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Draft Proposed Regulations

By Virginia Scott,2014-12-25 14:48
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Draft Proposed Regulations

    Draft Proposed Regulations

    Title 13, California Code Regulations, Section 1971, On-Board Diagnostic System Requirements for 2007 and Subsequent Model-Year Heavy-Duty

    Vehicles and Engines (HD OBD)

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    Table of Contents

    (a) PURPOSE ............................................................................................................. 1 (b) APPLICABILITY ................................................................................................... 1 (c) DEFINITIONS ........................................................................................................ 1 (d) GENERAL REQUIREMENTS ............................................................................. 5

    (1) The OBD System. ............................................................................................. 5 (2) MIL and Fault Code Requirements. ................................................................ 6 (3) Monitoring Conditions. ..................................................................................... 8 (4) In-Use Monitor Performance Ratio Definition. ............................................... 9

    (5) Standardized tracking and reporting of monitor performance. ................... 14

    (e) MONITORING REQUIREMENTS FOR DIESEL/COMPRESSION-IGNITION

    ENGINES..................................................................................................................... 15

    (1) FUEL SYSTEM MONITORING ..................................................................... 15 (2) MISFIRE MONITORING................................................................................. 17 (3) EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) SYSTEM MONITORING ........ 17

    (4) BOOST PRESSURE CONTROL SYSTEM MONITORING ........................ 19

    (5) CATALYST MONITORING ............................................................................ 21 (6) NOx ADSORBER/TRAP MONITORING ....................................................... 24

    (7) PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) TRAP MONITORING ................................ 24

    (f) MONITORING REQUIREMENTS FOR GASOLINE/SPARK-IGNITED

    ENGINES..................................................................................................................... 25

    (1) FUEL SYSTEM MONITORING ..................................................................... 25 (2) MISFIRE MONITORING................................................................................. 26 (3) EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) SYSTEM MONITORING ........ 33

    (4) COLD START EMISSION REDUCTION STRATEGY MONITORING ...... 33

    (5) SECONDARY AIR SYSTEM MONITORING ................................................ 34

     (6) CATALYST MONITORING ............................................................................ 35(7) EVAPORATIVE SYSTEM MONITORING .................................................... 36

    (g) MONITORING REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL VEHICLES ............................... 38

    (1) VARIABLE VALVE TIMING AND/OR CONTROL (VVT) SYSTEM

    MONITORING ......................................................................................................... 38 (2) EXHAUST GAS SENSOR MONITORING .................................................... 39

    (3) ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM MONITORING .............................................. 41

    (4) POSITIVE CRANKCASE VENTILATION (PCV) SYSTEM MONITORING

     45

    (5) COMPREHENSIVE COMPONENT MONITORING..................................... 46

    (6) OTHER EMISSION CONTROL OR SOURCE SYSTEM MONITORING .. 50

    (7) EXCEPTIONS TO MONITORING REQUIREMENTS ................................. 50

    (h) STANDARDIZATION REQUIREMENTS ......................................................... 52 (1) Reference Documents: ................................................................................... 52 (2) Diagnostic Connector: .................................................................................... 53 (3) Communications to a Scan Tool: .................................................................. 54 (4) Required Emission Related Functions: ........................................................ 54

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    (5) Tracking Requirements: ................................................................................. 59 (6) Service Information: ........................................................................................ 61 (7) Exceptions to Standardization Requirements. ............................................. 62

    (i) MONITORING SYSTEM DEMONSTRATION REQUIREMENTS FOR

    CERTIFICATION ........................................................................................................ 62

    (1) General. ........................................................................................................... 62 (2) Selection of Test Engines: ............................................................................. 63 (3) Required Testing: ........................................................................................... 63 (4) Testing Protocol: ............................................................................................. 66 (5) Evaluation Protocol: ........................................................................................ 67 (6) Confirmatory Testing: ..................................................................................... 69 (j) CERTIFICATION DOCUMENTATION ............................................................. 69 (k) DEFICIENCIES ................................................................................................... 72

    (l) PRODUCTION VEHICLE EVALUATION TESTING ....................................... 73

    (1) Verification of Standardized Requirements. ................................................ 73

    (2) Verification of Monitoring Requirements. ..................................................... 75

    (3) Verification and Reporting of In-use Monitoring Performance. .................. 77

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    DRAFT

    ?1971. On-Board Diagnostic System Requirements--2007 and Subsequent Model-Year Heavy-Duty Vehicles and Engines

(a) PURPOSE

    The purpose of this regulation is to establish emission standards and other

    requirements for onboard diagnostic systems (OBD systems) that are installed on

    2007 and subsequent model-year heavy-duty vehicles and engines certified for sale

    in California. The OBD systems, through the use of an onboard computer(s), shall

    monitor emission systems in-use for the actual life of the vehicle and shall be

    capable of detecting malfunctions of the monitored emission systems, illuminating a

    malfunction indicator light (MIL) to notify the vehicle operator of detected

    malfunctions, and storing fault codes identifying the detected malfunctions.

(b) APPLICABILITY

    Except as specified elsewhere in this regulation (title 13, CCR section 1971), 30%

    of 2007, 60% of 2008, and all 2009 and subsequent model-year heavy-duty

    vehicles shall be equipped with an OBD system and shall meet all applicable

    requirements of this regulation (title 13, CCR section 1971). Manufacturers may

    use an alternate phase-in schedule in lieu of the required phase-in schedule if the

    alternate phase-in schedule provides for equivalent compliance volume as defined

    in section (c) with the exception that 100 percent of 2009 and subsequent model

    year vehicles shall comply with the requirements.

(c) DEFINITIONS

    (1) “Actual life” refers to the entire period that a vehicle is operated on public roads

    in California up to the time a vehicle is retired from use.

    (2) “Alternate phase-in” is a phase-in schedule that achieves equivalent compliance

    volume by the end of the last year of a scheduled phase-in provided in this

    regulation. The compliance volume is the number calculated by multiplying the

    percent of vehicles (based on the manufacturer’s projected sales volume of all

    vehicles) meeting the new requirements per year by the number of years

    implemented prior to and including the last year of the scheduled phase-in and

    then summing these yearly results to determine a cumulative total (e.g., a three

    year, 30/60/100 percent scheduled phase-in would be calculated as (30%*3

    years) + (60%*2 years) + (100%*1 year) = 310). Manufacturers are allowed to

    include vehicles introduced up to on model year before the first year of the

    scheduled phase-in (e.g., in the previous example, 10 percent introduced one

    year before the scheduled phase-in begins would be calculated as (10%*4 years)

    and added to the cumulative total). The Executive Officer shall consider

    acceptable any alternate phase-in which results in an equal or larger cumulative

    total by the end of the last year of the scheduled phase-in; however, all vehicles

    shall comply with the respective requirements subject to the phase-in within one

    model year following the last year of the scheduled phase-in.

    (3) “Applicable standards” refers to the specific exhaust emission standards or

    family emission limits (FEL), including the FTP, NTE, and ESC standards, to

    which the engine is certified.

    DRAFT

    (4) “Auxiliary Emission Control Device (AECD)” refers to any element of design that

    (1) senses temperature, vehicle speed, engine revolutions per minute (rpm),

    transmission gear, manifold vacuum, or any other parameter for the purpose of

    activating, modulating, delaying, or deactivating the operation of the emission

    control system; and (2) reduces the effectiveness of the emission control system

    under conditions that may reasonably be expected to be encountered in normal

    urban vehicle operation and use.

    (5) “Base fuel schedule” refers to the fuel calibration schedule programmed into the

    Powertrain Control Module or PROM when manufactured or when updated by

    some off-board source, prior to any learned on-board correction. (6) “Calculated load value” refers to an indication of the percent engine capacity

    that is being used and is defined in Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)

    J1979 "E/E Diagnostic Test Modes Equivalent to ISO/DIS 15031-5:April 30, 1). 2002", April 2002 (SAE J1979), incorporated by reference (section (h)(1.9)

    For diesel applications, the calculated load value is determined by the ratio of

    current engine output torque to maximum engine output torque at current engine

    speed as defined by parameter definition 5.2.1.7 of SAE J1939-71. (7) “Confirmed fault code” is defined as the diagnostic trouble code stored when an

    OBD system has confirmed that a malfunction exists (e.g., typically on the

    second driving cycle that the malfunction is detected) in accordance with the

    requirements of sections (e)-(g) and (h)(4.4).

    (8) “Continuously,” if used in the context of monitoring conditions for circuit

    continuity, lack of circuit continuity, circuit faults, and out-of-range values, means

    sampling at a rate no less than two samples per second. If for engine control

    purposes, a computer input component is sampled less frequently, the signal of

    the component may instead be evaluated each time sampling occurs. (9) “Deactivate” means to turn-off, shutdown, desensitize, or otherwise make

    inoperable through software programming or other means during the actual life

    of the vehicle.

    (10) “Diagnostic or emission critical” electronic powertrain control unit refers to the

    engine and transmission control unit(s) and any other on-board electronic

    powertrain control unit containing software that has primary control over any of

    the monitors required by sections (e)(1) through (g)(4) and (g)(6) or has primary

    control over the diagnostics for more than two of the components required to be

    monitored by section (g)(5).

    (11) “Diesel engine” refers to an engine using a compression ignition thermodynamic

    cycle or an alternative-fueled engine derived from a diesel-cycle engine. (12) “Driving cycle” is defined as a trip that meets any of the four conditions below:

    (a) Begins with engine startup and ends with engine shutoff;

    (b) Begins with engine startup and ends after four hours of continuous engine-on

    operation;

    (c) Begins at the end of the previous four hours of continuous engine-on

    operation and ends with engine shutoff; or

    (d) Begins at the end of the previous four hours of continuous engine-on

    operation and ends after four hours of continuous engine-on operation.

     1 Unless otherwise noted, all section references refer to section 1971 of title 13, CCR.

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    DRAFT

    For monitors that run during engine-off conditions, the period of engine-off time

    following engine shutoff and up to the next engine startup may be considered

    part of the driving cycle for conditions (a) and (c). For vehicles that employ

    engine shutoff strategies (e.g., engine shutoff at idle), the manufacturer may

    request Executive Officer approval to use an alternate definition for driving cycle

    (e.g., key on and key off). Executive Officer approval of the alternate definition

    shall be based on equivalence to engine startup and engine shutoff signaling the

    beginning and ending of a single driving event for a conventional vehicle.

    Engine restarts following an engine shut-off that has been neither commanded

    by the vehicle operator nor by the engine control strategy but caused by an

    event such as an engine stall may be considered a new driving cycle or a

    continuation of the existing driving cycle.

    (13) “Engine misfire” means lack of combustion in the cylinder due to absence of

    spark, poor fuel metering, poor compression, or any other cause. This does not

    include lack of combustion events in non-active cylinders due to default fuel

    shut-off or cylinder deactivation strategies.

    (14) “Engine start” is defined as the point when the engine reaches a speed 150 rpm

    below the normal, warmed-up idle speed (as determined in the drive position for

    vehicles equipped with an automatic transmission). For hybrid vehicles or for

    engines employing alternate engine start hardware or strategies (e.g., integrated

    starter and generators, etc.), the manufacturer may request Executive Officer

    approval to use an alternate definition for engine start (e.g., ignition key “on”).

    Executive Officer approval of the alternate definition shall be based on

    equivalence to an engine start for a conventional vehicle.

    (15) “European Stationary Cycle (ESC)” refers to the driving schedule defined as the

    “supplemental steady state test” in title 40, part 86, section 1360-2007 of the

    Code of Federal Regulations (CFR).

    (16) “Family Emission Limit (FEL)” refers to the exhaust emission levels to which an

    engine family is certified under the averaging, banking, and trading program

    incorporated by reference in title 13, CCR section 1956.8.

    (17) “Fault memory” means information pertaining to malfunctions stored in the

    onboard computer, including fault codes, stored engine conditions, and MIL

    status.

    (18) “Federal Test Procedure (FTP) test” refers to an exhaust emission test

    conducted according to the test procedures incorporated by reference in title 13,

    CCR section 1956.8(b) and (d) that is used to determine compliance with the

    FTP standard to which a vehicle is certified.

    (18.1) “FTP cycle”. For engines certified on an engine dynamometer, FTP cycle

    refers to the engine dynamometer schedule in CFR title 40, appendix 1, part

    86, section (f)(1), entitled, “EPA Engine Dynamometer Schedule for

    Heavy-Duty Otto-Cycle Engines,” or section (f)(2), entitled, “EPA Engine

    Dynamometer Schedule for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines.”

    (18.2) “FTP standard” refers to the certification exhaust emission standards and test

    procedures incorporated by reference in title 13, CCR section 1956.8(b) and

    (d) and applicable to the class to which the vehicle is certified. (19) “Fuel trim” refers to feedback adjustments to the base fuel schedule. Short-term

    fuel trim refers to dynamic or instantaneous adjustments. Long-term fuel trim

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    DRAFT

    refers to much more gradual adjustments to the fuel calibration schedule than

    short-term trim adjustments.

    (20) “Functional check” for an output component or system means verification of

    proper response of the component and system to a computer command. (21) “Gasoline engine” refers to an Otto-cycle engine except an alternative-fueled

    engine derived from a diesel-cycle engine.

    (22) “Heavy-duty engine” means an engine that is used to propel a heavy-duty

    vehicle.

    (23) “Heavy-duty vehicle” means any motor vehicle having a manufacturer’s gross

    vehicle weight rating greater than 14,000 pounds.

    (24) “Keep-alive memory (KAM),” for the purposes of this regulation, is defined as a

    type of memory that retains its contents as long as power is provided to the on-

    board control unit. KAM is not erased upon shutting off the engine but is erased

    if power to the on-board control unit is interrupted (e.g., vehicle battery

    disconnected, fuse to control unit removed, etc.). In some cases, portions of

    KAM may be erased with a scan tool command to reset KAM.

    (25) “Key on, engine off position” refers to a vehicle with the ignition key in the

    engine run position (not engine crank or accessory position) but with the engine

    not running.

    (26) “Malfunction” means any deterioration or failure of a component that causes the

    performance to be outside of the applicable limits in sections (e) through (g).

    (27) “Not-To Exceed (NTE) control area” refers to the bounded region of the engine’s

    torque and speed map, as defined in title 40, part 86, section 1370-2007 of the

    Code of Federal Regulations, where emissions must not exceed a specific

    emission cap for a given pollutant under the NTE requirement.

    (28) “Non-volatile random access memory (NVRAM),” for the purposes of this

    regulation, is defined as a type of memory that retains its contents even when

    power to the on-board control unit is interrupted (e.g., vehicle battery

    disconnected, fuse to control unit removed, etc.). NVRAM is typically made non-

    volatile by use of either a back-up battery within the control unit or through the

    use of an EEPROM chip.

    (29) “Pending fault code” is defined as the diagnostic trouble code stored upon the

    initial detection of a malfunction (e.g., typically on a single driving cycle) prior to

    illumination of the MIL in accordance with the requirements of sections (e)

    through (g) and (h)(4.4).

    (30) “Permanent fault code” is defined as a confirmed fault code that is currently

    commanding the MIL on and is stored in NVRAM as specified in sections (d)(2)

    and (h)(4.4).

    (31) “Percentage of misfire” as used in (f)(2) means the percentage of misfires out of

    the total number of firing events for the specified interval.

    (32) “Power Take-Off (PTO) unit” refers to an engine driven output provision for the

    purposes of powering auxiliary equipment (e.g., a dump-truck bed, aerial bucket,

    or tow-truck winch).

    (33) “Rationality fault diagnostic” for an input component means verification of the

    accuracy of the input signal while in the range of normal operation and when

    compared to all other available information.

     4

    DRAFT

    (34) “Redline engine speed” shall be defined by the manufacturer as either the

    recommended maximum engine speed as normally displayed on instrument

    panel tachometers or the engine speed at which fuel shutoff occurs. (35) “Response rate” for exhaust gas sensors refers to the delay between a change

    in sensor output in response to a commanded change in the sensed exhaust gas

    parameter. Specifically, the response rate is the delay from the time when the

    exhaust gas sensor is exposed to an increase/decrease of the exhaust gas

    parameter to the time when the exhaust gas sensor indicates the

    increase/decrease of the sensed parameter (e.g., for an oxygen sensor,

    response rate is the delay from the time when the sensor is exposed to a change

    in exhaust gas from richer/leaner than stoichiometric to leaner/richer than

    stoichiometric to the time when the sensor indicates the lean/rich condition; for a

    NOx sensor, response rate is the delay from the time when the sensor is

    exposed to an increase/decrease in NOx concentration to the time when the

    sensor indicates the increased/decreased NOx concentration).

    (36) “Secondary air” refers to air introduced into the exhaust system by means of a

    pump or aspirator valve or other means that is intended to aid in the oxidation of

    HC and CO contained in the exhaust gas stream.

    (37) “Similar conditions” as used in sections (f)(1) and (f)(2) means engine conditions

    having an engine speed within 375 rpm, load conditions within 20 percent, and

    the same warm-up status (i.e., cold or hot) as the engine conditions stored

    pursuant to (f)(1.4.5) and (f)(2.4.4). The Executive Officer may approve other

    definitions of similar conditions based on comparable timeliness and reliability in

    detecting similar engine operation.

    (38) “Start of production” is the time when the manufacturer has produced 2% of the

    projected volume for the engine family or transmission, whichever is being

    evaluated in accordance with section (l).

    (39) “Warm-up cycle” means sufficient vehicle operation such that the coolant

    temperature has risen by at least 40 degrees Fahrenheit from engine starting

    and reaches a minimum temperature of at least 160 degrees Fahrenheit (140

    degrees Fahrenheit for applications with diesel engines).

(d) GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

    Section (d) sets forth the general requirements of the OBD system. Specific

    performance requirements for components and systems that shall be monitored are

    set forth in sections (e) through (g) below.

    (1) The OBD System.

    (1.1) If a malfunction is present as specified in sections (e) through (g), the OBD

    system shall detect the malfunction, store a pending or confirmed fault code

    in the onboard computer’s memory, and illuminate the MIL as required.

    (1.2) The OBD system shall be equipped with a standardized data link connector

    to provide access to the stored fault codes as specified in section (h).

    (1.3) The OBD system shall be designed to operate, without any required

    scheduled maintenance, for the actual life of the vehicle in which it is

    installed and may not be programmed or otherwise designed to deactivate

    based on age and/or mileage of the vehicle during the actual life of the

    vehicle. This section is not intended to alter existing law and enforcement

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    DRAFT

    practice regarding a manufacturer’s liability for a vehicle beyond its useful life,

    except where a vehicle has been programmed or otherwise designed so that

    an OBD system deactivates based on age and/or mileage of the vehicle.

    (1.4) Computer-coded engine operating parameters may not be changeable

    without the use of specialized tools and procedures (e.g. soldered or potted

    computer components or sealed (or soldered) computer enclosures). Subject

    to Executive Officer approval, manufacturers may exempt from this

    requirement those product lines that are unlikely to require protection.

    Criteria to be evaluated in making an exemption include current availability of

    performance chips, high performance capability of the vehicle, and sales

    volume.

    (2) MIL and Fault Code Requirements.

    (2.1) MIL Specifications.

    (2.1.1) The MIL shall be located on the driver's side instrument panel and be of

    sufficient illumination and location to be readily visible under all lighting

    conditions and shall be amber in color when illuminated. The MIL, when

    illuminated, shall display the phrase “Check Powertrain”.

    (2.1.2) The MIL shall illuminate in the key on, engine off position before engine

    cranking to indicate that the MIL is functional. The MIL shall continuously

    illuminate during this functional check for a minimum of 15-20 seconds.

    During this functional check of the MIL, the data stream value for MIL

    status shall indicate commanded off (see section (h)(4.2)) unless the MIL

    has also been commanded on for a detected malfunction. This functional

    check of the MIL is not required during vehicle operation in the key on,

    engine off position subsequent to the initial engine cranking of each

    driving cycle (e.g., due to an engine stall or other non-commanded engine

    shutoff).

    (2.1.3) At the manufacturer's option, the MIL may be used to indicate readiness

    status in a standardized format (see section (h)(4.1.3)) in the key on,

    engine off position.

    (2.1.4) A manufacturer may request Executive Officer approval to also use the

    MIL to indicate which, if any, fault codes are currently stored (e.g., to

    “blink” the stored codes). The Executive Officer shall approve the request

    upon determining that the manufacturer has demonstrated that the

    method used to indicate the fault codes will not be activated during a

    California Inspection and Maintenance test or during routine driver

    operation.

    (2.1.5) The MIL may not be used for any purpose other than specified in this

    regulation.

    (2.2) MIL Illumination and Fault Code Storage Protocol.

    (2.2.1) Upon detection of a malfunction, the OBD system shall store a pending

    fault code within ten seconds indicating the likely area of the malfunction. (2.2.2) After storage of a pending fault code, if the identified malfunction is again

    detected before the end of the next driving cycle in which monitoring

    occurs, the MIL shall illuminate continuously and a confirmed fault code

    shall be stored within 10 seconds. If a malfunction is not detected before

    the end of the next driving cycle in which monitoring occurs (i.e., there is

     6

    DRAFT

    no indication of the malfunction at any time during the driving cycle), the

    corresponding pending fault code set according to section (d)(2.2.1) shall

    be erased at the end of the driving cycle.

    (2.2.3) A manufacturer may request Executive Officer approval to employ

    alternate statistical MIL illumination and fault code storage protocols to

    those specified in these requirements. The Executive Officer shall grant

    approval upon determining that the manufacturer has provided data

    and/or engineering evaluation that demonstrate that the alternative

    protocols can evaluate system performance and detect malfunctions in a

    manner that is equally effective and timely. Strategies requiring on

    average more than six driving cycles for MIL illumination shall not be

    accepted.

    (2.2.4) A manufacturer shall store and erase “freeze frame” conditions (as

    defined in section (h)(4.3)) present at the time a malfunction is detected.

    A manufacturer shall store and erase freeze frame conditions in

    conjunction with storage and erasure of either pending or confirmed fault

    codes as required elsewhere in section (d)(2.2).

    (2.2.5) The MIL shall also illuminate and a confirmed fault code shall be stored

    within 10 seconds to inform the vehicle operator whenever the powertrain

    enters a default or “limp home” mode of operation that can affect

    emissions or the performance of the OBD system or in the event of a

    malfunction of an on-board computer(s) itself that can affect the

    performance of the OBD system. If the default or “limp home” mode of

    operation is recoverable (i.e., operation automatically returns to normal at

    the beginning of the following driving cycle), the OBD system may wait

    and illuminate the MIL only if the default or “limp home” mode of operation

    is again entered before the end of the next driving cycle in lieu of

    illuminating the MIL within 10 seconds on the first driving cycle where the

    default or “limp home” mode of operation is entered.

    (2.2.6) Before the end of each driving cycle, the OBD II system shall store

    confirmed fault codes that are currently causing the MIL to be illuminated

    in NVRAM as permanent fault codes (as defined in section (h)(4.4.6)).

    (2.3) Extinguishing the MIL.

    Except as otherwise provided in sections (f)(1.4.6), (f)(2.4.5), and (f)(7.4.2)

    for fuel system, misfire, and evaporative system malfunctions, once the MIL

    has been illuminated it may be extinguished after three subsequent

    sequential driving cycles during which the monitoring system responsible for

    illuminating the MIL functions and the previously detected malfunction is no

    longer present provided no other malfunction has been detected that would

    independently illuminate the MIL according to the requirements outlined

    above.

    (2.4) Erasing a confirmed or permanent fault code.

    (2.4.1) The OBD system may erase a confirmed fault code if the identified

    malfunction has not been again detected in at least 40 engine warm-up

    cycles, and the MIL is presently not illuminated for that malfunction. (2.4.2) A permanent fault code shall only be erased from an on-board computer

    by the OBD II system itself upon it determining that a malfunction is no

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