Athens and Sparta
By Miles core 5/6
Room 3 Mission Hill Middle School
The differences between Athens and Sparta
Athens and Sparta were both city-states that thrived in ancient Greece. They also both contributed to modern Western culture in terms of military strategy and the development of democracy. But Athens and Sparta were different, in many ways because of their geographies. This difference can be seen in their roles in the Persian and Peloponnesian wars. In fact, the location of the two city-states determined much of the life of the people in them. Some key aspects of both societies influenced by location are education, government, the economy, and especially, the military.
The physical geographies of Athens and Sparta differed immensely. Sparta was located on the island of Peloponnesus. It was land-locked and lay in a deep valley surrounded by mountains on all sides. Sparta’s valley was good for farming because it had a river running down one side of the valley. The river brought fertile soil down from the mountains and could be channeled to irrigate the land. Athens was located
on the peninsula of Attica. It was on a high plain, close to and over looking the sea. Athenians had access to the Aegean Sea that allowed them to sail all around the Mediterranean.
Sparta’s valley Drawing by Miles
Athens and Sparta’s different geographies impacted their economies. Athens’s location made it an ideal location for a trading center. Athens not only gained trade from the sea, it also allowed them to have a large navy. The sea was the center of life in Athens: it gave them fish to eat, slaves from far away lands to work in their homes and businesses, and iron from trade to make weapons to more efficiently slaughter their enemies.
A map of ancient Athens content.answers.com/.../250px-
Athens was at a disadvantage because its terrain was exposed, making them vulnerable to attack. The advantage of Athens’s economy was that it brought new ideas and inventions to Athens.
a Athenian trading ship picture by Miles Keys
The disadvantage to having a trade-based economy was that they needed lots of allies to trade with so they had to please lots of people. If they didn’t Athens would starve.
Sparta was supported by its geography because the fertile valley provided food from its farms for the city’s soldiers. Sparta’s economy was advantaged by the fact that they were self-sufficient so they would not be hurt if trade was cut, whether by lack of supplies or by an enemy’s blockade. It’s geography also provided a natural defense because the surrounding mountains prevented easy access to the city. The disadvantage of Sparta’s location was that they would not have received new ideas from other places quickly or easily. Another disadvantage was that the army could not be away for long because the Helots, Spartan slaves, would revolt.
Sparta had four main social classes. Helots were conquered people forced into slavery. They were made to build buildings in the city or to work on Sparta’s extensive farms. On the next level of the social pyramid, non-citizens worked as crafts people making tools, clothes, baskets, weapons and other goods. Thirdly, citizens were a split class: women kept the household and men served in the army. On the highest-level, nobles governed the people of Sparta and led the armies. Athens’s
social structure was much like Sparta’s. But they didn’t have farms for the slaves to work on, there weren’t non-citizens, and instead of nobles there were politicians.
Athens and Sparta’s economies both prospered, even though they relied on
different factors. Sparta’s economy relied on its farms and on slaves to work for them. Athens depended upon trade and its mines to provide business for the city.
The approach to education was very different in the two cities. Athenians valued education highly. Their main education started at age eight and ended at age eighteen. Boys were taught basic letters and numbers by their mothers until the age of eight, then they were taught by a tutor. They had few established schools in Athens and the few schools they had were called academies. Academies often taught children of upper class families. Girls in Athens were taught by their mothers to spin, weave, mend and take care of the household.
Spartan education focused on military training. Children started school at age seven and finished at age twenty when they immediately went into military service. Spartans were taught and trained in large groups.
Spartan youth training karenswhimsy.com/.../spartan-warriors-
They lived in military style barracks with their classmates. They learned reading and writing, yet the government thought little of these skills. Training was incredibly harsh and grueling. Boys were forced to walk miles barefoot and sleep outside in winter without blankets. They were encouraged to steal but if they were caught they would be beaten cruelly. One story that shows traditional Spartan bravery. Is about a boy who stole a fox cub but the owner managed to corner him. Alerted by the chase two soldiers joined the owner. As the three were questioning
the boy, he suddenly dropped down dead. The boy had hidden the fox inside his shirt and instead of confessing he had allowed the fox to chew into his stomach killing him.
Two governments could not be more different than the governments of Athens and Sparta. Athens’s government was originally a monarchy, yet after a few harsh kings, they wanted something better. After a revolution they developed an idea for a new form of government. They wanted a government that represented the people, so they developed democracy. Their democracy was direct democracy, meaning they voted for the actual laws.
Two debaters in Athens picture by Miles
This form of government was not perfect. Very few could actually vote. One could not vote if one were a slave, a woman, a poor person, or under the age of thirty. There is not much information about the Athenian kings because most of the
information the world has on them is from only one historian, Eusebius, a bishop who lived in the three hundreds A.D.. In addition, many of the kings are believed to be fictional because of their descriptions. For example, Cecrops, the first king of Athens, was supposedly half man and half serpent.
Two lines of kings, the Agiads and the Eurypontids, who were descended from the twins Procles and Eurythenes, respectively, ruled Sparta. They were supposedly descended from Heracles (the English form of Heracles is Hercules), who had supposedly conquered the area where Sparta was two generations after the Trojan War. The reasoning behind having two kings was that if one king was killed in battle, the other would prevent a coup or a rebellion while the successor to the dead king was old enough come to the throne. One of Sparta’s most famous kings was Leonidas the first.
The Statue of King Leonidas in Sparta
At the battle of Thermopylae, he led a force of three hundred Spartans, nine hundred Helots, and seven hundred Thespians. They held off a much larger Persian army of for many days.
Sparta and Athens’s military were very different in many respects. Sparta was famous for its rigorous training. Training started at an early age, and only the