DOC

Advance on Effective Chopping Emulsification Technology in Meat Processing

By Andrea Webb,2014-01-26 10:04
7 views 0
Advance on Effective Chopping Emulsification Technology in Meat Processing

    Advance on Effective Chopping

    Emulsification Technology in Meat

    Processing

    中?内妻食螓奢究中心

    cHMEATRESEARCHCENTERWWW,cmrc.

    corn.cn

    肉类研究

    MEATRESEARCH

    2009.10

    AdvanceonEffectiveChopping

    EmulsificationTechnologyinMeatProcessing

    CUIYanfei

    ,ZHAOGaiming,WANGYulen,XIEHua,LIMiaoyun,LIUYanxiaJ,XUXiOng (1.CollegeofFoodScience&Technology,HenanAgriculturalUniversity, Zhengzh."450002.Chi

    2.TechnologyCenterofShinewayGroup,LuoheHanan462000,Chin)

    Abstract:Effectiveemulsificationtechnologywasappliedinmeatprocessingtoachievewaterholdingand

    O1Istabilityinthemeatproducts.Theeffectsofchoppingemulsificationtechnologyaremainlyaffectedbv

    tactors,whichwaschoppingparametersandrawmeatmaterials.Choppingparameterssuchaschopping

    temperature,choppingspeed,choppingtimearecrucialfactorsinchoppingemulsificationtechnology.

    Whilerawmaterialssuchasrawmeattype,nonmeatproteins,

    emulsifiersandhydrophilicgumsarealso

importantfactorsdirectlyinfluencingemulsification.Thepapermainlyreviewedtheadvanc

    eonchopping

    emulsificationtechnologyinmeatprocessingfromaforementionedaspects.

    Keywords:chopping;emulsification;meatproduct;advance ::smduet.orich-

    productsarethemaintypeofcookedmeatproductsin westerndevelopedcountries.Atpresent.thecivilmanet wasripeforlow-temperaturemeatproducts.anditwas extremelybroad.However.waterandoiloutflowfrom lowtemperaturemeatproducts,whichwasaserious problemfacedbymeatproductenterprise,wasvery common,Sothemeatproductenterpriseusedagreatdea1 offoodadditivesandnon.meatproteintosolvethese problem,leadtopoorqualityandlackofhighgradelow

    temperaturemeatproducts.Usinghighefficientchopping meatemulsiontechnologyintheproductionprocessof lowtemperaturemeatproductswasveryimportant,the aimwastohomogenizerawmaterialssuchasmuscle, protein,fat,water,saltandadditives,reducingthesize ofrawmaterials,ultimatelyformthefinestructureand morphology.Themainfunction,whichplayacritical roleintexture,wastoimprovethewaterandoilholding capacityofthemeatproduct.Inrecentyears,bothathome andabroad.therearealotofchoppingtechnicalmethods inthefieldofmeatproduct.Summinguptheresultsof thesestudies,whichwasvaluableformeatbusiness. geceived:28July

    Correspondingauthor

    2009

    DrZHAOGaiming

1Factorsthataffectthemeatemulsion

    Emulsifyingtechnologyinmeatproductswasinfluenced byavarietyoffactors,whichcanbebroadlydividedinto twomajorcategories,i.e.technology,rawmaterials andadditive.Inthetechnics,choppingtemperature, choppingspeed,choppingtime,pHandotherfactors, whichaffectmeatemulsiongreatly_l~5].Intheraw materialsofmeat,nonmeatprotein,emulsifierthe

    hydrophilicgel,thefactorsofwhichhaveamajor impactonthemeatemulsion[6-91.Researchingand controlingthesefactorsaretheimportantprecondition ontheemulsionsausage.

    2Choppingprocessonemulsionmaterial

    Choppingtechnicswassuchaprocess,inwhichmeatand otheringredientswerecutandmixedintofineparticles. Thechoppingprocess,whichwasamostimportantrole inemusifingmeat.Theprocessparametersofchopping hadimportantimpactontheproductquality,aslighterror, wouldleadtoaseriesofqualityproblems.Appropriate choppingconditions,couldensuredense,crisptexture, richflavor,goodflexibilityandgoodoilholdingcapacity. Choppingconditionsincludingtemperature,time,pHof rawmeatandsoon

    ZOO0弄罐{0勰惑棼i2g——

    85

.一囊曩曩誊誊叠薯曩曩露?冀冀叠算曩囊一叠l?誓.?0.童?l?叠—鼻?警

    2.1Choppingtemperature

    Choppingtemperaturehadaveryimportantroleon theextractionofsalt.solubleproteins[31.Theoptimum

temperatureformyosinextractionwas4-8?.whenthe

    meatemulsiontemperatureincreasetheextractionof saltsolubleproteinreducedsignificantly.Theprotein wouldbecomecoagulation.ifthetemperaturewastoo high.Duetothefrictionofcuttingandemulsifying machine,heatwouldproducedinrawmeatandmeat emulsion(WangPeng2007)[1O1.Thepropertemperature increasecouldhelpsaltsolubleproteindissolveout,

    inducethecuredcolourformed,alsoincreasethefluid ofthemeatemulsion.However.ifthetemperatureof themeatemulsionwastoohigh,itwouldleadtothe salt.solubleproteindegeneration.asaresultitwould leadthelOSSofemulsification.Thedropoftheviscosity, whichwouldbringonthefatemulsionparticlestothe meatemulsionsurface.alsoinducedtheunstabilityofthe meatemulsion.Hightemperaturewouldleadtothethaw ofthefatparticles.inwhichthefatemulsionparticles wouldbecomesmallerparticleseasily~Thesolubleprotein couldnotbefullywrapped,thatwastosay,thefatwasn't absolutelyemusifying.Ifthesausagewasprocessedunder thissituation.itwouldbreakdowneasily.andtheOilOf thesausagewouldbeout.

    Ifthetemperatureoftherawmeatandtheoperating roomwastoohigh,theemusifyingeffectwouldnotgood. Ifthecutlackofsharpandthechoppingtimewastoo long,itwouldalsocausethisproblem.Al1abovewould causeoilproducts,soweaddicetothemeatemulsion. Theicemustbemadebyspecialequipment.Theminimum temperatureofthemeatemulsionwas0?.Infact.itwas

    verydifficulttodropthetemperaturedowntoanideal

    temperatureinthesummer.Inordertogetidealresultwe addsaltwater,whichhadthe1owerfreezingpoint.Salt water,whichcouldreducethechoppingtemperatureand alsocouldnotdilutethemeatemulsion.

    Thechangeofthechoppingtemperatureandthe bestchoppingtime,allofwhichhadbeenresearched athomeandabroad,butresultsweredifferent.When choppingendtemperaturechangefrom12?to20?.

    thewaterholdingcapacityoftheproductwasstable,the waterholdingcapacitywoulddropifthetemperature above20~C(Puolanne1985)..Whenchoppingend temperaturechangefrom10~Cto21?.thewaterholding

    capacityandoilholdingcapacitywouldbothincrease. Whenthetemperaturewashigherthan2rC,thewater holdingcapacityandtheoilholdingcapacity,which woulddecreasenotincrease.Between15?and22.C.the

    waterholdingcapacityandtheoilholdingcapacityof theemulsionsausagewasbetter.Whenthetemperature wasstable,extendingthechoppingtimecouldalso 86.——

    producethechangeofthewaterholdingcapacityand theoilholdingcapacity(BrownandToledo1975)[31. Differentchoppingtemperature(6?,12?,18?)on

    emulsionsausagequalitywasnotthesame.Whenthe choppingtemperaturewas12~C,theoilholdingcapacity oftheemulsionsausagewasbetter.Theresultoftexture profileanalysisandtasteanalysiswerethesame.When thechoppingendtemperaturewas12~C,thespringness, thechewingness,theshearingstrengthwerebetter. ThemicrOstrcturecharacterwasticwasbetterwhenthe

    choppingtimewas12~C(ZhouWeiwei2007)iii.When thechoppingtemperaturewasl5.7?.theemulsion

    systemwasbetter(HelmerandSafe1963)[131.When

    thechoppingtemperaturevaryfrom9?to15?ithad

    nosignificanteffectontheshearingforceoffrankfurter (HensleyandHand1995)[31.Choppingtemperaturehad verserelationshiponthelowfatBolognasausageand

    thehighfatBolognasausage.Whenthechoppingtime wastoolong,thetemperaturewouldraise,andthefat wouldbecomesmall,thenthehardnessofthesausage woulddrop.Theshearingnesswoulddropasthechopping temperaturearise.rColmenero1996)".reportedthatThe appropriatechoppingendtemperatureonthesausagewas nottoaddphosphateattheendofchoppedtemperature wasvaryfrom10.Cto12~C,butwhenweaddphosphate, thetemperaturewouldchangefrom16~Cto18~CfKletter 1987).

    Itcanbeseenthatthechoppingeffectwasinfluenced bymanyfacts,suchasingredientstype,thequantityof fat,curedadditive.Whentheresearchconditionwas different,wewouldgetthedifferentconclusion.Inorder todeterminethemostappropriatechoppingtemperature, wemustcarryoutspecificstudiesbaseonthespecific circumstances.

    2.2Choppingtime

    Choppingtimewasanimportantfactoronthechopping effect.Appropriatechoppingtimecouldmakerawmeat morefineness,alsoimprovethequalityoftheemeat product.Ifthechoppingtimewastoolong,wouldbecome toosmall.whichwouldincreasethesurfaceareaoffat.

    Thesmal1fatparticles.whichcouldnotwrapedbythe protein,becomefatcapsule.Sothatthemeatemulsion breakdown,reducingthequalityofthemeatproducts. Thehardness,thespringness,thecohesionofthe beefproductsincreaseatthebeginningandthendecrease, theywouldreachedthehiestvaluewhenthechopping timewas20minutes(KongBaohua20031[51.Whenthe choppingtimewastooshort,themyofibrilscouldnotfully playedtheroleofemulsification,thesaltsolubleprotein

    hadlowsolubility,thegelpropertiesofmeatproducts wouldnotwel1.Ifthechoppingtimewastoolong,the muscleproteinwouldover-mixing,grinding.Allabove 2000耳孳0糍总爨:8

    wouldinducepartoftheproteindenaturalization.also decreasetheemulsificationcapacity,thegelhardness, the

    springness,thecohesionandsoon.Choppingtoolongor tooshOrtwasnotgoodtothetextureofthemeatproduct. soweshouldchooseappropriatechoppingtimeaccording totheproducttexture.

    2.3pH

    Duringthechoppingprocess,thedissolverateofmuscle proteinandthestructurearedirectlyaffectedbythe pHofmediamaterials.ThepHdeterminetheprotein gelationpropertiesandgelcharacteristic.ThepHof materialmediumaffectedtheproteinstructureandcharge distribution.ThepHchangeledtotheproteinprotein

    interactionshasachange,thusaffectingtheformationof proteingelstrength.Theheat-inducedmyosingelneeds

    themostsuitablepH6.0in0.6mol/LKC1solution.When pHbeyond6.0,themyosinwouldformatransparentge1. ButwhilepHunder6.0,themyosinwouldformanopaque ge1.accompaningdehydrationshrinkinglI4_.Butwhen thepHbetween6.5and7.6.themyosinhadagoodgel properties(Funatsu1991)Ll61.

    2.4Choppingspeed

    Choppingspeedhadagreatimpactonthemeatproducts, andthedissolutionoftheprotein.Choppingtoofastortoo slowlywouldseriouslyaffecttheproductwaterholding capacityandoilholdingcapacity.Choppingtooslowlyor non-sharpknifecutingwouldaffectthemeatemulsioncan notachievethedesiredextent.Choppingtooslowlywould leadtotheoilproducts.Ifyoucuttoofast,thechopping bladewouldhaveafrictionbetweenmeat.Thefriction, whichledtotheproteindenaturation,andthenthenetwork structureofproteinhadachange,reducingtheinteraction betweenproteins,resultinginformingapoorproduct density,badwaterand0ilholdingcapacity(Wang1997)[41. Choppingspeedhadagreatimpactonthequalityofmeat, soweshouldusetheappropriatechoppingspeedinthemeat processing(Liu2001)/i.

    3Rawmaterialsontheemulsificationtechnology 3.1Rawmeat

    Differentrawmeathadthedifferentemulsioncapacity. reportedthatthedifferentpartsofthebeefandporkhad differentemulsifiedcapacity,andlongstorageofmeat wouldleadtothereducedabilityoftheemulsion(Wang Fei20011.Inthiscase,addtheslaughteredporkleg, whichhadremainingtemperature,couldincreasethe

    emulsioncapacity.Theextentofthestiffmeataffectedthe emulsilyingcapacityofmeat(YaHao2007)[61.Thehot meathadthebetterwaterandoilholdingcapacitythan coldmeat(Wang2007).

    3.2Phosphateandsalt

    Thephosphate,whichcouldchangetheheatinduced

    myofibrillarproteinrheologicalcharacteristic,improve theheatinducedsalt.solubleproteingelcapacity.The proteingel,whichdeterminedthehardness,thewater holdingcapacityandsoon,couldmaintainwaterandfat holdingc~pacity,affectingtheprocessingtechnology. Thecompound,whichweresuperiortothesingle phosphate.Thebetterratioofthecompoundphosphate mainlywere2:2:1(STPP:sodiumpyrophosphate: SodiumHexametaphosphate).Butdifferentproductsneed dissimilarratioofcompoundphosphate.Thebetteramount ofphosphateinhamwas0.4%.Withintheaddition between0.2%and0.5%,withthephosphateincreasing, theyieldoftheemulsionproductwouldincrease,alsothe hardnessandchewingnessoftheproductwouldbetter. Theadditionofthecompositephosphatehadnosignificant effectonthetotalpressureiuicevolume,cohesionand springness(WangPeng2006)[201.

    Addingsaltduringpremixedprocesscould

    significantlyimprovemyofibrilfunctionality.When thesaltexistinthemeatemulsion,thephosphatecould significantlyimprovethefunctionalityofmusleprotein afterstiffness,whileithadnosignificantonthemusle beforestiffness.Premixedbeforestiffnesscouldimprove thewaterholdingcapacityandtextureoftheemulsion

    sausage.Wecouldgethighyield,lowstoragelosses.We couldalsolowerthehardnessoftheproduct,thehardness wouldincreaseduringstorage.Whenusingphosphate indifferentrawmeat,wewouldgetdifferenteffect.The amountof0.2%compoundphosphatewasthelower thresholdtotalpressurejuicefortheripenmeatandfrozen meat.comparingto0.1%forthemeatbeforestiffness. Increasingtheuseofphosphatecouldreducehardness andchewingness,whichwouldincreaseforthemeat afterstiffness.Alsowecouldreducethefluctuationofthe reversion,increasedthematurityofmeatandthehardness offrozenmeat.

    3.2Non-meatprotein

    Soyproteinisolate,sodiumcaseinprotein,soyproteinand othernonmeatprotein.allofwhichhadtheproperties ofkeepingmoisture,modifyingtexture,emulsifyingand soon.Nonmeatproteinwaswidelyusedinthemeat

    products,sothedemandhadbeenincreasinginrecent years.Soyproteinisolatecouldcombinatefatandwater, inthiswaythecookinglossofmeatproductscouldbe effectivereduced,alsotheoilcouldbeeasilywrapped inthesausage.Thesoybeanproteinpeptide,forming theproteinmembraneonthesurfaceofthefatball,was addedtothemeatproducts.Itcouldalsomakethefat intheproductemusifyintosmallball,dispersinginto theswellingmusclefibers,preventingtheexcessive contraction.Whenthesoybeanproteinpeptidewasadded totheemulsionsausage,thetextureofwhichbecome 2009耳纂0期总鐾28搬——

    87

Report this document

For any questions or suggestions please email
cust-service@docsford.com