Unit Two Beware the Dirty Seas
Different kinds of pollution
Air Pollution Pollution Databases
Chemical Replacements Pollution Computer Products
Contaminated Soil and Pollution Publications
General Management Recycling
Services Pollution Supplies
Hazardous Waste Regulatory and Environmental Institutions Compliance
Light Pollution Toxicology
Litter Vehicle Emission Control
Noise Pollution Waste Management
Nuclear and Radiation Water Pollution
To be a pollutant, a material has to be potentially harmful
to life. A layer above the Earth''s surface supports life is known as troposphere. Air pollution has existed since first
used fire. Almost all air pollutants is the result of burning
fossil fuel, either in your home, by industry or in internal
combustion engine. Some serious consequences are:
1. Acid Rain
2. Ozone Layer Depletion
3. Photochemical Smog
4. Greenhouse Effect
Littering is one of the main effects of land pollution today. Land pollution is also soil pollution of which have deposits of solid waste, non-biodegradable materials, and poisons.
Land pollution has amass globally, everyday threatening the very foundation and mechanical support of every matter on Earth. Statistically, it has been shown that :
1. loss of 6 million hectares of land per year.
2. loss of 24 billion tons of topsoil per year
There is no such thing as naturally pure water. As water flows into ground and filters through layers of soil and rock in the ground, it dissolve and absorbs the substances that it touches some substances are harmless. Some substances
are man-made chemicals, and are considered contaminants that can make water unsafe. Some contaminants come from erosion of natural rock formation. Others come from factories, applied to farm lands, or used by consumers. Reports tell which contaminants are in your drinking water, and at which level they were found.
The definition of pollution: other possibilities
Pollution: I''ll define "pollution" as "any material where I don''t want it." I realize that this is a very broad definition of pollution, and I''ve chosen it to make the point that pollution can be defined many ways.
Now, to talk about the causes of pollution: If I''m sitting on
my back porch and enjoying the view of the mountains behind my house, I could define "pollution" as the pile of
old apples that some inconsiderate person dumped in the arroyo (dry wash) behind my house (the cause of the pollution, in this instance, was an inconsiderate person dumping "trash").
II Mediterranean Sea
An inland sea surrounded by Europe, Asia, Asia Minor, the
Near East, and Africa. It connects with the Atlantic Ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar; with the Black Sea through the Dardanelles, the Sea of Marmara, and the Bosporus; and with the Red Sea through the Suez Canal.
The Mediterranean Sea is a part of the Atlantic Ocean
almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Europe, on the south by Africa, and on the east by Asia. It
covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km? (965 000
mi?), but its connection to the Atlantic (the Strait of
Gibraltar) is only 14 km (9 mi) wide. In oceanography, it is
sometimes called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the
European Mediterranean Sea, to distinguish it from
mediterranean seas elsewhere.
It was a superhighway of transport in ancient times,
allowing for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region — the Mesopotamian, Egyptian,
Semitic, Persian, Phoenician, Carthaginian, Greek and
Roman cultures. The history of the Mediterranean is important in understanding the origin and development of Western Civilization.
1. Water pollution is a major element of twentieth
century environmental pollution. It includes the accumulation in oceans, lakes, rivers, and streams of physical, chemical, and biological substances that are either directly harmful to life or that have dangerous or harmful secondary and long-range effects. The principal
sources of water pollution are sewage, industrial waste, garbage and refuse, and agricultural fertilizers, pesticides, and weed killers. The two chief reasons for the contamination and exacerbation(恶化)of the problem are
industrialization and urbanization. Industrial wastes include dissolved minerals, toxic chemicals, and sediments. Modern industrial processes have polluted water with certain metals, such as lead and mercury, while agricultural practices do so with a variety of pesticides.
2. Treatment and control of wastes of all kinds is the only answer to water pollution problems. Pollution can be controlled by building sewer systems, sewage treatment plants, and installations to keep fertilizers and insecticides
from entering the water.
1. The result is that the Mediterranean, which nurtured so many civilizations, is gravely ill – the first of the seas to fall victim to the abilities and attitudes that evolved around it.
What happens is that the Mediterranean, the cradle of many ancient cultures, is seriously polluted. It is the first of the seas that has been made to suffer from a situation
resulting from development mixed with an irresponsible mentality.
2. The relationship between the many civilizations the Mediterranean has nurtured and its pollution:
The Mediterranean has made positive contributions to the development and prosperity of the countries along its shores but the effect produced by the industrialization and
modernization of these countries on the Mediterranean has been negative – they have aggravated the pollution of the sea.
3. nurture –-- promote the development of sth. by
providing favorable conditions 哺育？培育
Nurture: ―care for or protect‖ is often used with children or
nurture a child, nurture plants in a greenhouse.
We may also nurture a plan, some ideas, a project, etc., meaning ―take action to encourage the development of a plan, ect.‖
1. What is more, most cities just drop it in straight off
the beach; rare indeed are the places like Cannes and Tel Aviv which pipe it even half a mile offshore.
Further, while the places such as Cannes and Tel Aviv dispose of their wastes through a pipe stretching out half a mile from the shore, most cities do not even bother to do that but simply dump their sewage directly into the sea along the coastline.
Author’s meaning: Even though less than 1/40 of the
coastal people of Greece have their sewage properly treated, they are not doing too badly. Other countries on the northern shore are causing more serious pollution to the sea.
1. An even greater danger lurks in the seductive seafood dishes that add so much interest to holiday menus.
There is an even bigger hazard hidden in the seafood dishes
that are forever so appealing to those holiday-makers.
1.Factories cluster round the coastline, and even the most modern rarely has proper waste-treatment plant.
Factories are set up around the coastline, few of which, including the most sophisticated, have been equipped with a satisfactory system for dealing with their effluents.
―Of course‖ indicates that the vulnerability of the Mediterranean is not just due to its unique geographical features. The inhabitants round the shores are also to
blame. They have for centuries been careless in the protection of their environment.
―But‖ implies that the greatly increased population has made a big difference; the sea is much more seriously polluted than before when the population was small.
The advice for tourists that can be inferred from the facts provided by the author in the passage:
Do not eat shellfish unless you are sure that it is fresh and
has grown in clean water. Take a good shower after a swim to wash off the dirt. Stay as far away as possible from those coastal areas where there are many factories.
Organization & Development
I Paras. 1-4: Introducing the topic
Thesis statement: The Mediterranean is the most polluted sea in the world.
Causes and consequences of the pollution in general.
Three main causes of pollution: oil and tar; factory effluents, and untreated sewage
II Paras. 5-10: Improper treatment of sewage by many Mediterranean countries.
Consequences: Contamination of sea water and fish; Greater likelihood of disease
III Paras. 11-13: Second main cause – industries
Untreated water emitted from factories along the coast and from factories located far inland
IV Paras. 14-15: Other causes of pollution
Pesticides, detergents, fertilizers, oil, etc.
V Paras 16-20: Factors that lead to the severity of the case: narrow and shallow outlet of the Strait of Gibraltar; weak coastal currents and feeble tides; long-standing practice of
dumping wastes into the sea; multiplication of population and increasing number of tourists
VI Paras. 21-22: Conclusion
Efforts being made to solve the problem
Writing techniques: Cause & Effect
1. Cause and effect are complementary terms: cause refers to what makes things happen (reasons); effect refers to what happens (results).
2. Two fundamental ways of organizing a cause and effect paper:
The single-cause and many-effect pattern
The many-causes and single-effect pattern
One man’s effort is not enough to cope with such a
When do you think the new IT (information technology) regulations will take effect?
The chances of winning a prize in a lottery are slim; perhaps only a one-in-a-hundred chance
It is deplorable that many a youngster has fallen victim to
the use of drugs.
There is virtually no one who is in favor of his proposal.
Beware of the swindler with a slick tongue and a smiling face.
Don’t touch the bag! The explosive in it may blow up at any
minute. Your life will be at risk.
He looked quite confident about the job, though some
doubts lurked in the depth of his mind.
Except: prep. With the exclusion of; other than; but: 除…之外，除外，除…之外！
everyone except me. 除我之处的所有人
If it were not for the fact that; only:如果不是，除…之外！ I would buy the suit, except that it costs too much. 如果不是它售价太高的话？我本想买下那件衣服
Otherwise than: 除此以外！
They didn''t open their mouths except to complain. 除了抱怨他们从不开口
Unless 除非 v.；动词？
v.tr.；及物动词？To leave out; exclude: 排除，不包括！ An admission fee is charged, but children are excepted. 收入场费？但儿童除外
v.intr.；不及物动词？To object: 反对！
Counsel excepted to the court''s ruling. 律师反对法院的裁决 Except in the sense of ―with the exclusion of‖ or ―other
than‖ is generally construed as a preposition, not a
conjunction. A personal pronoun that follows except is therefore in the objective case:
Except 含有―除…之外‖或―除了‖的意思时？ 通常用作介词而不是连词。人称代词用于except 之后时通常用宾格！
No one except me knew it. 除我之外没人知道它， Every member of the original cast was signed except her.
In addition; also.除…之外，也
Moreover; furthermore. 而且
has been to Mexico but nowhere besides.曾去过墨西哥但没去过别的地方
In addition to.除…之外
Except for; other than.除了…，而非
biside [at the side] * see beside
biside [在旁边] *参见 beside
In modern usage the senses ―in addition to‖ and ―except for‖ are conveyed more often by besides than beside. Thus:
现代用法中？―除…之外‖和―除了…外‖的意思更常用besides 而较少用 beside 来表达！
He had few friends besides us. 除我们之外他没有什么朋友
Besides milk and cheese, we need vegetables.除了牛奶和干酪外？我们还需要蔬菜。
I don''t want to come out now, and besides, I must work.