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Arthritis Glossary

By Timothy Sullivan,2014-04-16 21:18
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Arthritis Glossary

    Arthritis Glossary;关节炎词汇;

    A

    Aerobic exercise Exercise that conditions the heart and lungs to use oxygen to more efficientlythus

    supplying the entire body with larger amounts of oxygen-rich bloodand to build stronger muscles.

    Examples of aerobic activities include walking, swimming, low-impact aerobic dance, skiing and biking.

    ?Acetaminophen A type of pain-relieving medication (for example, Tylenol)

    Achilles tendon The tendon at the back of the ankle.

    Acupuncture A procedure based on traditional Chinese medicine in which disposable stainless steel needles are used to stimulate the body’s 14 major meridians, or energy-carrying channels, to resist or

    overcome illnesses and conditions by correcting these imbalances.

    Acupuncturist A person who performs acupuncture.

    Adhesive capsulitis A condition resulting in loss of motion in the shoulder; also called frozen shoulder.

    Aldolase A muscle enzyme, elevated levels of which suggest that there is an inflammatory muscle disease.

    Allergic angiitis An extremely rare disease that results from inflammation of the blood vessels and causes injury to many organ systems. The areas most commonly involved are the nose, sinuses, lungs, heart, intestinal tract and nerves. Allergic angiitis also is known as Churg Strauss vasculitis (CSV), Churg Strauss syndrome and granulomatosis.

    Allopurinol A medicine that lowers uric acid levels. It may be recommended for people who have had multiple attacks of gout or kidney stones due to uric acid.

    ANA (Anti-nuclear antibody) A blood test that is used in the evaluation of possible lupus or other connective tissue disorders. When the ANA is positive, it indicates that someone may have an autoimmune disorder, but it alone cannot make the specific diagnosis.

    ANA profile A series of tests, consisting of an ANA and measurement of other related antibodies. This may be done if the ANA is found to be positive or possibly at the same time as the ANA.

Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies (ANCA) Antibodies found in the blood in most people with

    Wegener’s granulomatosis, a disease that affects the upper respiratory tract, lungs and kidneys.

    Anemia A condition defined by a low red blood cell count. (Red blood cells are the cells that carry oxygen throughout your body.)

    Angiography A procedure that yields X-ray pictures of the inside of blood vessels. During angiography, a long slender tube called a catheter is inserted into a large artery (generally in the groin or arm). The catheter is slowly and carefully threaded through the artery until its tip reaches the segment of vessel to be examined. A small amount of dye is injected into the blood vessel through the catheter, and X-rays are taken. The dye enables the blood vessels to appear on the X-ray pictures.

    Ankylosing spondylitis A type of arthritis that affects the spine and sacroiliac joints. Spondylitis may cause pain and stiffness from the neck down to the lower back.

    Anticoagulants Medications that "thin" blood and impair coagulation.

    Antiphospholipid antibodies Abnormal proteins that may increase the tendency of the blood to clot. Aquatherapy A program of exercises performed in a large pool. Aquatherapy may be easier on painful joints because the water takes some of the weight off the painful areas while providing resistance training. Aquatherapy also is called hydrotherapy or water therapy.

    Arteritis A general term that refers to the inflammation of arteries, blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart and to the rest of the body.

    Artery A blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart and to the rest of the body. Arthritis A general term that means inflammation in joints.

    Arthritis mutilans A severe, deforming and destructive arthritis associated with psoriasis that primarily affects the small joints in the fingers and toes closest to the nail but also is frequently associated with lower back and neck pain.

    Arthrocentesis A procedure during which fluid is removed from an inflamed joint through a needle. Removing the fluid cannot only aid in diagnosing the condition, but it may reduce pressure within the joint thereby reducing pain.

    Arthroplasty A surgical procedure in which diseased portions of a joint are removed.

    Asymmetric arthritis A type of arthritis with a joint distribution typical of psoriatic arthritis, usually affecting one to three joints large or small such as the knee, hip, or one or several fingers.

    Asymmetric arthritis does not affect matching pairs of joints on both sides of the body. Psoriatic arthritis is a form of inflammatory arthritis that affects some people who have psoriasis.

    Autoimmunity A malfunction of the immune system where one's own tissues or organs are not recognized as self and are attacked by the body's immune system.

    B

    Benign hypermobility joint syndrome (BHJS) A common source of joint or muscle complaints by

    children and young adults. Benign hypermobility describes looseness of joints that may be associated with daytime pain, nighttime awakening or discomfort after exercise.

    Bioelectric therapy The delivery of a precise dose of electric current through electrodes placed on the skin. These currents cause a biological change and interrupt pain signals to the brain. Bioelectric therapy relieves pain by blocking pain messages to the brain.

    Biopsy The removal of a tissue sample for analysis.

    Bursa A sac filled with lubricating fluid, located between tissues such as bone, muscle, tendons

    and skin to decrease rubbing, friction and irritation.

    Bursitis Inflammation or irritation of the bursa.

    C

    Calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) crystals Crystals that form in the cartilage (cushioning material

    between the bones) during a sudden illness, joint injury or surgery and are later released into the joint fluid. When CPP crystals are released into the joint, they can cause a sudden attack of arthritis, similar to gout called pseudogout. People with over-functioning parathyroid glands often get this. Carpal tunnel syndrome A condition that occurs when the median nerve, which relays sensation

    from the palm of the hand and fingers, becomes pinched, usually from swelling of the tendons. This leads to numbness and sometimes pain in the fingers and hand, and sometimes the forearm or even shoulder. Carpal tunnel syndrome may result from long-term, repetitive motion in the fingers, wrist or arm, or from other conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, hyperthyroidism and multiple myeloma.

    Cartilage A firm, rubbery material that covers the ends of bones in normal joints. Its main function is to reduce friction in the joints and serve as a "shock absorber."

    Central nervous system The brain and spinal cord.

    Chemotherapy In cancer treatment, chemotherapy refers to particular drugs used to kill or slow the reproduction of rapidly multiplying cells. In rheumatology, chemotherapy is designed to decrease the abnormal behavior of cells, rather than kill cells. The doses of medication used for rheumatic or autoimmune conditions are lower than the doses used for cancer treatment.

    Churg Strauss vasculitis (CSV) An extremely rare disease that results from inflammation of the blood vessels and causes injury to many organ systems. The areas most commonly involved are the nose, sinuses, lungs, heart, intestinal tract and nerves. CSV also is known as Churg Strauss syndrome or allergic angiitis and granulomatosis.

    Chondroitin A normal component of cartilage and a nutritional supplement that may help rebuild cartilage and relieve pain in some people with osteoarthritis.

    Chronic illness An illness that is ongoing and long-term.

    ?Cyclolophosphamide (Cytoxan) A chemotherapy drug that is sometimes used to treat autoimmune

    disorders.

    Collateral blood vessels Alternate routes of blood flow.

    Complement A system consisting of a network of proteins that can be activated by the immune system leading to inflammation. Decreased levels of various components of complement C3, C4 or

    CH50 can be found in people with lupus and certain other autoimmune conditions.

    Computed axial tomography (CAT scan) A process using X-rays and computers to produce images

    of internal organs, including large blood vessels.

    Corticosteroids Drugs that suppress the abnormal cells of the immune system, working to decrease the inflammation and pain. Often called "steroids," drugs in this category are prednisone or prednisolone. These drugs are structurally similar to hydrocortisone, which is produced by the normal adrenal gland. Cortisone A potent anti-inflammatory corticosteroid that may be given as an injection (shot) to decrease swelling and relieve pain.

    Counter-force brace An elastic band that wraps around the forearm just below the injured elbow (tendon) to help relieve pain associated with tennis elbow.

    COX-2 inhibitors A newer type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that relieves inflammation with a decreased chance of gastrointestinal side effects that can occur with older NSAIDs, especially stomach ulceration and bleeding.

    C-reactive protein (CRP) A protein that indicates the amount of inflammation present in the body. Creatine phosphokinase (CK) A muscle enzyme. If CK is high, it suggests that there is an

    inflammatory muscle disease. Higher levels of CK from muscle also can be found after trauma, injections into a muscle, and muscle disease due to an under-active thyroid.

    ?Cytoxan (cyclophosphamide) A chemotherapy drug used to treat the most aggressive and

    dangerous rheumatic diseases, such as severe systemic lupus erythematosus and some forms of vasculitis.

    D

    Degenerative joint disease The most common type of arthritis. It is associated with a breakdown of cartilage in joints and can occur in almost any joint in the body. It most commonly occurs in the fingers, hips, knees and spine. Degenerative joint disease also is called osteoarthritis. Degenerative scoliosis A type of scoliosis that may result from traumatic (from an injury or illness) bone collapse, previous major back surgery, or osteoporosis. Scoliosis is a condition causing a lateral (toward the side) curvature in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. De Quervain's disease Painful inflammation (swelling) of tendons in the thumb, resulting in pain at the base of the thumb.

    Discoid lupus A type of lupus that affects only the skin, causing large red, circular lesions that may scar. Skin rashes in lupus are usually aggravated by sunlight.

    Disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) Prescription medications that have been

    shown to slow the progress of rheumatoid or psoriatic arthritis. DMARDs include methotrexate,

    ?sulfasalazine and Plaquenil.

Distal interphalangeal (DIP) predominant psoriatic arthritis A type of psoriatic arthritis that

    involves primarily the small joints in the fingers and toes closest to the nails. Psoriatic arthritis is a form of inflammatory arthritis that affects some people who have psoriasis.

    E

    Electromyogram (EMG) A test that measures the electrical activity in nerves and muscles. It measures the ability of specific nerves to transmit electrical impulses or messages and is done to document the extent of nerve damage.

    ELISA See Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay.

    Endorphins Morphine-like chemicals produced in our own bodies during times of pain or stress. Pain-blocking chemicalscalled endorphinsthat decrease or eliminate painful sensations.

    Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) A type of blood test used to detect and measure

    antibodies. An example of this is a test used to help diagnose Lyme disease. This test measures the levels of antibodies against the Lyme disease bacteria.

    Eosinophils White blood cells with red-staining granules that play a role in allergic reactions and resistance to parasitic infections.

    Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (sed. rate or ESR) A test that can indicate the degree of

    inflammation in the body. It actually is a measurement of the speed with which red blood cells fall in a test tube of blood. In the measure of certain proteins produced in response to inflammation, red cells form "stacks" or "rouleaux" (small rolls) and settle out at a more rapid rate than normal. F

    Fibromyalgia A condition characterized by aching and burning pain in muscles, tendons and joints all over the body, but especially along the spine. In fibromyalgia, the body also is tender to touch in specific areas - called tender or trigger points.

    Finkelstein test A test frequently used to diagnose de Quervain's disease. During the Finkelstein test, the doctor will ask you to make a fist with your thumb placed in your palm. When the wrist is suddenly bent toward the outside, the swollen tendons are pulled. If this movement is painful, you may have de Quervain's disease.

    G

    Giant cell arteritis (GCA) A disorder that causes inflammation in the walls of large and medium-sized arteries. Because some of the affected arteries provide blood to the head, including the temples, the condition may also be called temporal arteritis.

    Glucosamine A nutritional supplement that has been suggested to help rebuild cartilage and relieve pain in some people with osteoarthritis.

    "Golfer’s elbow" A condition caused by overuse of arm and forearm muscles that results in elbow pain. Golfer’s elbow specifically involves the area where the muscles and tendons of the forearm attach on the inside of the elbow. It also is called medial epicondylitis.

    Gout A form of arthritis that causes acute, severe attacks of pain, tenderness, redness, warmth and swelling (inflammation) in some joints. The large toe is most often affected, but gout also can affect other joints in the leg (knee, ankle, and foot) and, less often, joints in the arm (hand, wrist, and elbow). H

    HLA-B27 A cell surface protein on white blood cells associated with a gene that has been linked to ankylosing spondylitis. People carrying this gene are more likely to develop ankylosing spondylitis. When HLA-B27 is present, it indicates susceptibility to a group of diseases called seronegative spondyloarthropathies.

    Hydrotherapy A program of exercises performed in a large pool. Hydrotherapy may be easier on painful joints because the water takes some of the weight off the painful areas while enabling resistance training. Hydrotherapy also is called aquatherapy or water therapy.

    ?Hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) A medication used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and mild

    ?lupus-related problems,such as skin and joint disease. Plaquenil is an antibiotic originally used to treat

    malaria and is the most commonly used antimalarial in arthritis treatment.

    ?Hyalgan A medication (hyaluronate) given as a series of 3 to 5 weekly injections into affected joints that can relieve pain in some people with osteoarthritis.

    I

    Idiopathic scoliosis A type of scoliosis that has no specific identifiable cause. Scoliosis is a condition causing a lateral (toward the side) curvature in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. Idiopathic scoliosis is the most common type of scoliosis.

Immune system The body’s specific defense system against diseases.

    Impingement syndrome A common condition of the shoulder often seen in aging adults. It typically results in difficulty reaching up behind the back, pain with overhead use of the arm and weakness of shoulder muscles. It may be a precursor to rotator cuff tear.

    ?Imuran An immunosuppressive drug, also known as azathioprine, originally used to prevent graft rejection in patients receiving kidney transplants. Imuran? also is used to suppress the abnormal immune response in some patients with vasculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis.

    Inflammation A process by which the body's white blood cells and chemicals protect the body against infection and foreign substances such as bacteria and viruses. Inflammation is characterized by redness, warmth, swelling and pain.

    Informed consent When a patient is given all available information necessary to understand what the risks and benefits of proposed treatments are. He or she can then give or withhold informed consent. Intravenous Through a vein; a route by which medications can be given.

    Isometrics A group of exercises that help strengthen muscles without bending painful joints. Isometrics strengthen muscle groups by using an alternating series of isolated muscle flexes and periods of relaxation.

    Isotonics A group of exercises that involve joint mobility. Isotonic exercises achieve strength development through increased repetitions or by introducing light resistance with small dumbbells or stretch bands.

    J

    Joint The area where two bones meet. All synovial joints have a cavity, lined with synovial membrane, containing a small amount of fluid that allows for movement.

    Joint aspiration The removal of some fluid from a joint to examine under a microscope, or subject to other testing such as culture, protein determination, etc.

    Joint replacement surgery A surgical procedure in which natural joints are replaced with synthetic ones to restore function in the affected area.

    L

    Lumbar sympathetic block An injection (shot) of numbing medication placed in the nerve tissue in the lumbar, or lower, back to provide pain relief.

    Lupus (systemic lupus erythematosus) A disease in which the immune system inappropriately

    attacks tissues in various parts of the body, leading to tissue damage and illness. Lyme disease A specific bacterial infection transmitted by a tick. Lyme disease can cause arthritic problems, as well as heart, brain and nerve complications.

    M

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) A test that produces images of the human body without the use

    of X-rays. MRI uses a large magnet, electromagnetic energy waves and a computer to produce these images.

    ?Methotrexate (Rheumatrex) A chemotherapy drug that sometimes is used to treat autoimmune

    disorders.

    Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) A naturally occurring sulfur-containing chemical that is taken as a dietary supplement. Some people take MSM for arthritis, but there is little medical evidence showing its benefits.

    Myositis Inflammation of muscle.

    N

    Neurotransmitters Body chemicals that carry nerve impulses between nerve fibers.

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) A class of medicines that reduces inflammation

    and relieves pain. Inflammation is the body's response to irritation or injury, and is characterized by redness, warmth, swelling and pain. NSAIDs work by blocking the production of certain chemicals in the body that cause inflammation.

    Neuromuscular scoliosis A type of scoliosis that is a result of abnormal muscles or nerves. It frequently is seen in people with spina bifida or cerebral palsy, or those with various conditions that are accompanied by, or result in, paralysis. Scoliosis is a condition causing a lateral (toward the side) curvature in the normally straight vertical line of the spine.

    Neutropenia A low white blood cell count. This condition may cause decreased resistance to infection. Also called leucopenia.

    O

    Occlusion A blockage, as of a blood vessel.

    Occupational therapy Teaches you how to reduce strain on your joints while doing everyday activities. Also can recommend and show you how to use assistive devices, suggest ways to make everyday and work activities easier, and teach you how to reduce strain on your joints and conserve energy.

    Osteoarthritis The most common type of arthritis. It is associated with a breakdown of cartilage in joints and can occur in almost any joint in the body. It most commonly occurs in the fingers, hips, knees and spine. Osteoarthritis also is called degenerative joint disease.

    P

    Pericardium The membrane covering of the heart.

    Pericarditis Inflammation of the membrane around the heart.

    Phalen maneuver A test used for diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome that involves flexing the wrist to try to reproduce the person’s symptoms. It is named after Dr. George Phalen, a hand surgeon at the Cleveland Clinic who devised it.

    Photosensitivity A reaction or sensitivity to sunlight.

    Physical therapy A program of exercise and other treatments to help keep your muscles strong and your joints from becoming stiff. Also can show you how to use special equipment to help you move better and how to use devices such as crutches, walkers and canes.

    Placebo An inactive substance that looks exactly like a drug being tested in a clinical trial.

    ?Plaquenil See hydroxychloroquine.

    Pleura The membrane covering of the lungs.

    Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) An inflammatory condition, usually occurring after the age of 55, that causes pain or aching, usually felt in the large muscle groups, especially around the shoulders and hips.

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