Unit Two Beware the Dirty Seas

By Warren Stephens,2014-09-11 23:06
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Unit Two Beware the Dirty Seas

    Unit Two Beware the Dirty Seas 2009-2-28






    I Pollution

    Different kinds of pollution

    Air Pollution Pollution Databases

    Chemical Replacements Pollution Computer Products

    Contaminated Soil and Pollution Publications

    Groundwater Publications

    General Management Recycling

    Services Pollution Supplies

    Hazardous Waste Regulatory and Environmental Institutions Compliance

    Light Pollution Toxicology

    Litter Vehicle Emission Control

    Noise Pollution Waste Management

    Nuclear and Radiation Water Pollution

    Oil Spills

    Ozone Depletion

Air Pollution

    To be a pollutant, a material has to be potentially harmful

    to life. A layer above the Earth''s surface supports life is known as troposphere. Air pollution has existed since first

    used fire. Almost all air pollutants is the result of burning

    fossil fuel, either in your home, by industry or in internal

    combustion engine. Some serious consequences are:

    1. Acid Rain

2. Ozone Layer Depletion

    3. Photochemical Smog

    4. Greenhouse Effect

    Land Pollution

    Littering is one of the main effects of land pollution today. Land pollution is also soil pollution of which have deposits of solid waste, non-biodegradable materials, and poisons.

    Land pollution has amass globally, everyday threatening the very foundation and mechanical support of every matter on Earth. Statistically, it has been shown that :

    1. loss of 6 million hectares of land per year.

    2. loss of 24 billion tons of topsoil per year

    Water Pollution

    There is no such thing as naturally pure water. As water flows into ground and filters through layers of soil and rock in the ground, it dissolve and absorbs the substances that it touches some substances are harmless. Some substances

    are man-made chemicals, and are considered contaminants that can make water unsafe. Some contaminants come from erosion of natural rock formation. Others come from factories, applied to farm lands, or used by consumers. Reports tell which contaminants are in your drinking water, and at which level they were found.

    The definition of pollution: other possibilities

    Pollution: I''ll define "pollution" as "any material where I don''t want it." I realize that this is a very broad definition of pollution, and I''ve chosen it to make the point that pollution can be defined many ways.

    Now, to talk about the causes of pollution: If I''m sitting on

    my back porch and enjoying the view of the mountains behind my house, I could define "pollution" as the pile of

    old apples that some inconsiderate person dumped in the arroyo (dry wash) behind my house (the cause of the pollution, in this instance, was an inconsiderate person dumping "trash").

II Mediterranean Sea

    An inland sea surrounded by Europe, Asia, Asia Minor, the

    Near East, and Africa. It connects with the Atlantic Ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar; with the Black Sea through the Dardanelles, the Sea of Marmara, and the Bosporus; and with the Red Sea through the Suez Canal.

    The Mediterranean Sea is a part of the Atlantic Ocean

    almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Europe, on the south by Africa, and on the east by Asia. It

    covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km? (965 000

    mi?), but its connection to the Atlantic (the Strait of

    Gibraltar) is only 14 km (9 mi) wide. In oceanography, it is

    sometimes called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the

    European Mediterranean Sea, to distinguish it from

    mediterranean seas elsewhere.

    It was a superhighway of transport in ancient times,

    allowing for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region the Mesopotamian, Egyptian,

    Semitic, Persian, Phoenician, Carthaginian, Greek and

    Roman cultures. The history of the Mediterranean is important in understanding the origin and development of Western Civilization.

Library Work

    1. Water pollution is a major element of twentieth

    century environmental pollution. It includes the accumulation in oceans, lakes, rivers, and streams of physical, chemical, and biological substances that are either directly harmful to life or that have dangerous or harmful secondary and long-range effects. The principal

    sources of water pollution are sewage, industrial waste, garbage and refuse, and agricultural fertilizers, pesticides, and weed killers. The two chief reasons for the contamination and exacerbation(恶化)of the problem are

    industrialization and urbanization. Industrial wastes include dissolved minerals, toxic chemicals, and sediments. Modern industrial processes have polluted water with certain metals, such as lead and mercury, while agricultural practices do so with a variety of pesticides.

    2. Treatment and control of wastes of all kinds is the only answer to water pollution problems. Pollution can be controlled by building sewer systems, sewage treatment plants, and installations to keep fertilizers and insecticides

    from entering the water.

    Language Points:

    Para 3:

    1. The result is that the Mediterranean, which nurtured so many civilizations, is gravely ill the first of the seas to fall victim to the abilities and attitudes that evolved around it.

    What happens is that the Mediterranean, the cradle of many ancient cultures, is seriously polluted. It is the first of the seas that has been made to suffer from a situation

    resulting from development mixed with an irresponsible mentality.

    2. The relationship between the many civilizations the Mediterranean has nurtured and its pollution:

    The Mediterranean has made positive contributions to the development and prosperity of the countries along its shores but the effect produced by the industrialization and

    modernization of these countries on the Mediterranean has been negative they have aggravated the pollution of the sea.

    3. nurture -- promote the development of sth. by

    providing favorable conditions 哺育?培育

    Nurture: ―care for or protect‖ is often used with children or

    plant, e.g.

     nurture a child, nurture plants in a greenhouse.

    We may also nurture a plan, some ideas, a project, etc., meaning ―take action to encourage the development of a plan, ect.‖

    Para 4:

    1. What is more, most cities just drop it in straight off

    the beach; rare indeed are the places like Cannes and Tel Aviv which pipe it even half a mile offshore.

    Further, while the places such as Cannes and Tel Aviv dispose of their wastes through a pipe stretching out half a mile from the shore, most cities do not even bother to do that but simply dump their sewage directly into the sea along the coastline.

    Para 6:

    Author’s meaning: Even though less than 1/40 of the

    coastal people of Greece have their sewage properly treated, they are not doing too badly. Other countries on the northern shore are causing more serious pollution to the sea.

    Para 9:

    1. An even greater danger lurks in the seductive seafood dishes that add so much interest to holiday menus.

    There is an even bigger hazard hidden in the seafood dishes

    that are forever so appealing to those holiday-makers.

    Para 11:

    1.Factories cluster round the coastline, and even the most modern rarely has proper waste-treatment plant.

    Factories are set up around the coastline, few of which, including the most sophisticated, have been equipped with a satisfactory system for dealing with their effluents.

    Para 18:

    ―Of course‖ indicates that the vulnerability of the Mediterranean is not just due to its unique geographical features. The inhabitants round the shores are also to

    blame. They have for centuries been careless in the protection of their environment.

    Para 19:

    ―But‖ implies that the greatly increased population has made a big difference; the sea is much more seriously polluted than before when the population was small.

    The advice for tourists that can be inferred from the facts provided by the author in the passage:

    Do not eat shellfish unless you are sure that it is fresh and

    has grown in clean water. Take a good shower after a swim to wash off the dirt. Stay as far away as possible from those coastal areas where there are many factories.

     Organization & Development

    I Paras. 1-4: Introducing the topic

    Thesis statement: The Mediterranean is the most polluted sea in the world.

    Causes and consequences of the pollution in general.

    Three main causes of pollution: oil and tar; factory effluents, and untreated sewage

    II Paras. 5-10: Improper treatment of sewage by many Mediterranean countries.

    Consequences: Contamination of sea water and fish; Greater likelihood of disease

    III Paras. 11-13: Second main cause industries

    Untreated water emitted from factories along the coast and from factories located far inland

    IV Paras. 14-15: Other causes of pollution

    Pesticides, detergents, fertilizers, oil, etc.

    V Paras 16-20: Factors that lead to the severity of the case: narrow and shallow outlet of the Strait of Gibraltar; weak coastal currents and feeble tides; long-standing practice of

    dumping wastes into the sea; multiplication of population and increasing number of tourists

    VI Paras. 21-22: Conclusion

Efforts being made to solve the problem

    Writing techniques: Cause & Effect

    1. Cause and effect are complementary terms: cause refers to what makes things happen (reasons); effect refers to what happens (results).

    2. Two fundamental ways of organizing a cause and effect paper:

    The single-cause and many-effect pattern

    The many-causes and single-effect pattern

    Translation exercises:

    1. 一个人的努力不足以应付如此复杂的情况。

    One man’s effort is not enough to cope with such a

    complicated situation.

    2 你认为有关信息技术的新规章将在什么时候生效。

    When do you think the new IT (information technology) regulations will take effect?

    3 彩票中奖的机会很少,可能只有百分之一的机会。

    The chances of winning a prize in a lottery are slim; perhaps only a one-in-a-hundred chance

    4 不少青年成了毒品的受害者这一事实很是可悲。

    It is deplorable that many a youngster has fallen victim to

    the use of drugs.

    5 几乎没有任何人赞同他的提议。

    There is virtually no one who is in favor of his proposal.

    6 谨防油嘴滑舌满面笑容的骗子。

    Beware of the swindler with a slick tongue and a smiling face.

    7 不要碰那个包。里面的炸药随时会爆炸。你会有生命危险。

    Don’t touch the bag! The explosive in it may blow up at any

minute. Your life will be at risk.

    8 他看上去对工作很有信心,但是在他的思想深处却潜藏着几分疑虑。

    He looked quite confident about the job, though some

    doubts lurked in the depth of his mind.

    Except: prep. With the exclusion of; other than; but: 之外,除外,除之外!

    everyone except me. 除我之处的所有人


    If it were not for the fact that; only:如果不是,除之外! I would buy the suit, except that it costs too much. 如果不是它售价太高的话?我本想买下那件衣服

    Otherwise than: 除此以外!

    They didn''t open their mouths except to complain. 除了抱怨他们从不开口

    Unless 除非 v.;动词?;及物动词?To leave out; exclude: 排除,不包括! An admission fee is charged, but children are excepted. 收入场费?但儿童除外

    v.intr.;不及物动词?To object: 反对!

    Counsel excepted to the court''s ruling. 律师反对法院的裁决 Except in the sense of ―with the exclusion of‖ or ―other

    than‖ is generally construed as a preposition, not a

    conjunction. A personal pronoun that follows except is therefore in the objective case:

    Except 含有之外除了的意思时? 通常用作介词而不是连词。人称代词用于except 之后时通常用宾格!

    No one except me knew it. 除我之外没人知道它, Every member of the original cast was signed except her.


    Besides: adv.;副词?

    In addition; also.之外,也

    Moreover; furthermore. 而且

    Otherwise; else:另外,别的!

    has been to Mexico but nowhere besides.曾去过墨西哥但没去过别的地方


    In addition to.之外

    Except for; other than.除了,而非

biside [at the side] * see beside

    biside [在旁边] *参见 beside

    In modern usage the senses ―in addition to‖ and ―except for‖ are conveyed more often by besides than beside. Thus:

    现代用法中?之外除了的意思更常用besides 而较少用 beside 来表达!

    He had few friends besides us. 除我们之外他没有什么朋友



    Besides milk and cheese, we need vegetables.除了牛奶和干酪外?我们还需要蔬菜。


    I don''t want to come out now, and besides, I must work.



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