Unit 7 Book 3
Unit 7 Book Three
Text A: Life of a Salesman
After learning this unit, Ss are supposed to be able to
; understand the main idea (Bill Porter the salesman will never give in) and structure of the text
(four parts, two flashbacks);
; appreciate the characteristics of journalistic writing;
; grasp the key language points and grammatical structures in the text; ; conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking, and writing activities related to the theme of
st nd1and 2 period — Pre-reading Activities;
rdth3 and 4 period — While-reading Activities;
thth5 and 6 period — Post-reading Activities;
th th7and 8 period — Listening and Speaking.
I. Important Points
A. Key Words and Phrases
Key words: betray, commission, cripple, delivery, dignity, disorder, laundry, lean, limb, limitation, linger, literature, pledge, profitable, register, representative, retail, scar, section,
signature, strain, surgery, territory, tilt, transfer, transit, tremble, useless Key phrases: apply for, be laid up (with), drop off, gain on, go off, kick up, in time, off balance, off one’s feet, on the phone
B. Key Sentence Patterns
1) before ( clause
It took Porter four false starts before he found the courage to ring the first door-bell.
2) feel like (doing
Some days, he feels like surrendering.
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II. Difficult Points
Ellipsis: Ellipsis involves leaving out words which are obvious from the context. In many cases you use an auxiliary in place of a full verb group, or use “to” in place of an infinitive phrase after a
verb, etc. in coordinate clauses and clause of comparison, even more words can be left out. ; I say a line, then he does, then crash.
; When I got home from work the next morning, the lawn had been mowed, the garden weeded,
and the walks swept.
I. Pre-reading Activities
A. Warm-up Activities: An attempt of role play
1) One student will act as a salesperson, and all other students will act as his / her potential
2) T appoints a student with a relatively advanced level of English to act as the salesperson. He / She
will leave the classroom, think of a product to sell, and plan his / her sales talk. The product
should be relevant to campus life.
3) After the salesperson leaves the classroom, T selects several Ss at random. Only they can buy
from the salesperson. All other Ss must come up with an excuse not to buy.
4) T invites the salesperson back into the classroom. He / she has 10 minutes to close a deal.
5) Ss discuss with their neighbors the qualities of a good salesperson.
; Hence, the text can be introduced into by the following words: From the role-play we know the sale of
goods is rather a difficult job. It is even more difficult for a handicapped person, like Bill
Porter in Text A.
B. Background Information
Sales promotion is an element of the marketing process that can close the sale of goods or services to potential customer by providing the incentive to make a positive purchasing decision. Sales promotion, advertising, and salesmanship are the major techniques used in merchandising products to the public. Salesmanship often takes the form of a face-to-face encounter between the buyer and seller; the presentation is set up to convince customers that the product on sale is essential to their satisfaction. The lack of personal feedback between buyer and seller is sometimes considered a drawback of the advertising approach. Selling by telephone, although it is significantly less effective than personal selling, is still considered an important method of merchandising. In the 1980s, a growing promotional technique involved in-home shopping programs using cable television channels. In recent years with the help of the Internet online shopping is becoming popular.
The traveling salesman appeared late in the 19th century both in Europe and in the U.S. The early itinerant peddler carried his goods on his back or on his horse, working his way from a port city through the hinterlands. With the coming of the railroad and the assurance given to sellers by new credit-reporting systems, salesman with their samples cases moved across the land. Persuasive skill was less important in those days of unsatisfied demand, and orders were readily forthcoming. By 1900, however, with the increasing supply of manufactured goods, buyers
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became more discriminating in their purchases. Greater attention was given to training the sales force and to providing buyer incentives. The growth of industrialization and urban living led to the development of merchandising as a major business endeavor. The use of sales promotion practices experienced steady growth in the 20th century.
The techniques of sales promotion are used both to motivate salespersons to improve their performance and to induce consumers to purchase goods and services. Although sales promotion works most closely with advertising, it is also related to other elements of marketing: production services, packing, price, and distribution. At the manufacturing and wholesale levels of distribution, the method used to motivate personnel to specific goals usually fall into two categories-sales incentive prizes (such as merchandise, travel, or cash awards) and sales contests. Both are based on the salesperson reaching an objective above the normal sales quota.
Consumer promotions encompass a wide variety of techniques, including sampling of goods or services, store redeemable “money-off” coupons to encourage the trial of products, special
price-reduced packages, mail-in premium merchandise offers, cash or coupon refunds by mail, special product packaging, contests and sweepstakes. During recessionary periods, when the demands for consumer expendable dollars become more competitive, there is greater participation in refund, coupon, and premium offers. More than half the households in the U.S. take advantage of some sales promotion offers each year.
Sales promotion, now fully recognized as a vital element in the marketing mix, has become a multibillion dollar industry. In recent years, sales promotion expenditures have exceeded monies spent on advertising and there are strong indications that this pattern of growth will continue to maintain its economic edge.
C. Key Words and Their Collocations
1) spend a long time doing sth.
My daughter used to linger long over her meal.
There will be no time to linger--- the press conference will begin in a few minutes.
2) stay for a long time, esp. because one does not want to leave
It is a dreary little town where few people would choose to linger.
He was still lingering around the stadium long after the game was over.
2. scar: a mark left on the skin by a wound, burn, etc. after it has healed
It’s easy to recognize the little boy because he has a scar on his left arm.
The witness told the police that the criminal had a scar on his forehead.
Vt. Leave a scar on
The burns were so severe that he will be scarred for life.
Her face was scarred by smallpox.
so, too, do the voices of those who…: The voices of those who… also echo in his soul.
3. dignity: the quality of being worthy of honor or respect
A physician shall be dedicated to providing competent medical service with compassion and
respect for human dignity.
Some think that cloned human beings will be deprived of freedom or dignity or personal
They hold on to the faith that the value of life depends on its dignity and not its success. 4. cripple:
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1) cause to become unable to move or walk proper
At the beginning of the year 2000 crippled children were on state lists to receive care. Peter’s father was crippled by a stroke.
2) damage or harm (sb. /sth.) seriously
Shootings and robberies of tourists over the past several years had crippled the tourist industry in Miami.
The terrorists’ attack has not crippled the US economy.
5. betray: show a lack of loyalty to; give or show (sb./sth )to an enemy According to the Gospels of Mathew and Mark , greed made Judas betray Jesus to the chief priest for 30 pieces of silver.
He was accused of betraying his country during the war.]]
6. gain on: come closer to, esp. a rival or sth. Pursued
Hurry up--- they are gaining on us!
She was gaining on her opponents throughout the race, but only overtook them at the very end.
7. tremble: shake from cold, fear, weakness, etc.
Her hands grew very cold and trembled so that she could hardly hold the flag. Madison was extremely pale and trembled excessively as he began his inaugural address. 8. kick up: (cause to) rise
The horses kicked up a cloud of dust.
The boys kicked up the leaves that lay thick upon the ground with coming of autumn. 9. tilt: (cause to) move into a sloping position
The pilot can tilt the helicopter forward, backward, or to either side. In the northern hemisphere, the sun climbs high in the sky and the days are long in summer, when the northern end of the earth’s axis is tilted toward the sun.
The Leaning Tower of Pisa is renowned for its marked tilt.
The amount of daylight in a day varies throughout the year, based on the tilt of Earth’s axis.
10. lean: (cause to ) be in sloping position; bend
He leaned his bike against the wall.
She leaned over the bridge to look at the boats passing beneath it. producing little of value; containing little or no fat
The company has apparently recovered from several lean years.
The recession and lean state budgets continued to trouble school officials. 11. delivery:
1) the process of birth
Women who do manual work have easy deliveries.
In the end, it was an easy delivery: a fine baby boy.
2) the delivering of letters, goods, etc.
Federal Express Corporation provide rapid delivery of packages, letters, and other shipments within the United States and worldwide.
Most newspapers offer home delivery.
12. section: any of the parts into which sth. is divided
This article consists of ten major sections.
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Newspapers typically have sections for local news, sports, arts and entertainment, business, and classified advertising.
13. disorder: disturbance of the normal working of the body or mind; lack of order Severe vitamin and mineral deficiencies can lead to mental disorders.
Acupuncture is an ancient Chinese practice that treats disorders by inserting needles under the skin.
14. transfer: move from one place to another (usu. Used in the patter: transfer sth./sb.(from---to))
Transferring Peter from Tokyo to the Boston office was a smart idea.
Power was transferred from the President to the Vice President while the President received medical treatment.
Commercial airports are designed to transfer passengers and freight to and from aircraft. Credits earned at junior colleges could be transferred to another institution where students could complete their final years of college.
He was transferred from Crystal Palace to Arsenal for $2.5 million.
15. limitation: lack of ability
Electric cars could travel only a short distance before they needed recharging, due to the limitations of battery technology.
Acupuncture is good for some medical conditions but it has its limitations. 16. apply for: make a formal request for
I applied for five jobs before I was offered this one.
According to the school regulations students will have to apply for permission to study abroad.
17. representative: a person who represents others
Egypt, Israel, and the representatives of the Palestinian people will participate in negations on the resolutions of the Palestinian problem.
Representatives from more than 170 nations converged on Paris for the Earth Summit. 18. literature:
1) printed material used to advertise or promote a product
My friend is sending me literature from two other companies that provide a similar service. There is quite a lot of literature available on the history of computers. 2) writings that are valued as works of art
Many readers consider the novel the most flexible type of literature.
The graduate school offers master’s or doctoral degree programs for advanced study in such
liberal arts and science fields as history, chemistry, physics, and literature. 19. pledge:
1) a solemn promise
They made a pledge to accomplish the task.
The boy made a pledge to get straight A’s at the end of the semester.
2) as a verb:
Member nations of the UN pledge to settle their disputes peacefully and to refrain from using force.
They have pledged not to dump hazardous wastes into the river.
20. retail: the practice of selling goods in small quantities to the general public
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It means that except when he catches someone who looks as if he may be persuaded to buy.
3) He smells blood.
It means that he becomes aware of a weakness or vulnerability in his opponent.
4) The new owners, familiar with his situation, froze his forced rent and agreed to let him live
there until he dies.
“froze his rent”: agreed not to increase his rent.
6) It took Porter four false starts before he found the courage to ring the first doorbell.
It implies that Porter had a very hard beginning.
7) He puts on his glasses, removes his brochures and begins his sales talk, showing the woman
pictures and describing each product.
It implies that Porter is a very proficient retail salesman. Despite his deformity, he did all these
very fluently, which showed his eagerness to sell the products to the customer.
8) From his easy chair he hears the wind lash his house and the rain pound the street outside his
“pound”: to beat or hit repeatedly and heavily.
C. Key Sentences Patterns
1) It is true …, but…” and “True …, but …”
e.g. It is true, but no one would be inclined to believe in him.
2) before followed by a gerund (phrase) or a clause
e.g. She had to finish reading all the mail that arrived that morning before leaving her office.
e.g. Before you criticize him, I think you should let him explain why he acted in the way he
e.g. Because they learned it the hard way, they will not trust anyone before he proves himself
3) feel followed by doing
e.g. Whenever I felt talking, they were ready to listen.
e.g. Those who felt like hearing the story again came over and added themselves to the
; Training on the usage of “feel doing”
____________________(每当我想说说话儿的时候), They were ready to listen.
Are there days when you_________________________________，不想写作！，
________，想再听一听这个故事的人！Came over and added themselves to the audience.
_________________________________，我想去散散步！. Won’t you join me?
2. Writing skill — how to write a synopsis
; A synopsis is a summary of a longer piece of writing. A synopsis writer should keep in mind
the following requirements:
1) His synopsis should not be longer than a third of the length of the original passage; 2) His synopsis does not express his but someone else’s ideas;
3) It should be faithful to the original with no change in facts and views; 4) All the important points in the original should be included whereas all the details can be
Here are the steps of writing a synopsis:
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Make a list of the main points, leaving out details
Write a rough draft of the synopsis
Compare your version with the original passage
Count the number of words in the draft
Revise your first draft
Write out a fair copy of your synopsis
The story tells of one day in the life of a salesman, Bill Porter. It attempts to give us some idea of the hardship he faces and the strength of character he shows. For his job is made all the more difficult by a handicap from which he suffers, which makes it difficult for him to move normally.
The story starts with Bill struggling to get himself ready to go to work in the early morning. It then follows him on his long journey to work and the discouraging rejections he receives. As the story unfolds, we learn about his past and his character, how, for example, he followed his father’s
example in becoming a salesman and how proud he is of his ability to support himself by his trade. We learn how many miles he has to walk, and the household provisions he deals in. in many ways, his life seems bleak. He does not get home until late at night and lives alone. He is getting old. Yet, despite all this, he refuses to give way to self-pity.
3. Fast Reading — Text B: Bricklayer’s Boy
1) Comprehension Check (on Page 250)
2) Keys: cdaddb
III. Post-reading Activities
A. Summary of the Text
It’s been a long day and I’m glad to be back home and get the weight off my feet. Not that
I’ve finished yet, there are still all those orders to type up and I must remember to add my signature to my claim for commission before I post it off. Otherwise, my firm will be on the phone
to me about it. Not that they have much to complain about. I always manage to sell quite a lot, except that time I was laid up after surgery. I’m the only representative the firm has out on the
streets nowadays and I still manage to cover a large territory despite my disorder. It’s hard work
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and long hours, no time to linger in bed in the morning. Yet, I’ve never regretted applying for the
job all those years ago. Supporting myself enables me to keep my dignity.
B. Review Work
1) Discussing the following questions from the text:
; What has Bill Porter been struggling for all his life? Do you think it is worth his efforts?
; How do you feel about Bill Porter? Why?
; What characteristics of journalistic writing do you find in this article
2) Translating the following useful expressions
招聘广告 Help wanted ads
冲破身体的极限 Rise above one’s limitations
一群 A pack of
系鞋带 Tie one’s shoes
家用物品 Household products
装 让某人下车 Drop sb. Off
擦鞋摊 A shoeshine stand
订 不平衡 Off balance
零售推销商 A retain salesman 线 在打电话 On the phone
躺着 Off one’s feet 内 过着离群索居的生活 Lead a solitary life
靠佣金赚钱 Work on commission 不
C. Exercises 要 Do Exx. ?, ?, ? in Vocabulary, and finish those in Structure and Comprehension.
答 D. Assignments
1) Write a synopsis of Text A in about 200 words. 题 2) Go on line and try to find out some stories of making a living, and then prepare to retell the
stories in your words.
E. Quiz —Vocabulary
1. The aircraft base is protected with specially designed shelters which are built to _______
ground and air attacks.
A. launch B. withstand C. contest D. contend
2. These compensation cases have already _____ for one year.
A. pressed on B. dragged on C. got bogged down D. held out 3. Much of the territory is still under ______ .
A. elimination B. invasion C. constitution D. occupation 4. These devices mounted in the car can ____ driver to an impending hazard.
A. instruct B. warn C. dictate D. alert
5. Windy days are ____ of March.
A. character B. characteristic C. feature D. quality
6. This course focuses on the _______ of economic analysis to the problems of inflation,
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unemployment, the balance of payments and enterprise behavior.
A. conception B. combination C. application D. introduction
7. Science has a very strong ____ on the everyday life of non-scientist as well as scientists.
A. motivation B. perspective C. impression D. impact
8. There is scientific evidence to support our _______ that being surrounded by plants is good for
A. perception B. instinct C. conception D. implication
9. I was hoping that Vicky would _____ in the near future and save everybody a lot of headaches.
A. make up B. show up C. hold up D. follow up
10. The park was located on the side of the lake: _____the name Lakeside.
A. so B. hence C. thus D. consequently
11. Population growth and pollution place enormous ____ on the world’s supply of usable water.
A. stress B. exposure C. endurance D. endeavor
12. It is not so much the actual population of the world _____its rate of increase which is
A. of B. over C. like D. as
13. Tom is so weak that he should ____ be allowed to go to work until he has completely
recovered from his illness.
A in case B. in some case C. in any case D. in no case
14. ______ quite recently, most mothers in Britain did not take paid work outside the home.
A. Before B. Until C. From D. Since
15. The old couple decided to _____ a boy and a girl though they had three children of their own.
A. adapt B. bring C. receive D. adopt
16. I am not sure whether I can gain any profit from this investment, so I can’t make a ____
promise to help you.
A. clear B. correct C. exact D. definite
17. Students will be punished if their behavior is not _____ school rules and regulations.
A. in accordance to B. in accordance with
C. in according to D. with accord to
18. By a ___ of good luck. Bob, who had been buried in the rubble for more than 26 hours, came
out _____ .
A. strike…alive B. hit…living C. ray… living D. stroke…alive
19. In recent years, some psychologists have tried to explain intelligence from a biological
A. point B. standpoint C. mind D. opinion