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Glossary of terms and acronyms related to prostate cancer

By Justin Cooper,2014-04-19 10:29
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Glossary of terms and acronyms related to prostate cancer

    Glossary of terms and acronyms related to prostate cancer

    ?前列腺癌有关的术语表和缩略语?

--A--

    Abiraterone: Abiraterone is an oral medication that blocks the synthesis of androgens (male hormones), such as testosterone, inside the tumor. Phase III clinical trial results showed that Abiraterone improved overall survival of men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer and is currently under review for approval by the FDA. ablation: In medicine, the removal or destruction of a body part or tissue or its function. Ablation may be performed by surgery, hormones, drugs, radio frequency, heat or other methods.

    active surveillance: Active surveillance is an option offered to patients with very

    low-risk prostate cancer (low grade, low stage, localized disease). Patients are monitored carefully over time for signs of disease progression. A PSA blood test and digital rectal exam (DRE) and prostate biopsy are performed at physician-specified intervals. Signs of disease progression will trigger immediate active treatment. adjuvant: An additional treatment used to increase the effectiveness of the primary therapy; radiation therapy and hormonal therapy are often used as adjuvant treatments following a radical prostatectomy.

    adjuvant therapy: Treatment given after the primary treatment to increase the chances of a cure. Adjuvant therapy may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, or biological therapy.

    adrenal gland: A small gland that produces steroid hormones, adrenaline, and noradrenaline, which help control heart rate, blood pressure, and other important body functions. There are two adrenal glands, one located on top of each kidney. analog: In chemistry, a substance that is similar, but not identical, to another. androgen: A type of hormone that promotes the development and maintenance of male sex characteristics.

    anti-androgen: A drug used to block the production or interfere with the action of male sex hormones.

    anti-androgen withdrawal response: A decrease in PSA caused by the withdrawal of an anti-androgen such as Casodex or flutamide after CHT begins to fail; occurs when there

    are PCa cells that have mutated to feed on the anti-androgen rather than T and DHT; withdrawal kills those cells.

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    benign: Not cancerous. Benign tumors do not spread to tissues around them or to other parts of the body.

    benign prostatic hyperplasia (or hypertrophy) (BPH): benign (non-cancerous) condition in which an overgrowth of prostate tissue pushes against the urethra and the bladder, blocking the flow of urine.

    bilateral: Affecting both the right and left sides of the body.

    biopsy: The removal of cells or tissues for examination under a microscope. When only a sample of tissue is removed, the procedure is called an incisional biopsy or core biopsy. When an entire lump or suspicious area is removed, the procedure is called an excisional biopsy. When a sample of tissue or fluid is removed with a needle, the procedure is called a needle biopsy or fine-needle aspiration.

    bone scan: A technique to create images of bones on a computer screen or on film. A small amount of radioactive material is injected into a blood vessel and travels through the bloodstream; it collects in the bones and is detected by a scanner. BPH: see benign prostatic hyperplasia

    brachytherapy: A procedure in which radioactive material sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters is placed directly into or near a tumor. Also called internal radiation, implant radiation, or interstitial radiation therapy.

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    Cabazitaxel (JEVTANA): Cabazitaxel is a chemotherapy medicine approved for treatment of patients that have failed standard chemotherapy. It is a member of a class of medications called taxanes. Cabazitaxel is administered intravenously in combination

    with oral prednisone. Cabazitaxel kills cancer cells by blocking cell division which results in cancer cell death.

    circulating tumor cell (CTC) : A circulating tumor cell (CTC) is a rogue cancer cell that has broken off of the primary tumor and enters the bloodstream. CTC enumeration correlates with therapeutic response. By tracking the number of CTCs in a patient’s blood sample, doctors will be informed earlier whether a treatment is, or is not working.

    Currently, Veridex (CellSearch) is the only FDA-approved CTC enumeration device. Advanced CTC technology is under development and currently funded by PCF.

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    Denosumab: Denosumab is a monoclonal antibody against the protein RANKL (RANKL is important for the maintenance of healthy bone but when elevated (in osteoporosis and cancers that spread to bone) it causes osteoporosis). It was FDA approved in June 2010 under the brand name Prolia for use in postmenopausal women with a risk of osteoporosis. In November 2010, denosumab (brand name XGEVA) was FDA-approved for the prevention of fractures in patients with solid tumors metastasized to bone, including prostate cancer. In December 2010, clinical results were presented that show XGEVA also delays the time to first bone metastasis in men with hormone refractory prostate cancer. As of January 25th, 2011 the FDA is still considering these results.

    deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA): The molecules inside cells that carry genetic information and pass it from one generation to the next.

    DHT: (see dihydrotestosterone)

    diethylstilbestrol (DES): A synthetic form of the hormone estrogen that was prescribed to pregnant women between about 1940 and 1971 because it was thought to prevent miscarriages. DES may increase the risk of uterine, ovarian, or breast cancer in women who took it. DES also has been linked to an increased risk of clear cell carcinoma of the vagina or cervix in daughters exposed to DES before birth.

    differentiation: In cancer, refers to how mature (developed) the cancer cells are in a tumor. Differentiated tumor cells resemble normal cells and tend to grow and spread at a slower rate than undifferentiated or poorly differentiated tumor cells, which lack the structure and function of normal cells and grow uncontrollably.

    digital rectal examination (DRE): An examination in which a doctor inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum to feel for abnormalities.

    dihydrotestosterone (DHT): Also known as 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone, it is the male hormone which is actually active in the prostate; it is made when an enzyme 5-alpha-reductase transforms testosterone to DHT which stimulates the growth of the prostate

    Docetaxel (TAXOTERE): Docetaxel is the first FDA-approved chemotherapy for advanced prostate cancer. This medicine is similar to Cabazitaxel (see below) and is also in a class of medications called taxanes. It works by blocking cell division which results in cancer cell death.

    double-blind, double-blinded: A clinical trial in which neither the medical staff nor the person knows which of several possible therapies the person is receiving. downsizing, downstaging: The use of hormonal or other forms of management to reduce the volume of prostate cancer in and/or around the prostate prior to other attempted curative treatment.

    DRE: (see digital rectal examination)

    duct: In medicine, a tube or vessel of the body through which fluids pass. dysplasia: Cells that look abnormal under a microscope but are not cancer. BACK TO TOP

    --E--

    EBR, EBRT: External beam radiation (therapy).

    ejaculation: The release of semen through the penis during orgasm.

    endorectal: Through the rectum; there are endorectal MRIs as well as ultrasound to visualize the area. See transrectal ultrasound (TRUS).

    endorectal ultrasound (ERUS): A procedure in which a probe that sends out high-energy sound waves is inserted into the rectum. The sound waves are bounced off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissue called a sonogram. ERUS is used to look for abnormalities in the rectum and nearby structures, including the prostate. Also called transrectal ultrasound.

    epithelium: A thin layer of tissue that covers organs, glands, and other structures within the body.

    erectile dysfunction (ED): An inability to have an erection of the penis adequate for sexual intercourse. Also called impotence.

    estrogen: A hormone that promotes the development and maintenance of female sex characteristics.

    EXBT, EXRT: external beam therapy; external radiation therapy.

    external beam radiation: A form of radiation therapy in which the radiation is delivered by a machine pointed at the area to be radiated. May be known as external beam radiation (EBR, XBR), external beam radiation therapy (EBRT, XBRT). Compare to seed implantation. BACK TO TOP

--F--

    Finasteride: A drug used to reduce the amount of male hormone (testosterone) produced by the body.

    fine-needle aspiration: The removal of tissue or fluid with a needle for examination under a microscope. Also called needle biopsy.

    flare: A sudden reaction to starting hormone therapy, sometimes characterized by severe increase in pre-hormone therapy symptoms, such as pain; does not occur in all men; some report it may be prevented by taking an anti-androgen (Casodex, Nilandron) several days before starting hormone therapy.

    Flutamide: An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called anti-androgens. free PSA (fPSA): PSA exists in two forms in the blood, either bound to protein or unbound ("free"). Measuring both the bound and free form can better predict risk. BACK TO TOP

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    gastrointestinal (GI): Refers to the stomach and intestines.

    gland: An organ that makes one or more substances, such as hormones, digestive juices, sweat, tears, saliva, or milk. Endocrine glands release the substances directly into the bloodstream. Exocrine glands release the substances into a duct or opening to the inside or outside of the body.

    glandular: Pertaining to a gland.

    Gleason Score (GS)- Gleason Grade: A system of grading prostate cancer cells based on how they look under a microscope. Gleason scores range from 2 to 10 and indicate how likely it is that a tumor will spread. A low Gleason score means the cancer cells are similar to normal prostate cells and are less likely to spread; a high Gleason score means the cancer cells are very different from normal and are more likely to spread. gonads: The part of the reproductive system that produces and releases eggs (ovary) or sperm (testicle/testis).

    gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH): A hormone made by the hypothalamus (part of the brain). GnRH causes the pituitary gland to make luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). These hormones are involved in reproduction.

    Goserelin: A drug that belongs to the family of drugs called gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs. Goserelin is used to block hormone production in the ovaries or testicles.

    goserelin acetate: A luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analog used in the palliative hormonal treatment of advanced prostate cancer and sometimes in the adjuvant and neoadjuvant hormonal treatment of earlier stages of prostate cancer. A U.S. brand name is Zoladex. See hormone therapy.

    grade: The grade of a tumor depends on how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope and how quickly the tumor is likely to grow and spread. Grading systems are different for each type of cancer.

    grading: A system for classifying cancer cells in terms of how abnormal they appear when examined under a microscope. The objective of a grading system is to provide information about the probable growth rate of the tumor and its tendency to spread. The systems used to grade tumors vary with each type of cancer. Grading plays a role in treatment decisions.

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    --H--

    high-dose-rate (HDR): May be combined to be called high-dose-rate remote brachytherapy or high-dose-rate remote radiation. A type of internal radiation treatment in which the radioactive source is removed between treatments. (NCI bklt)

    high-dose-rate remote brachytherapy: A type of internal radiation treatment in which the radioactive source is removed between treatments. Also called high-dose-rate remote radiation therapy or remote brachytherapy.

    histology: The study of tissues and cells under a microscope.

    hormone: A chemical made by glands in the body. Hormones circulate in the bloodstream and control the actions of certain cells or organs. Some hormones can also be made in a laboratory.

    hormone antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites, e.g., an anti-androgen.

    hormone refractory prostate cancer: Prostate cancer that has become refractory, that is, it resists hormone therapy.

    hormone therapy (HT): Treatment that adds, blocks, or removes hormones. For certain conditions (such as diabetes or menopause), hormones are given to adjust low hormone

    levels. To slow or stop the growth of certain cancers (such as prostate and breast cancer), synthetic hormones or other drugs may be given to block the body's natural hormones. Sometimes surgery is needed to remove the gland that makes hormones. Also called hormonal therapy, hormone treatment, or endocrine therapy.

    HRPC: Hormone refractory prostate cancer; PCa that resists hormone therapy. hyperplasia: An abnormal increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue. hypertrophy: The enlargement or overgrowth of an organ or part due to an increase in size of its constituent cells. Compare to hyperplasia; see benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

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    --I--

    IAS: Intermittent androgen suppression; the starting and stopping of the treatment. See hormone therapy.

    ICHT: Intermittent combined hormone therapy; the starting and stopping of treatment. See hormone therapy.

    IHT: Intermittent hormone therapy; the starting and stopping of treatment. See hormone therapy.

    immunoassay: A test that uses the binding of antibodies to antigens to identify and measure certain substances. Immunoassays may be used to diagnose disease. Also, test results can provide information about a disease that may help in planning treatment (for example, when estrogen receptors are measured in breast cancer).

    immunotherapy: Immunotherapy is a type of treatment that boosts or restores the immune system to fight cancer, infections and other diseases. There a several different agents used for immunotherapy; Provenge is one example.

    impotency: In medicine, refers to the inability to have an erection of the penis adequate for sexual intercourse. Also called erectile dysfunction.

    incontinence: Inability to control the flow of urine from the bladder (urinary incontinence) or the escape of stool from the rectum (fecal incontinence). insulin: A hormone made by the islet cells of the pancreas. Insulin controls the amount of sugar in the blood by moving it into the cells, where it can be used by the body for energy.

    intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT): A type of 3-dimensional radiation therapy that uses computer-generated images to show the size and shape of the tumor. Thin beams of radiation of different intensities are aimed at the tumor from many angles. This type of radiation therapy reduces the damage to healthy tissue near the tumor. interstitial: Pertaining to or situated between parts or in the interspaces of a tissue. interstitial radiation therapy (IRT): A procedure in which radioactive material sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters is placed directly into or near a tumor. Also called brachytherapy, internal radiation, or implant radiation.

    intraductal carcinoma: A noninvasive, precancerous condition in which abnormal cells are found in the lining of a breast duct. The abnormal cells have not spread outside the duct to other tissues in the breast. In some cases, intraductal carcinoma may become invasive cancer and spread to other tissues, although it is not known at this time how to predict which lesions will become invasive. Also called ductal carcinoma in situ. intraepithelial: Within the layer of cells that form the surface or lining of an organ. Ipilimumab: Ipilimumab is a monoclonal antibody against CTLA-4 under clinical investigation for the treatment of several types of cancer. Ipilimumab binds to and blocks the activity of the molecule, CTLA-4 which is found on the surface of T cells (a type of white blood cell). CTLA-4 is similar to a set of brakes on a car; it stops T cells from killing cancer cells. Blockade of CTLA-4, via Ipilimumab treatment, results in the reactivation or “acceleration” of T cells to attack and kill cancer cells.

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    --J--

    Jewett staging system: A staging system for prostate cancer that uses ABCD. "A" and "B" refer to cancer that is confined to the prostate. "C" refers to cancer that has grown out of the prostate but has not spread to lymph nodes or other places in the body. "D" refers to cancer that has spread to lymph nodes or to other places in the body. Also called the ABCD rating or the Whitmore-Jewett staging system.

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    --K--

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    --L--

    laparoscopy: The insertion of a thin, lighted tube (called a laparoscope) through the abdominal wall to inspect the inside of the abdomen and remove tissue samples.

    leuprolide: A drug that belongs to a family of drugs called gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs. It is used to block hormone production in the ovaries or testicles. libido: Interest in sexual activity; compare to impotency.

    Lupron: A U.S. trade or brand name of leuprolide acetate; an LHRH.

    luteinizing hormone (LH): The pituitary hormone that causes the testicles in men and ovaries in women to manufacture hormones; also called a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone or LHRH.

    luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH): A hormone that stimulates the production of sex hormones in men and women.

    lymph: The clear fluid that travels through the lymphatic system and carries cells that help fight infections and other diseases. Also called lymphatic fluid. lymph gland: A rounded mass of lymphatic tissue that is surrounded by a capsule of connective tissue. Lymph glands filter lymph (lymphatic fluid), and they store lymphocytes (white blood cells). They are located along lymphatic vessels. Also called a lymph node.

    lymph nodes: A rounded mass of lymphatic tissue that is surrounded by a capsule of connective tissue. Lymph nodes filter lymph (lymphatic fluid), and they store lymphocytes (white blood cells). They are located along lymphatic vessels. Also called a lymph gland.

    lymphatic system: The tissues and organs that produce, store, and carry white blood cells that fight infections and other diseases. This system includes the bone marrow, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels (a network of thin tubes that carry lymph and white blood cells). Lymphatic vessels branch, like blood vessels, into all the tissues of the body.

    lymphocyte: A type of white blood cell. Lymphocytes have a number of roles in the immune system, including the production of antibodies and other substances that fight infection and diseases.

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    --M--

    magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): A procedure in which radio waves and a powerful magnet linked to a computer are used to create detailed pictures of areas inside the body. These pictures can show the difference between normal and diseased tissue. MRI makes better images of organs and soft tissue than other scanning techniques, such as CT or X-ray.

    MRI is especially useful for imaging the brain, spine, the soft tissue of joints, and the inside of bones. Also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. malignant: Cancerous. Malignant tumors can invade and destroy nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body.

    marker: A diagnostic indication that disease may develop.

    MDV3100: MDV3100 is a next generation anti-androgen. This medication works by blocking the androgen receptor, the protein responsible for causing prostate cancer progression. MDV3100 is currently being evaluated in advanced clinical investigations in men with hormone refractory prostate cancer. Results of these trials are expected in 2011. metastasis: The spread of cancer from one part of the body to another. A tumor formed by cells that have spread is called a "metastatic tumor" or a "metastasis." The metastatic tumor contains cells that are like those in the original (primary) tumor. The plural form of metastasis is metastases (meh-TAS-ta-seez).

    morbidity: A disease or the incidence of disease within a population. Morbidity also refers to adverse effects caused by a treatment.

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    --N--

    neoadjuvant: Done or added before the primary treatment; for example, neoadjuvant hormone therapy could be given prior to another form of treatment such as a radical prostatectomy; compare to adjuvant.

    neoadjuvant therapy: Treatment given before the primary treatment. Examples of neoadjuvant therapy include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and hormone therapy. neoplasia: Abnormal and uncontrolled cell growth.

    nerve sparing: A surgical technique during a prostatectomy where one or both of the neurovascular bundles controlling erections are spared. The utilization of this procedure is governed by the extent of the cancer and the skill of the surgeon. non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID): A drug that decreases fever, swelling, pain, and redness.

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    --O--

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