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...trends and cost and effectiveness of alternative control ...

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...trends and cost and effectiveness of alternative control ...

    Study on mercury-emitting sources, including emissions trends and cost and effectiveness of

    alternative control measures

    UNEP Paragraph 29 study

    Zero Draft report

    2010-03-04

Contributing authors;

    John Munthe, Karin Kindbom, Jenny Arnell, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Jozef Pacyna, Kyrre Sundseth, Elisabeth Pacyna, NILU

    Damian Panasiuk, NILU PL,

    Simon Wilson, AMAP

    Peter Maxson, Concorde East/West

Table of contents

1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 6

    1.1. Background, Scope and Mandate ................................................................................. 6 1.2. Sources of information ................................................................................................. 6

     Global emissions of mercury and future scenarios .......................................................... 8 2.

    2.1. Global anthropogenic mercury emissions to air ........................................................... 8 2.2. Trends in global mercury emissions to air .................................................................. 11 2.2.1. Emissions by geographical region ........................................................................ 12 2.3. Scenarios for global mercury emissions to air ............................................................ 14 2.3.1. Basic principles ..................................................................................................... 14

    2.3.2. Scenario descriptions ............................................................................................ 15

    3. Emission control, efficiencies and costs .......................................................................... 18 3.1. Emission control ......................................................................................................... 18

    3.1.1. General primary control measures ........................................................................ 18 3.1.2. Technical co-control of air pollutants and mercury .............................................. 19 3.2. Combining different control technologies for optimised mercury control ................. 20 3.3. Cost and efficiencies for mercury control .................................................................. 21

    4. Characterisation of the selected sectors .......................................................................... 23 4.1. Coal combustion in power plants and industrial boilers ............................................. 23 4.1.1. Origin of mercury and emissions from coal combustion ...................................... 23 4.1.2. Technologies for coal combustion ........................................................................ 23 4.1.3. Control measures in coal combustion ................................................................... 24 4.1.4. Costs and efficiencies of control technologies for coal fired power plants .......... 27

    4.2. Non ferrous metal production ..................................................................................... 30 4.2.1. Origin of mercury and emissions from non-ferrous metal production ................. 30

    4.2.2. Technologies for non-ferrous metal production ................................................... 31 4.2.3. Control measures in non-ferrous metal production .............................................. 32 4.2.4. Costs and efficiencies of control technologies for non ferrous metal

    production. ............................................................................................................ 32

    DRAFT report 1

4.3. Cement production ..................................................................................................... 34

    4.3.1. Origin of mercury and emissions from cement production .................................. 34 4.3.2. Control measures in cement production ............................................................... 35 4.3.3. Costs and efficiencies of control technologies for cement production. ................ 36 4.4. Waste incineration ...................................................................................................... 37

    4.4.1. Origin of mercury and emissions from waste incineration ................................... 37 4.4.2. Technologies for municipal solid waste incineration ........................................... 38 4.4.3. Control measures in waste incineration ................................................................ 38 4.4.4. Costs and efficiencies of control technologies for waste incineration. ................. 39

    5. Summary and plans for second phase of study .............................................................. 43 5.1. Summary ..................................................................................................................... 43

    5.2. Continuation of the Para 29 study .............................................................................. 43

6. References: ........................................................................................................................ 46

    DRAFT report 2

    Note:

This Zero Draft report provides a summary of available knowledge on mercury

    emissions to air; short description of the sectors selected for this study; where mercury enters the processes and where/how it is released to air; control options and the

     associated costs. It is based on reports on global mercury emissions and qualitative assessment of costs and efficiencies of control options, prepared for UNEP in 2008, as

    well as recent information available from the open literature on emissions, control

    options and costs.

    This Zero Draft report also contains an overview of future scenarios for mercury emissions and initial assumptions to be used in the preparation of scenario calculations during Phase 2 of the study.

     In Phase 2 additional information will be collected in order to refine and revise the

     information presented here. Questionnaires and electronic spreadsheets have been

     prepared to submit information. In the questionnaires, the countries are invited to

    report on the technical specifications of the selected sectors either as country averages

    or on an individual plant basis. The request for information also asks for information on current and planned implementation of control measures for air pollutants, restructuring and modernisation of the sectors. The collected information will be

     compiled in the spring of 2010 to provide for a more accurate basis for development of

    improved estimates and scenarios on emissions, better source characterization and

    improved estimates of control costs and efficiencies.

The intention with the Zero draft report is not to provide direct input to the

    intergovernmental negotiating committee at this stage but rather to inform countries and

    individuals involved in the UNEP mercury activities on status of information currently available for calculating costs and efficiencies for mercury emission reduction

     strategies. It should also serve as a guide for those countries involved in the Paragraph

     29 study on the type of information needed, and why this information is necessary for more detailed and accurate scenario calculations.

    DRAFT report 3

List of abbreviations

    AMAP Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program

    BAT Best Available Technology

    BREF Best Available Technology Reference Documents By product emissions Emissions occurring from sources where mercury is a contaminant

    in fuel or raw material used in the process. CCC Clean Coal Centre of the IEA

    CO Carbon monoxide

    ESP Electrostatic Precipitator

    ESPREME Integrated Assessment of heavy metal releases in Europe. Research project funded

    by European Union

    EU European Union

    EU-27 The 27 member states of the European Union EXEC Extended Emissions Control scenario

    FBC Fluidized Bed Combustion

    FF Fabric Filter

    FGD Flue Gas Desulphurization

    HEIMSTA Research project funded by European Union. 0Hg Elemental mercury

    HgCl Mercuric Chloride 2

    IEA International Energy Agency

    INC Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee

    Intentional use emissions Emissions occurring from sources where mercury is intentionally used

    e.g. in products or as a part of an industrial process. IPPC Integrated Pollution Prevention Control, a EU directive LRTAP Convention, CLRTAP Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air

    Pollution. A convention on air pollution under the UN Economic Commission

    for Europe (UN ECE)

    MFTR Maximum Feasible Technical Reduction scenario NH Ammonia 3

    NOx Nitrogen Oxides

    PCC Pulverized Coal Combustion

    PM Particulate Matter

    SCR Selective Catalytic Reduction

    SNCR Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction

    SO Sulphur Dioxide 2

    DRAFT report 4

SQ Status Quo scenario

VOC Volatile Organic Carbon

DRAFT report 5

1. Introduction

    1.1. Background, Scope and Mandate

    As called for in paragraph 29 of decision 25/5 III of the Governing Council/Global Ministerial Environment Forum of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), a study is being undertaken on the various types of mercury-emitting sources and current and future trends in mercury emissions, including an analysis and assessment of the cost and the effectiveness of alternative control technologies and measures.

    The purpose of the study is to inform the work of the intergovernmental negotiating committee (INC) and, as such, to give background information relevant to the development of measures for controlling mercury emissions that could be featured in the legally binding instrument that is to be elaborated.

    The main objectives of the study are:

    (a) To present updated and new information on mercury emissions for selected countries and sectors and current trends in mercury emissions;

    (b) To provide an overview of the technical characteristics of the main sources of mercury emissions in important sectors in the selected countries;

    (c) To provide an overview of current and planned initiatives and measures at the national, regional and global levels and how they may affect future mercury emissions. This includes initiatives directed to mercury, air pollution abatement and carbon dioxide abatement; (d) To provide quantitative information on the effectiveness and costs of relevant and representative abatement measures in the selected sectors.

    The study will focus on the largest emission source categories identified on the basis of previous UNEP emissions reports and information available from the open literature and for which information on costs and effectiveness of alternative control technologies and measures may be available and informative for the INC. These priority sources are coal-fired power plants and industrial boilers; non-ferrous metal production (in particular lead, zinc, copper and gold); waste incineration; and cement production. The selected sectors all emit mercury from high temperature processes at large point sources. These characteristics imply common approaches to control mercury emissions to air.

    The study will use information from countries that have significant mercury emissions in each of the source categories. The selected countries for the study are Brazil, China, India, the Russian Federation, South Africa, the United States of America and the 27 countries of the European Union. The results will be extrapolated to provide global estimates and presented in the form of a series of different mercury control scenarios providing a range of emissions reductions at different estimated implementation costs.

    The project will be conducted in two phases where this report represents the results of Phase 1: The Zero Draft Report.

    1.2. Sources of information

    This Zero Draft report is mainly based on two reports prepared in 2008; the Global Mercury Emission Inventory for 2005 (prepared in cooperation between UNEP and AMAP,

    DRAFT report 6

    http://www.chem.unep.ch/mercury/Atmospheric_Emissions/Technical_background_report.pdf) and ―A general qualitative assessment of the potential costs and benefits associated with each of the strategic objectives set out in Annex 1 of the report of the first meeting of the Open Ended Working Group‖ available at:

    http://www.chem.unep.ch/mercury/OEWG2/documents/e52)/English/OEWG_2_5_add_1.pdf

    Additional information on control technologies was taken from the open literature and results from EU projects such as ESPREME and HEIMSTA.

    DRAFT report 7

2. Global emissions of mercury and future scenarios

    Purpose of section

    To provide an overview of the global anthropogenic emissions of mercury, both as total emissions and from the selected sectors and geographical regions.

    Sources of information available for the zero draft text:

    UNEP/AMAP report (2008): ―Technical Background Report to the Global

    Atmospheric Mercury Assessment‖ with updates from the on-going AMAP Arctic

    Mercury Assessment.

    Status of information:

    Currently best available knowledge

    Anticipated improvements to be made in final Paragraph 29 study report

    New information provided by the selected countries through the questionnaires

    will permit improved estimates of emissions from selected sectors in the selected countries, to be used as a basis for the development of scenarios for emissions, emission controls and costs as well as for global extrapolation.

    2.1. Global anthropogenic mercury emissions to air

    An inventory of the global anthropogenic emissions of mercury for 2005 was prepared in a joint UNEP/AMAP project in 2008. Details on the methods, data sources and other information can be found in

    http://www.chem.unep.ch/MERCURY/Atmospheric_Emissions/Technical_background_report.pdf.

    The 2005 inventory addressed ‗by-product‘ mercury emissions to air from main energy

    production and industrial sectors and estimates of emissions associated with a number of ‗intentional-use‘ sectors. ‗By-product‘ sectors include: stationary combustion of fossil fuels in power plants and for residential heating; pig iron and steel production; non-ferrous metal production; cement production; mercury production; large scale gold production; and certain ‗other‘ activities. Mercury emissions from the chlor-alkali industry are also accounted in the

    ‗by-product‘ sector inventory. Intentional-use sectors include artisanal and small-scale gold

    mining; emissions from dental use of mercury associated with cremations; secondary steel production; diffuse releases from product use, and waste disposal (including waste incineration). Stationary combustion of coal is the largest single source category of anthropogenic mercury emission to air, represented in Figure 1 by coal combustion in power plants and by residential and other combustion. Mercury is present in coal as a minor constituent which is released to air during combustion. Combustion of other fossil fuels for energy or heat production, contribute to mercury emissions but to a significantly smaller extent than coal.

    Mining and industrial processing of ores, in particular in primary production of iron and steel and non-ferrous metal production (especially copper, lead and zinc smelting), release mercury as a result of both fuel combustion and mercury present as impurities in ores. Metal production sources of mercury also include mining and production of mercury itself (a relatively minor

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    source) and production of gold, where mercury is both present in ores and used in some industrial processes to extract gold from lode deposits. Use of mercury to extract gold in artisanal and small-scale gold mining operations is an intentional use also giving rise to large emissions both to air and to water. Water emissions are in this case larger than the air emissions and may result in significant environmental impacts on the local scale.

    The third major source of ‗by-product‘ releases of mercury is associated with cement

    production, where mercury is released as a result of the combustion of fuels (mainly coal but also a range of wastes) to heat cement kilns and from mercury contained in the raw material (limestone etc) and additives.

    Other sources included in the UNEP/AMAP (2008) inventory are caustic soda production (chlor-alkali industry), mercury production, gold production (large scale and artisanal), waste incineration and other waste disposal, cremation and diffuse releases from product use. The estimated global anthropogenic emissions of mercury to air in 2005 from the various sectors are presented in Table 1 and Figure 1.

    In Table 1 the emissions and the relative contribution to global mercury emissions to air in 2005 from the selected sectors for this study are presented in the top five rows. Coal combustion in power plants contributed 26 percent to global emissions, non-ferrous metal production 7 percent, large-scale gold production 6 percent, cement production 10 percent and large scale waste incineration 2 percent. The total emissions of mercury from the waste sector (i.e. including small scale burning, emissions from waste land-fills) represent an additional 4 % of the global total. These sectors were prioritised due to their respective relative contribution to global emissions of mercury to air, and as being sectors largely consisting of point sources with high temperature combustion or processes where installation and use of similar technical emission control equipment is feasible.

    DRAFT report 9

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