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Intermediate accounting answer chapter1

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Intermediate accounting answer chapter1

     Chapter 1 Environment and Theoretical Structure of

     Financial Accounting

    AACSB assurance of learning standards in accounting and business education require documentation

    of outcomes assessment. Although schools, departments, and faculty may approach assessment and

    its documentation differently, one approach is to provide specific questions on exams that become the

    basis for assessment. To aid faculty in this endeavor, we have labeled each question, exercise and

    problem in Intermediate Accounting, 5e with the following AACSB learning skills:

     Exercises Questions

    1-1 Reflective thinking 1-1 Analytic 1-2 Reflective thinking 1-2 Analytic 1-3 Reflective thinking 1-3 Reflective thinking 1-4 Reflective thinking 1-4 Reflective thinking 1-5 Reflective thinking 1-5 Reflective thinking 1-6 Reflective thinking 1-6 Reflective thinking 1-7 Reflective thinking 1-7 Reflective thinking 1-8 Reflective thinking 1-8 Reflective thinking 1-9 Reflective thinking 1-9 Reflective thinking 1-10 Reflective thinking 1-10 Reflective thinking 1-11 Reflective thinking 1-11 Reflective thinking 1-12 Reflective thinking 1-12 Reflective thinking 1-13 Reflective thinking 1-13 Reflective thinking 1-14 Reflective thinking 1-14 Reflective thinking 1-15 Reflective thinking 1-15 Reflective thinking 1-16 Reflective thinking Reflective thinking CPA/CMA

    1-17 Reflective thinking 1-1 Reflective thinking 1-18 Reflective thinking 1-2 Reflective thinking 1-19 Reflective thinking 1-3 Reflective thinking 1-20 Reflective thinking 1-4 Reflective thinking 1-21 Reflective thinking 1-5 Reflective thinking 1-22 Reflective thinking 1-6 Reflective thinking 1-23 Reflective thinking 1-7 Reflective thinking 1-24 Reflective thinking 1-8 Reflective thinking 1-25 Reflective thinking 1-1 Reflective thinking 1-26 Reflective thinking 1-2 Reflective thinking 1-27 Reflective thinking 1-3 Reflective thinking

     Brief Exercises

    1-1 Analytic 1-2 Reflective thinking 1-3 Reflective thinking 1-4 Reflective thinking 1-5 Reflective thinking 1-6 Reflective thinking

    ? The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2009

    Solutions Manual, Vol.1, Chapter 1 1-1

    QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW OF KEY TOPICS

    Question 1-1

    Financial accounting is concerned with providing relevant financial information about various kinds of organizations to different types of external users. The primary focus of financial accounting is on the financial information provided by profit-oriented companies to their present and potential investors and creditors.

    Question 1-2

    Resources are efficiently allocated if they are given to enterprises that will use them to provide goods and services desired by society and not to enterprises that will waste them. The capital markets are the mechanism that fosters this efficient allocation of resources.

    Question 1-3

    Two extremely important variables that must be considered in any investment decision are the expected rate of return and the uncertainty or risk of that expected return.

    Question 1-4

    In the long run, a company will be able to provide investors and creditors with a rate of return only if it can generate a profit. That is, it must be able to use the resources provided to it to generate cash receipts from selling a product or service that exceeds the cash disbursements necessary to provide that product or service.

    Question 1-5

    The primary objective of financial accounting is to provide investors and creditors with information that will help in evaluating the amounts, timing, and uncertainty of a business enterprise’s future cash receipts and disbursements.

    Question 1-6

    Net operating cash flows are the difference between cash receipts and cash disbursements during a period of time from transactions related to providing goods and services to customers. Net operating cash flows may not be a good indicator of future cash flows because, by ignoring uncompleted transactions, they may not match the accomplishments and sacrifices of the period.

     ? The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2009

    1-2 Intermediate Accounting,5/e

Answers to Questions (continued)

Question 1-7

    GAAP (generally accepted accounting principles) are a dynamic set of both broad and specific guidelines that a company should follow in measuring and reporting the information in their financial statements and related notes. It is important that all companies follow GAAP so that investors can compare financial information across companies to make their resource allocation decisions. Question 1-8

    In 1934, Congress created the SEC and gave it the job of setting accounting and reporting standards for companies whose securities are publicly traded. The SEC has retained the power, but has delegated the task to private sector bodies. The current private sector body responsible for

    setting accounting standards is the FASB.

    Question 1-9

    Auditors are independent, professional accountants who examine financial statements to express an opinion. The opinion reflects the auditors’ assessment of the statements' fairness, which is

    determined by the extent to which they are prepared in compliance with GAAP. The auditor adds credibility to the financial statements, which increases the confidence of capital market participants relying on that information.

    Question 1-10

    On July 30, 2002, President Bush signed into law the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. The most dramatic change to federal securities laws since the 1930s, the Act radically redesigns federal regulation of public company corporate governance and reporting obligations. It also significantly tightens accountability standards for directors and officers, auditors, securities analysts and legal counsel. Student opinions as to the relative importance of the key provisions of the act will vary. Key provisions in the order of presentation in the text are:

    ; Creation of an Oversight Board

    ; Corporate executive accountability

    ; Non-audit services

    ; Retention of work papers

    ; Auditor rotation

    ; Conflicts of interest

    ; Hiring of auditor

    ; Internal control

    ? The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2009

    Solutions Manual, Vol.1, Chapter 1 1-3

Answers to Questions (continued)

Question 1-11

    New accounting standards, or changes in standards, can have significant differential effects on companies, investors and creditors, and other interest groups by causing redistribution of wealth. There also is the possibility that standards could harm the economy as a whole by causing companies to change their behavior.

    Question 1-12

    The FASB undertakes a series of elaborate information gathering steps before issuing a substantive accounting standard to determine consensus as to the preferred method of accounting, as well as to anticipate adverse economic consequences.

    Question 1-13

    The purpose of the conceptual framework is to guide the Board in developing accounting standards by providing an underlying foundation and basic reasoning on which to consider merits of alternatives. The framework does not prescribe GAAP.

    Question 1-14

    Relevance and reliability are the primary qualities that make information decision-useful. Relevant information will possess predictive and/or feedback value and also will be provided in a timely manner. Reliability is the extent to which information can be relied upon by users. Question 1-15

    The components of relevant information are predictive and/or feedback value and timeliness. The components of reliable information are verifiability, representational faithfulness, and neutrality. Question 1-16

    The benefit from providing accounting information is increased decision usefulness. If the information is relevant and reliable, it will improve the decisions made by investors and creditors. However, there are costs to providing information that include costs to gather, process and disseminate that information. There also are costs to users in interpreting the information as well as possible adverse economic consequences that could result from disclosing information. Information should not be provided unless the benefits exceed the costs.

     ? The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2009

    1-4 Intermediate Accounting,5/e

Answers to Questions (continued)

Question 1-17

    Information is material if it is deemed to have an effect on a decision made by a user. The threshold for materiality will depend principally on the relative dollar amount of the transaction being considered. One consequence of materiality is that GAAP need not be followed in measuring and reporting a transaction if that transaction is not material. The threshold for materiality has been left to subjective judgment.

    Question 1-18

     1. Assets are probable future economic benefits obtained or controlled by a particular entity as

    a result of past transactions or events.

     2. Liabilities are probable future sacrifices of economic benefits arising from present

    obligations of a particular entity to transfer assets or provide services to other entities in the

    future as a result of past transactions.

     3. Equity is the residual interest in the assets of any entity that remains after deducting its

    liabilities.

     4. Investments by owners are increases in equity resulting from transfers of resources, usually

    cash, to a company in exchange for ownership interest.

     5. Distributions to owners are decreases in equity resulting from transfers to owners.

     6. Revenues are inflows of assets or settlements of liabilities from delivering or producing

    goods, rendering services, or other activities that constitute the entity’s ongoing major or

    central operations.

     7. Expenses are outflows or other using up of assets or incurrences of liabilities during a period

    from delivering or producing goods, rendering services, or other activities that constitute the

    entity’s ongoing major or central operations.

     8. Gains are defined as increases in equity from peripheral or incidental transactions of an

    entity.

     9. Losses represent decreases in equity arising from peripheral or incidental transactions of an

    entity.

     10. Comprehensive income is defined as the change in equity of an entity during a period from

    nonowner transactions.

    Question 1-19

    The four basic assumptions underlying GAAP are (1) the economic entity assumption, (2) the

    going concern assumption, (3) the periodicity assumption, and (4) the monetary unit assumption.

    Question 1-20

    The going concern assumption means that, in the absence of information to the contrary, it is

    anticipated that a business entity will continue to operate indefinitely. This assumption is

    important to many broad and specific accounting principles such as the historical cost principle.

    ? The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2009

    Solutions Manual, Vol.1, Chapter 1 1-5

Answers to Questions (continued)

    Question 1-21

    The periodicity assumption relates to needs of external users to receive timely financial

    information. This assumption requires that the economic life of a company be divided into

    artificial periods for financial reporting. Companies usually report to external users at least once

    a year.

Question 1-22

    The four key broad accounting principles that guide accounting practice are (1) the historical cost or original transaction value principle, (2) the realization or revenue recognition principle, (3) the matching principle, and (4) the full disclosure principle.

Question 1-23

    Two important reasons to base valuation on historical cost are (1) historical cost provides important cash flow information since it represents the cash or cash equivalent paid for an asset or received in exchange for the assumption of a liability, and (2) historical cost valuation is the result of an exchange transaction between two independent parties and the agreed upon exchange value is, therefore, objective and possesses a high degree of verifiability.

Question 1-24

    The realization principle requires that two criteria be satisfied before revenue can be recognized:

    1. The earnings process is judged to be complete or virtually complete, and,

    2. There is reasonable certainty as to the collectibility of the asset to be received (usually cash).

     ? The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2009

    1-6 Intermediate Accounting,5/e

Answers to Questions (concluded)

Question 1-25

    The four different approaches to implementing the matching principle are:

    1. Recognizing an expense based on an exact cause-and-effect relationship between a revenue

    and expense event. Cost of goods sold is an example of an expense recognized by this

    approach.

    2. Recognizing an expense by identifying the expense with the revenues recognized in a

    specific time period. Office salaries is an example of an expense recognized by this

    approach.

    3. Recognizing an expense by a systematic and rational allocation to specific time periods.

    Depreciation is an example of an expense recognized by this approach.

    4. Recognizing expenses in the period incurred, without regard to related revenues.

    Advertising is an example of an expense recognized by this approach.

Question 1-26

    In addition to the financial statement elements arrayed in the basic financial statements, information is disclosed by means of parenthetical or modifying comments, notes, and supplemental financial statements.

Question 1-27

    SFAS No. 157 prioritizes the inputs companies should use when determining fair value. The highest and most desirable inputs, Level 1, are quoted market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities. Level 2 inputs are other than quoted prices that are observable including quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active or inactive markets and inputs that are derived principally from observable related market data. Level 3 inputs, the least desirable, are inputs that reflect the entity’s own assumptions about the assumptions market participants would use in pricing

    the asset or liability developed based on the best information available in the circumstances.

    ? The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2009

    Solutions Manual, Vol.1, Chapter 1 1-7

    BRIEF EXERCISES

Brief Exercise 1-1

    Revenues ($340,000 + 60,000) $400,000

    Expenses:

     Rent ($40,000 ; 2) (20,000)

     Salaries (120,000)

     Utilities ($50,000 + 2,000) (52,000)

     Net income $208,000

Brief Exercise 1-2

    (a) Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

    (b) American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA)

    (c) Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Brief Exercise 1-3

    (1) Liabilities

    (2) Assets

    (3) Revenues

    (4) Losses

    Brief Exercise 1-4

    1. The periodicity assumption

    2. The economic entity assumption

    3. The realization (revenue recognition) principle

    4. The matching principle

    Brief Exercise 1-5

    1. The matching principle

    2. The historical cost (original transaction value) principle

    3. The economic entity assumption

    Brief Exercise 1-6

    1. Disagree The full disclosure principle

    2. Agree The periodicity assumption

    3. Disagree The matching principle

    4. Agree The realization (revenue recognition) principle

     ? The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2009

    1-8 Intermediate Accounting,5/e

EXERCISES

    Exercise 1-1

    Requirement 1

     Pete, Pete, and Roy

     Operating Cash Flow

     Year 1 Year 2

    Cash collected $160,000 $190,000

    Cash disbursements:

     Salaries (90,000) (100,000)

     Utilities (30,000) (40,000)

     Purchase of insurance policy (60,000) - 0 -

     Net operating cash flow $(20,000) $ 50,000

Requirement 2

     Pete, Pete, and Roy

     Income Statements

     Year 1 Year 2

    Revenues $170,000 $220,000

    Expenses:

     Salaries (90,000) (100,000)

     Utilities (35,000) (35,000)

     Insurance (20,000) (20,000)

     Net Income $ 25,000 $ 65,000

Requirement 3

    Year 1: Amount billed to customers $170,000

     Less: Cash collected (160,000)

     Ending accounts receivable $ 10,000

    Year 2: Beginning accounts receivable $ 10,000

     Plus: Amounts billed to customers 220,000

     $230,000

     Less: Cash collected (190,000)

     Ending accounts receivable $ 40,000

    ? The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2009

    Solutions Manual, Vol.1, Chapter 1 1-9

Exercise 1-2

    Requirement 1

     Year 2 Year 3

    Revenues $350,000 $450,000

    Expenses:

     Rent ($80,000 ; 2) (40,000) (40,000)

     Salaries (140,000) (160,000)

     Travel and entertainment (30,000) (40,000)

     Advertising (25,000) (20,000)*

     Net Income $115,000 $190,000

Requirement 2

     Amount owed at the end of year one $ 5,000

    Advertising costs incurred in year two 25,000

     30,000

     Amount paid in year two (15,000)

     Liability at the end of year two 15,000

     Less cash paid in year three (35,000)

     Advertising expense in year three $20,000*

Exercise 1-3

     Organization Pronouncements

    1. Accounting Principles Board e.

    2. Financial Accounting Standards Board a., d., and g.

    3. Securities and Exchange Commission b.

    4. Committee on Accounting Procedure c.

    5. AICPA f.

     ? The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2009

    1-10 Intermediate Accounting,5/e

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