Chapter 20 Biomes
1. biotic factors Living parts of an environment such as plants and animals.
2. abiotic factors Nonliving parts of an environment such as soil, water,
climate….temperature and precipitation.
3. biome A large area characterized by a specific type of climate and
certain types of plants and animals.
Latitude = location = climate = plant and animals with
adaptations for survival.
4. deciduous trees Leaves change colors and are shed in fall-winter
5. conifers Trees that have cones and the leaves are needle shaped and stay
green all year
6. temperate deciduous forest -Many animals such as white tailed deer with spotted coats to
blend in with trees
-Known for the trees that lose or shed leaves
7. coniferous forest -Most of trees are conifers and keep their needle-like leaves all
year and stay green. Examples are fir, pine, spruce, and cedar
-Conifer trees produce seeds in cones.
-Also called Taiga and Boreal Forest
-Short summers and long winters
-Main type of precipitation is snow
8. Tropical Rainforest -More biological diversity than other place on Earth
-Great diversity of plants and animals – Greatest biodiversity.
-Most animals live in canopy or tree tops.
-Soil is very thin and poor in nutrients. Most of nutrients are
found in plants.
-Epiphyte is a term for plants that often live on trees because
there isn’t enough light on the forest floor. Examples: mosses
-Location: Near equator
-Precipitation – 200+ cm or 400 + cm
9. Grasslands -Have many names such as steppes, prairies, and pampas
-Two kinds – Temperate grassland and savanna
-Temperate grasslands are what we have in the central part of
the U.S. They are almost treeless. There are very few trees
because of fires, drought, and overgrazing. The dominant plants
are the grasses. The rich soil makes them great farmlands. In
North America the temperate grasslands are called prairies.
-Savannas have scattered clumps of trees and seasonal rains.
Savannas have a dry and rainy season. In the dry season the
grasses dry out and turn yellow. Savannas are found in Africa,
India, and South America. They are known for the large
herbivores such as elephants, giraffes, and zebras.
10. Deserts -Very dry and very hot
-Organisms have special adaptations to a hot, dry climate.
-Most animals are nocturnal which means they are active only at
night when it is cooler.
-Plant adaptations would include thick leaves and stems for
-Rain is less than 25 cm per year
11. Tundra - Coldest biome
-Has coal, oil, and natural gas deposits.
Polar tundra near the North and South Poles…Arctic area and
-Very cold temperatures and less than 25 cm of precipitation
-Too cold for trees to grow
-Permafrost is soil beneath the surface which stays frozen all
-Plants = mosses, lichens, grasses, and shrubs – Plants grow low
to the ground.
-Growing season is 50-60 days.
Alpine tundra is found at the top of tall mountains above the tree
line where trees can’t grow.
-Growing season is 180 days.
12. Plankton - Tiny organisms that float near the surface of the water.
-Phytoplanktons are producers and need sunlight to go through
photosynthesis to make their own food and give off oxygen.
-Zooplanktons are plankton that are usually microscopic animals
and are consumers.
-Phytoplanktons form the base of the ocean’s food chain. All
ocean food chains begin with plankton…phytoplankton and
13. Where do phytoplankton They make their own food because they go through get food? photosynthesis.
Why are phytoplankton Phytoplankton are located close to the surface of the ocean located close to the surface because they have to have sunlight to go through photosynthesis
of the ocean? because they are producers.
14. How does temperature -The temperature of the ocean water decreases as the depth of the
in the ocean affect marine water increases.
animals? -Animals that live in coral reefs need warm water to live.
-Animals in the polar waters have adaptations to survive the cold.
-Animals such as whales migrate from cold to warmer waters to
15. Ocean Temperature -The surface zone is the warm, top layer of ocean water.
Zones - Which ocean
temperature zone is the
16. How far can sunlight Sunlight can reach a few hundred meters into the ocean water so reach into the ocean waters? that phytoplankton and algae can go through photosynthesis.
17. Explain the importance Phytoplankton/algae have chlorophyll in their cells which of phytoplankton/algae in captures the sunlight and changes carbon dioxide and water into our oceans? glucose and oxygen. Most of the Earth’s oxygen in the
atmosphere comes from the photosynthesis carried out by
phytoplankton/algae. Without them, the Earth’s oxygen supply
would not be sufficient.
18. Is plankton abiotic or Plankton is biotic because it is an organism, a living thing.
biotic and why?
19. What are the 4 zones of Intertidal zone, neritic zone, oceanic zone, and benthic zone
20. Intertidal zone This is the place where the ocean meets the land. It is exposed to
the air when the tide is low. Think of the beach.
21. What are the 3 types of Mudflats, sandy beaches, and rocky shores
22. Neritic zone In this zone the water becomes deeper as the ocean floor begins to
slope downward. The water is warm and supports a thriving coral
23. Oceanic zone In this zone the ocean floor drops sharply. This open ocean zone
is the deep waters of the ocean. Its surface waters have plenty of
plankton. Animals in these deep waters often get food from the
materials that sink down from the ocean surface.
24. Benthic zone This zone is the ocean floor or the bottom of the ocean. Some
parts get no sunlight. They often get food from the materials
sinking down from the ocean surface.
25. Estuary This is where fresh water from streams and rivers spills into the
ocean. An estuary is full of nutrients and can support large
numbers of plankton.
26. How can the waters in The icy waters are rich in nutrients….plenty of phytoplankton and the Arctic and Antarctic zooplankton.
areas support large numbers
27. How do tributaries form A stream of water that joins a larger stream of water is a tributary. rivers? Then as more tributaries join a stream, the stream gets stronger
and wider. These very strong and wide streams form rivers.
28. What is an important How quickly the water moves
abiotic factor in freshwater
29. What are some - Algae and moss are attached to rocks.
adaptations that organisms -Tadpoles use suction disks to hold themselves to rocks.
have to keep from being - Insects live under rocks.
washed away in fast flowing
30. What are the 3 zones in Littoral zone, open-water zone, and deep-water zone
ponds and lakes?
31. littoral zone of a pond or This is the area in a pond or lake that is closest to the edge. It is a lake shallow zone where light reaches the bottom so that
photosynthesis can take place.
32. open-water zone of a This is the zone in a pond or lake that extends from the littoral pond or lake zone across the top of the water. This zone is only as deep as the
sunlight will reach. So, it ends where the sunlight stops. There
are many phytoplankton in this zone to go through
33. deep-water zone of a This is the zone in a pond or lake where no sunlight reaches.
pond or lake
34. wetland An area of land this is periodically underwater or whose soil
contains a great deal of moisture
35. How do wetlands help -Wetlands can soak up large amounts of water
control floods? -Wetland waters can also move deeper into the ground to
replenish the underground water supply.
36. What are the two kinds Marshes and swamps
37. marsh -A treeless wetland where plants such as grasses grow
-Often found in shallow areas along the shores of lakes, ponds,
rivers, and streams
38. swamp -A wetland in which shrubs, vines, and trees grow
-Swamps are found in low-lying areas and beside slow moving
-Willows are a common swamp tree.
-The trunks of trees in a swamp give them the support they need
in the wet environment.
39. How can a lake or pond -The lake or pond fills with sediments and decaying organisms become a forest? over time. Bacteria break down the dead material and use oxygen
in the water. Then, the lack of oxygen affects the organisms in
the water. Some organisms, such as fishes, may die and add to
the decomposing material. Over time, plants begin to grow in the
filled-in shallow areas and then continue to the center of the pond.
Eventually, the pond becomes a wetland. Then, it dries out to
become a forest.