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Review and Development on the Studies of Chinese Meteorological Satellite and Satellite Meteorology

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Review and Development on the Studies of Chinese Meteorological Satellite and Satellite Meteorology

    Review and Development on the Studies of

    Chinese Meteorological Satellite and

    Satellite Meteorology

    VOL.20NO.3ACTAMETEORoLOGICASINICA2006

    ReviewandDevelopmentontheStudiesofChineseMeteorological

    SatelliteandSatelliteMeteorology

    FANGZongyi(方宗义),XUJianmin(许健民),andZHAOFengsheng(赵风生)

    NationalSatelliteMeteorologicalCenter,Beijing100081

    (ReceivedAugust5,2006)

    ABSTRACT

    Meteorologicalsatelliteandsatellitemeteorologyarethefastestdevelopingnewbranchesintheatmo-

    sphericsciences.Todaythemeteorologicalsatellitehasbecomeakeyelementintheglobalatmospheric

    soundingsystemwhilethesatellitemeteorologyiscoveringthemaincomponentsofearth'ssystemscience.

    ThisarticledescribesthemajorachievementsthatChinahasmadeinthesefieldsinthepast30years.

    Thefollowingcontentsareinvolved:(1)HistoryandpresentstatusofChina'smete0r0l0calsatellites.It

    coversthedevelopment,launch,operation,technicalparametersofChina'spolarandge0stati0naryme--

    teorologicalsatellites.f21Majorachievementsonremotesensingprincipleandmethod.Itdescribesthe

    retrievalofatmospherictemperatureandhumidityprofiles,cloudcharacterretrieval,aerosolcharacterre-

trieval,precipitationretrievalaswellasthegenerationofcloudwind.(3)Achievementonthes

    tudiesof

    meteor0l0gicalsatellitedataapplication.Thispartcoverstheapplicationsofmete0r0l0calsa

    tellitedatato

    weatheranalysisandforecast,numericalforecast,climatemonitoring,andpredictionofshor

    t.termclimate

    change.Besidesthenewresultsondataassimilation,climatemonitoring,andforecastarealso

    included.

    Keywords:mete0r0l0calsatellite,satellitemeteorology,satellitedataapplication,retrieval

    method

    1.HistoryofthedevelopmentofChineseme-

    teorologicalsatellites

    InthelateJanuaryof1969,theChangjiangand

    HuangheValleyswereattackedbyastrongcoldair

    whichthencausedaseveresleetandice.Atthetime,

    thewirecommunicationwasoutoffcommissionin

    thelargeareaofSouthandEastChina.Justafter

    thismeteorologicalevent,theformerPrimeMinister

    ZhouEnlaipointedoutthat"weshouldbuildthecap-

    italconstructionthroughself-reliance.Forendingthe

    backwardness,weshouldhaveourownmeteorological

    satellite."

    Meteorologicalsatellitesystemconsistsoffive

    subsystems.AmongthemtheChinaAerospaceCor-

    porationisresponsibleforthesatellitesubsystemand

    launchvehiclesubsystem;theChineseAcademyofSci-

    encesisinchargeofthescanningradiometerofthe

    satellite;thelaunchsiteandthetelemetry&con.

    trolsubsystemsaretakenchargebyXichangSatellite

    LaunchCenterandXi'anSatelliteControlCenterre.

    spectively.TheChinaMeteorologicalAdministration isinchargeofthedesign,construction,andoperation ofthegroundsegmentsubsystem.

    ThefirstChinesepolar-orbitingmeteorological satellite-FY.1wasputintotheNationalPlanin1977. Thegroundsystemofthesatellitebeganitsconstrue- tionin1978andtheprojectwascompletedin1987. Thisgroundsystemisabletoreceiveandprocessthe satellitedatafrombothFY.1andNOAAsatellites. ThefirstFY.1satellite.namedFY.1A.waslaunched onSeptember71988.Uptonow,foursatellitesof theFY_1serieshavebeenlaunched.Themajorob- servationinstrumentonboardsatelliteisthescanning multi.channelVIS&IRradiometer.Duringitsop. eration,highqualityVISimagewasprovidedbyFY- 1AwhileitsIRimagewasnotgood.Aftertwoyears ofstudyandimprovements,thesecondsatellite,FY. 1B,waslaunchedonSeptember3,1990,itsIRimage reachedthedesignrequirement.However,thelifetime ofbothFY..1AandFY..1Bdidnotreachthedesign requirementduetothesatelliteattitudecontrolprob. 1em.TheFY.1CwaslaunchedonMay10.1999and itslifetimeexceedsthedesignrequirement.Theop- erationalsatelliteoftheFY_1seriestodayisF1D. whichwaslaunchedonMaV15.2002.Figure1isa SupportedbytheNationalNaturalScienceFoundationofChinaunderGrandNo.40271079

?Fig2.ThenlultM~hmmeleomp{~itPhu~ge4hrivedt,?

    FY2B

tilesdLnt0uudvElh硒?pwiI

    itsquall}il"nrc.proc~~ingmeth~dandtl~ismc

    itsreliMfifityAsthef:^IS-5satellitestoppedits0)-

    erationdm|lkgIht,floodperiodsI?f20(13and200the

    FY2Bsatp]lJleprox~dedaIJeffectivedataservh:e?

    tla,tI(testkcIJifmIrT?lional?s(rsUpt0ilowthe FY-2t3halrl,aqlyexc~ededitsdesigla~dopelational

    Iih?llln

    2.Preset~l~atusofChinesenleteorologlca] satelites

    2.1FY-1polarorbitingmeteo*~logicalsatel- lite

    rheorbitcharac,frsofrlD?Tshowain

    I},lel

    Table1.()rbil'1i~rscIJr',1D

    (}rk"lypeAit11ud

    1J?.h_J1''r1l?S8"k

    [1mfion^?Tf{l?T|_,dl

    Hfj.2nI

    TheFY-JD~atellit'I1j0lr'dal?launels

    allltheresolutIIJnatthelb_snr1lltepointislllIlll ThetJ(?Ctlaludsnrthechanael~illeshowniu Table2

    ThereH1(![woc,rpofdataservi~《仙FV-

    ID"ltimelfigltH'1utionpictuntransmissionand delay~lptctunIransmi.~sknaThprealimepicture

    IrmlsmissiottsendsltsIf)challlL~1dlftotheiIspil?

    ac(JrL3308MbF~swhiletlie raftimcwit{

    篓篓三暴黧嚣蠹;

    N0.3FANGZongyi,XUJianminandZHAOFengsheng Table2.SpectralbandspecificationofthescanradiometeronboardFY-1D

    261

    delayedpicturetransmissionistostorethedataon

    boardfirstwhensatellitegoesbeyondthecoverageof groundstationandthentransmitsthesedatabackto thegroundstationatitsnextorbit.Thestorageunit onboardsatelliteisabletokeepglobalcoveragedata offourchannels(0.580.68m,0.840.89m,10.30

    l1.30mand11.5012.50m)witharesolutionof3.3

    kmaswellas10channels'dataforcertainselected areaswitharesolutionof1.1km.

    ThegroundsegmentofFY1satellitecomprises

    threegroundstations,whicharelocatedatBeijing, Guangzhou,andUrumqi,andaDataProcessingCen

    ter(DPC)atBeijing.Thedatareceivedatthe threegroundstationsaretransmittedtotheDPCvia groundcommunicationnetworkinrealtime.After dataprocessinginDPC,thegeneratedproductsare distributedtousersviathe"9210''Systemandground network.

    2.2FY-2geostationarymeteorologicalsatellite FY.2Bisaspin-stabilizedsatellitewithamechan. icallydespunantenna.itislocatedover105.E.The majorpayloadforearthimagingisathreechannel

    VisibleInfraredSpinScanRadiometer(VISSR1.The spectralbandsandtheresolutionoftheradiometer areshowninTable3.

    Table3.SpectralbandandresolutionoftheVisible InfraredSpinScanRadiometer

    Inadditiontotheearthobservations.thefuHa. tionsofthesatellitealsoinclude:disseminationof stretchedimage;datarelayforlowresolutionpicture broadcastinganddatacollectionplatforms;andmon. itoringofspaceenvironment.

    ThegroundsegmentofFY.2consistsofCom.

    mandandDataAcquisitionStationfCDAS1,Satellite OperationalControlCenterfS0CC1,DataProcess. ingCenter(DPC),ComputerNetworkandArchiv

    ingSystem(CNAS),ApplicationandServiceCenter (ASC),andUtilizationStations(uss).ThecDASis themainstationofthesystemforoperationaldatare. ceivingandoperationaltelemetry,anditistheinter

    facebetweensatelliteandgroundsystem.TheSOCC isthecommandandcontrolcenterofthesatelliteand groundsystems,anditisresponsibleforthemail

    agementandschedulingofthesystems.TheDPC isinchargeofdataprocessingandproductsgenera- tion.TheCNASconsistsofcomputer,network,stor. ageunit,andso,ware,anditisthesupportingplat

    formfortheoperationofS0CC.DPC.andASC.The ASCgeneratestheman-machineinteractireproduct. anditintegratesvarioussatellitedataandquantita. tiveproductstomakedemonstrationofFY..2dataap.. plication.TheUSSistobeinstalledattheweather stationsinChina.Justwiththisdevice,usersareable toreceiveandutilizethedataandproductsfromFY2

    satellite.

    TheearthimagingofFY.2satelliteisdonewith thecoordinationofsatelliteandgroundsystems.For

    example.theVISSRonboardsatelliteisresponsible forthetwo-dimensionalscanoftheearthwhilethe groundsystemisinchargeoftheimagemontaging fromreceivedscanlinesandtoaddlatitudeand

262

    longitudegrids

    3.Reviewandprospect

    theoryandmethodof

    icalsatellites

    ACTAMETE0R0L0GICASINICA

    onremotesensing

    Chinesemeteorolog-

    Theatmosphericsoundingcomesintoanew

    erawiththe1aunchoffirstworldmeteorological satellite-TIR0S1.Afterthat.extensivestudiesare goingonforretrievingatmosphericparameterssuchas temperature,humidityandcloudfromsatellitedata. Chinabeganitsstudyonthesatelliteremotesensing theoryandmethodinthe1970s.Ithasmadegreat progressinthetheoryandmethodofretrievingat

    mospherictemperatureprofile,cloudcharacteristics, aerosol,precipitationandcloudwindfromsatellite datasincethen.

    3.1Retrievalofatmospherictemperaturepro- Ze

    Itisthenecessaryconditiontoacquiretheaccu

    rateinitialfieldofatmospherictemperatureandhu

    midityinimprovingtheaccuracyofnumericalweather

prediction.Thesurfaceobservationhasthelimita

    tionsonitsspatialandtemporalresolution,thusme

    teorologistshavepaidtheirattentiontothedevelop

    mentofsatelliteremotesensingtechniquetoacquire atmospherictemperatureandhumidityprofiles.After Kaplanpresentedhisviewonobtainingatmospheric temperatureprofilesfromsatellite(Kaplan,1959),sci

    entistshaveexpressedgreatconcernaboutthestudies onatmosphericremotesensingtheoryandretrieval method.

    Inthe1970s,Zeng(1974,1978)systematically expoundedtheprincipleandmethodofatmospheric IRremotesensing.Heprovedtwotypesofclassical problems-remotesensingoftheverticaldistribution ofatmospherictemperatureandatmosphericcomposi

    tion.Healsoprovedthewellposednessofremotesens

    ingequationthatcorrespondstothespectrummethod andscanmethod.Zengpointedoutthatinthetem

    peraturemeasurement,thesolutionfromtheFred

    holmintegralequationofthefirstkindisnotunique. Ifonewantstogetasolutionwithactualmeaning,he hastorestricttheequationsolutionwithotherknown V0L.2O

    knowledge.Inthesatelliteremotesensing,thechan

    ne1selectionandretrieva1methodarethekeypointsin theremotesensingtheoryandapplication.Basedon theabove,Zengpresentedaconceptof"bestinforma

    tionlayer"whichhasaguidancesignificanceinremote sensingchannelselection.Withanindepthprobeon

    remotesensingtheory,heinducedtheretrievalmethod

intotwoclasses:1)statisticalmethod,and2)physi

    ca1retrieva1methodfincludingiterativemethodand optimalsmoothingsolutionmethod).Thestatisti

    ca1methodrequiresadequatestatistica1information. UndertheconditionwitheSSstatistica1information butenoughchannelselection,thephysicalretrieval methodisacceptable.

    Sincethe1980s,extensivestudiesonatmospheric temperatureprofileretrievalhavebeendoneintheNa

    tionalSatelliteMeteoro1ogi(:a1Center(NSMC).Based onthenon--well--posednessofatmospherictempera- tureremotesensingequation,Li(1984)andLiand Dong(1986)discussedtheselectionoftemperature profileestimationmethod.Theyputforwardanes

    timationdeviationadjustm?entmethod.LiandDong (1988)estimatedtheimpactofkernelfunctiondevi

    ationontheretrievalaccuracyofatmospherictem

    peratureprofilewithobservationdatafromNOAA.7, showingthatthedeviationofkernelfunctionmainly cameintotheestimatedsolutionintheformofsys. temdeviationthatwouldresultinaveryunstableso

    lution.Wueta1.(1990)madearetrievalexperiment withthesynchronousphysicalretrievalmethodpro

    posedbySmithandWbolf(1984).Inthemeantime, theyalsodiscussedtheimpactofthefirstguessvalue oftemperatureprofileont:heretrievalaccuracy.Af- teranindepthstudyonthlesynchronousphysicalre

    trieva1method,Lieta1.(1991a)pointedoutthatthe synchronousphysicalretrimralmethodwaslessdepen

dentonthefirstguessvaluethanthestatisticalre

    gressionmethod.However,inthepointofzonalmean forlargerange,theaccuracyofsynchronousphysical retrievalmethodisnotasgoodastheonefromtheim

    provedstatisticalregressionlmethod.Butinthearea withsparsesoundingdata,theretrievalresultfrom synchronousphysicalretrievalmethodisbetterthan thestatisticalregressionmethod.Onthebasisof

    N0.3FANGZongyi,XUJianminandZHAOFengsheng indepthstudyofthesynchronousphysicalretrieval method,Lieta1.(1991b)setupanimprovedsyn

    chronousphysicalretrievalmethodwithsomechanges inthemodel'sse1f_consistency,channe1selection,and firstguessfield.Withthecomparisonofthesyn

    chronousphysicalretrieva1methodandtheimproved synchronousphysicalretrievalmethod,Lieta1.(1992) indicatedthatatallheights(exceptupperair)there

    trievalaccuracyfromtheimprovedsynchronousphys

    ica1retrieva1methodisbetterthantheonefromthe synchronousphysicalretrievalmethod.Forfurther cuttingdowntheimpactofthefirstguessvalueon theretrievalaccuracy,Zhengeta1.(1997)tookthe6

    hforecastfieldfromthenumerica1weatherprediction fNWP)ofNationalMeteorologicalCenterasthefirst guessfield.

    Itshouldindicatethatthetraditiona1satelliteIR instrumentsformeasuringatmospherictemperature andhumidityprofiles,suchastheTOVSorHIRS, usuallyusethefilterspectralseparationtechnique.

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