a saying that goes

    solution to the problem of unemployment.

    Thus poor people can earn more money. Language points:

    3. One success story goes that in some 1. The severity of this catastrophe shocked northern villages peasants used to grow Bob Geldof, an Irish musician who organized rice for one season, getting limited

    a charity concert called Live Aid to raise harvest. Not many peasants can support

    themselves. Some even suffered hunger. money for famine victims in Ethiopia.(page The local government brought in a 2,line 2-4) program which was to train peasants to The verb shock means to surprise and raise foxes and plant fruit trees. Peasants

    turned to raising foxes and planting fruit upset somebody‟.

    trees, which turned out to be rewarding. The pictures of the plane crash shocked Now an average peasant family earns all the people at the conference. thirty to fifty thousand yuan a year. Im

     I was shocked at the news that bird flu sure its an effective way to fight poverty.

     had been found in our city. Do A1 A2 on page 98 in workbook to practice Everyone was shocked by his sudden using some words and phrases learnt in the death. reading passage.

     The word shock can also be used as a noun, Suggested answers meaning a bad feeling as a result of something A1. 1without unpleasant happening unexpectedly. 2in

     Her unexpected death came to us as a 3on

     4at shock. 5for He got a shock when he touched the 6up

    water. 7on

     8behind She said the scary movie gave her the

     9at shock of her life. 10to 2. Geldof intended the concert to raise money A2. 1politician

     2elderly for and public awareness of the famine.

     3unemployed This is not a complete sentence. to raise 4severity money for and public awareness of the 5electricity

    famine are the used as adverbial of purpose. 6global

     7conventional The whole one should be: Geldof intended the concert to raise money Step ? Language study for the famine and to raise public awareness T: The exercises above are a practice of the

    of the famine. words presented in the reading material. There are some other key expressions and patterns 3.The concert also received so much attention that we should pay attention to. Have you around the world that it put great pressure on found any expression or patterns confused? politicians and statesmen to do something

    Explanations to the usage of some key words about the famine. (page 2, lines 810)

    and phrases, such as shock, put pressure on, The phrase to put pressure on means to on top of, according to, claim, target, without strongly influence or force somebody to do doubt, at a crossroads, merely, dependent on,

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    something. The cinema is on target to open next

     Parents put a lot of pressure on their year.

    children to do well at school. 6. It is without doubt an amazing

     The army put pressure on the enemy, and achievement, but is it enough?(page 2, lines forced them to fall back. 2526)

     The newspapers put pressure on the The word doubt here is a noun meaning football club to replace the manager. a feeling of not being sure‟. The phrase 4.On top of this, according to the United without doubt means certainly‟.

    Nations, hunger and malnutrition claim ten She had some doubts about the quality of million lives every year. (page 2, lines the product on sale.

    1415) If you have doubts about the trip, you can

    The phrase on top of means in addition to ask your tour guide.

    sb or sth else. Without doubt, we need to start our

    He had a bad week. He lost his job, and project as soon as possible. on top of that, his car was stolen. The word doubt can also be used as a

     The phrase according to means as said or verb meaning to think that something is reported by someone or something‟. uncertain or not true‟.

    According to the radio, it will rain Do you doubt what he said at the tomorrow. meeting?

    According to today's newspaper, the I do not doubt that he is capable of doing superstar will visit our city next week. the job.

     The book was excellent, according to I doubt very much that he will come to James. my party tonight.

    The word claim means cause death. 7. Today, some developing countries in Africa,

    The earthquake claimed over fifty Asia and South America stand at a

    thousand lives. crossroads.

    5.the Food-for-Growth programme, which (page 2, lines 27-28)

    targets people most at risk, (page 2, lines The phrase at a crossroads means at a 2021) critical time.

     The verb target means to try to persuade His life was at a crossroads when he quit or influence someone or to aim a bomb or his job.

    weapon at someone or something‟. 8. It is merely a short-term solution to a

     For years, the billboards have been long-term problem. (page 3, lines 3031)

    targeting tourists at the airport. The adverb merely means only‟.

     What type of reader is the new magazine I have been swimming for merely half an targeting? hour, but, I am already feeling very tired.

     We hope that these cities will not be She was frightened of the big dog, even targeted during the war. though it merely barked at her.

     The word target can also be used as a This is merely a made-up story. Do not noun. It can be used to describe a goal or an take it too seriously.

    aim. 9. There is a saying that goes(page 3, lines

     They set a target for production. 31-33)

     His target was to win the tennis The verb go here means have certain tournament. words.

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