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On the Counterculture of Hippies Movement

By Sandra Rodriguez,2014-06-27 17:35
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far east movement on the floor on the way

    嬉皮动的反文化性

    摘要:二十世动六十年代是一段不同动常的动史动期。动的西方社动动了天覆地的重当会翻大动革。美尤其如此?民动动、新左派动、反动动、反文化动以及性解放动动起云涌国运运运运运?

    深刻地影了美的价动系和道德动念。反文化动中的嬉皮动动动动动?具反文化性。响国体运运极

    本文共分三部分。第一部分回动嬉皮动的动展动程。第二部分括嬉皮动的反文运概运化特动。嬉皮士动持主流文化相悖的生活方式和价动动念。第三部分动明嬉皮动的动史背与运

    景。嬉皮士深受动掉的一代、存在主动哲以及弗洛伊德思想的影。学响

    动动动:嬉皮动?反文化动?动掉的一代运运

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    On the Counterculture of Hippies Movement

    Abstract

    The 1960s was an extraordinary period in human history. The western world went through a lot of tremendous social revolutions during that period. That is especially true to the United States. There were Civil Rights Movement, New Left Movement, Anti-war Movement, Counterculture Movement, and Sexual Revolution, etc. All of these have deeply influenced the value system and moral norm of the United States. With the characteristic of counterculture, Hippies Movement is much complex and far-reaching one.

    This paper consists of three parts. The first part gives a brief review of Hippies Movement. The second part focuses on the characteristic of counterculture reflected in Hippies Movement. The life style of the hippies goes against that of the common people at that time. The third part analyzes the historical background of Hippies Movement. Generally Speaking, it has been influenced by Beat Generation, Existentialism, and Freudianism. Key words: Hippies Movement; counterculture; Beat Generation

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    Acknowledgements

    My deepest and heartfelt gratitude goes first and foremost to my supervisor, Ms. Zhao Rong, for her constant encouragement and useful suggestions. With her patient guidance and tolerance to my mistakes, the content of this thesis is greatly enriched and the thesis becomes much more significant. I am deeply grateful to her help in the completion of this thesis.

    Secondly, my cordial and sincere thanks go to all the teachers in the School of International relations. They have taught me all kinds of knowledge about English and international culture exchange that I am so interested in, which made me a more studious and intelligent person. I greatly admire their comprehensive knowledge and high quality of culture.

    Last but not least, I want to thank my classmates, who have given me so much help in study and in life. We have spent four years together, thank you for sharing my worries, happiness and giving me so much encouragement.

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    Contents

    中文摘要…………………………...……………..………..…………………...i

    Abstract……………………………….……...…………………………………ii

    Acknowledgements……………..……………..……………………….………iii

    Introduction…………………………………...…………………………………1

    I. A Brief Review of Hippies Movement..……………………............................3

     A. The Beginning of Hippies Movement..………………………………......4

     B. The Development of Hippies Movement……………………………….5

     C. The End of Hippies Movement…………………………………………5

    II. The Countercultural Characteristic in Hippies Movement…………………8

    A. The Definition of Counterculture…………….…………………………..8

    B. Basic Aspects of Counterculture………………..………………………9III. The Reasons Why the Hippies Movement is Countercultural…..................14

    A. Beat Generation…………………………….……………….…………..14

     B. Existentialism and Freudianism……………………...…………............16Conclusion…………………………………………..………………………....18

    Notes………………………………………………………..…………………19

    Bibliography………………………………………………………………….21

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    On the Counterculture of Hippies Movement

    Introduction

    The 1960s saw a lot of great changes in the United States. These changes were of all the aspects of the country: society, politics, culture, etc. Civil Rights Movement, New Left Movement, Anti-war Movement, Counterculture

    Movement, Sexual Revolution and Hippies Movement all contributed a lot to the reform and development of the United States at that time.

    The Hippies movement began with the experimentation of psychoactive drugs by Ken Kesey, who wrote One Flew over the Cuckoos’ Nest in 1962. It

    1then spread very fast all over the United States. In January 1967, the Human

    Be-In in Golden Gate Park in San Francisco popularized hippies culture, leading to the legendary Summer of Love on the West Coast of the United States, and the 1969 Woodstock Festival on the East Coast. Hippies sought to free themselves from societal restrictions, choose their own way, and find new

    3meaning in life. They held the norm of peace and love, dreaming a society without war and conflicts. They tried to achieve it by doing all kinds of things that were against the main stream culture, the government and the so-called virtue cherished and advocated by the whole society. Those included creating their own communities, living all together, taking drugs like the LSD, and listening to the psychedelic rock. The Beat Generation was like the model of the

    4hippies in that they shared the same pursuit for freedom and love. And

    Existentialism and Freudianism were the philosophical and psychological origins of the Hippies Movement. As one of the representatives of the counterculture movement, Hippies Movement has influenced so many generations of the American people, especially the young people.

    After the withdrawal of Hippies Movement from the stage of history, the countercultural spirit and passion did not die. It continued to be acted upon by the young people. They didn’t stop the anti-Vietnam war movement for the sake

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of peace and fighting against the government. The influence of the Hippies

movement is huge and deep.

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    I. A Brief Review of Hippies Movement

    The Summer of Love in 1967 has been recognized as the beginning of the Hippies Movement. It is a social phenomenon that occurred during summer of 1967, when as many as 100,000 people converged on the Haight-Ashbury neighborhood of

    2San Francisco, creating a cultural and political rebellion. Hippies also gathered in

    New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, Seattle, Portland, Washington, D.C., Chicago, Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver, and across Europe. San Francisco was the center of the hippies’ revolution, a melting pot of music, psychoactive drugs, sexual freedom, creative expression, and politics. The Summer of Love became a defining moment of the 1960s, as the hippies counterculture movement came into public awareness. This unprecedented gathering of young people was often considered to have been a social experiment, because of the alternative lifestyles that became common, both during the summer itself and during subsequent years. These lifestyles included communal living, the free and communal sharing of resources, often among strangers and free love.

    thOn August 15, 1969, a rock music festival was held in a farm which was in the north-west of New York. It lasted three days and became the most famous rock

    3festival ever, that was the Woodstock Festival. Under the name of love and peace,

    the festival attracted lots of big rock stars to perform and as many as half a million hippies from all over the United States and even the Europe. This festival was regarded as the most important event of the Hippies Movement. It indicated that Hippies movement had developed to its climactic extent, however, at the same time, it also meant that the movement started the way of decay.

    The Altamont Speedway Free Festival held on Saturday, December 6, 1969, at the Altamont Speedway in northern California was expected to be “the other Woodstock Festival”, however, it turned to be a total failure due to the homicide and three accidental deaths: two caused by a hit-and-run car accident and one by drowning in an irrigation canal. That made the public quite disappointed to the

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    hippies. Then the Kent State shootings, also known as the May 4 massacre or Kent-State massacre, occurring at Kent State University in the city of Kent, Ohio on Monday, May 4, 1970 made the situation to the worst, the shootings to the unarmed college students by the members of the Ohio National Guard made the young people themselves started to feel so unsure and fearful toward what they used to believe and stick to. Besides, the youngs were growing up. As they became more mature, they got bored and had less passion to the movement and wanted to get rid of it, thus, Hippies Movement came to its end in the middle 1970s.

     A. The Beginning of Hippies Movement

    The anti-Vietnam War movement in the 1960s was almost the most powerful peace movement in the world history. The people who attended the anti-Vietnam War advocated peace and asked the US government to end the war. The oppositions called them hippies. Thus the early hippies had formed.

    The hippies were gathered more closely and felt more identified by the “bus trip” held by the Ken Kesey in 1964. Ken Kesey was an American author, best known for his novel One Flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest (1962) and as a

    counter-cultural figure who considered himself a link between the Beat Generation of the 1950s and the hippies of the 1960s. Also in 1964, he started the experimentation of psychoactive drugs, including all kinds of drugs and LSD, which became the favorite of the hippies later. In 1967, in the Haight-Ashbury Street in San Francisco, the hippies finally formed as a certain group. And the small and poor place became the holy place of the hippies since then.

    The Montreal Music Festival in 1967 was the prelude of the Summer of Love in the same year. It attracted so many famous rock singers and bands, like The Grateful Dead, Janis Joplin, Jimmy Hendrix and the folk singer Scott

    4McKenzie. LSD was given to all the people on the scene. On the whole, it was a quite successful music festival; the atmosphere was very harmonious and

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    warm. The hippies felt more like a family and were more firm to their belief. And the Summer of Love later declared the beginning of the Hippies Movement.

    B. The Development of the Hippies Movement

    After the Summer of Love, in August the next year, lots of hippies in Chicago gathered at the International Amphitheatre and shouted: “We want real peace, not conflict!” That was the famous 1968 Chicago Democratic Assembly. The event was also one of the many protesting movements against the Vietnam War. The assembly became definitely violent because the government allowed the police to use force to deal with the demonstrators. The result of the assembly turned out to be very disappointing to the hippies. Their dream of solving the war issue by peaceful means was totally broken by the riots. And the force used by the army of the government to the demonstrators made the hippies completely lost the faith towards the government and wanted to stay away from its sphere of influence as far as possible.

    ththFollowing the assembly, during August 15 and 17, the most far-

    reaching music festival in human history – the Woodstock Festival – was held in a farm which was in the north-west of New York and about ninety miles away from it. As mentioned before, the festival was a total success; people enjoyed themselves so much in the festival. They shared everything, including food, wine, drugs, tents and clothes. They walked around the farm, listened to the most exciting and beautiful music. They took drugs, had sex with anyone they wanted to. They just lied down anywhere they liked if they felt tired. It was a paradise to the hippies. They finally got all that they wanted during the three days: freedom, love, and peace. They couldn’t feel better, their dream came true, and they were more confident to their future and were more firm to pursue their ideal world. The Woodstock Festival was the best time of the Hippies

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Movement in the 1960s.

    C. The End of Hippies Movement

    thOn December 9, 1969, the rock band Rolling Stone held a free concert to memorize the success of their trip across the United States. It was in the Altamont Speedway in northern California. Due to poor plan and organization, there were so many problems in the festival: the stage was not high enough, it was too near to the audience that it was easy for them to rush onto the stage; besides, it was a mistake for the organizers to hire the Hells Angel to maintain the order of the concert. The Hells Angel was an organized crime syndicate under the name of a motorcycle club. The members carried out widespread violence, drug dealing, trafficking in stolen goods, and extortion. The hell angels tried to avoid the audience from going to the stage by violent means. Lots of people, even Martin Berlin, one of the members of the band Jefferson Airplane was hurt badly by the hell angels. The worst thing happened when the Rolling Stone appeared on the stage, singing a quite violent song Sympathy for

    the Devil. At that moment, an audience with a gun tried to step on the stage, the hell angels shot the man without hesitation, the man died immediately. Thus, the concert ended in a total mess. The concert was a heavy strike to the Hippies Movement, the public, even the hippies themselves started to doubt all the things they trusted and did.

    Things were not a little better but even worse the next year when the Kent State shootings happened in the Kent State University. The government force killed four students and wounded many others to stop the students’ demonstration. The atrocity of the government raised the rage of all the Americans. The famous folk singer Neil Young wrote a song to express his anger and grief. He wrote in the lyric: “Tin soldiers and Nixon coming, we are

    5finally on our own, this summer I hear the drumming, four dead in Ohio”.

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