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Unit 3F Light and shadows

By Robert Wilson,2014-04-01 19:13
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Unit 3F Light and shadows

Unit 3F Light and shadows

    ABOUT THE UNIT

    This unit introduces the relationship between light, an object and the formation of shadows. Children observe the apparent movement

    of the Sun and the associated changes in shadows.

    Experimental and investigative work focuses on:

     making and recording measurements and observations

     drawing conclusions

     suggesting explanations for observations and conclusions.

    Work in this unit also offers children opportunities to explain shadows using scientific knowledge and to recognise the hazards and

    risks in looking at the Sun.

    Visually impaired children will need particular support in this unit. They will be able to take part in activities through careful use of

    residual vision, through their awareness that many light sources are also heat sources and through using their sense of touch. It is important for teachers to help children to be sensitive to those who are visually impaired.

    This unit takes approximately 12 hours.

     WHERE THE UNIT FITS IN VOCABULARY RESOURCES

    Builds on Unit 1D ‘Light and dark’ In this unit children will have torches with powerful beams

    opportunities to use: combs with widely spaced teeth, Children need: cardboard tubes words and phrases relating to light to recognise that light is needed in objects of a variety of shapes and shadow formation order to see shadow sticks eg transparent, opaque, shadow, that there are many light sources metre sticks or tape measures block, direction, light travels that the main source of light in compass expressions of reason using daytime is the Sun. collection of opaque, transparent and ‘because’ Links with Units 3C, 5E, 6F, geography translucent objects and materials expressions of comparison and history. eg plastic bottles, fine gauze, thin eg shortest, highest nylon, wood, acetate, foils, expressions making generalisations. greaseproof paper

     white cardboard to act as screen

     overhead projector

     secondary sources eg reference

    books, CD-ROMs

     EXPECTATIONS

    at the end of this unit

    most children will: explain that shadows are formed when light from a source is blocked; recognise that

    shadows are similar in shape to the objects forming them; describe how a shadow from

    the Sun changes over the course of a day; make predictions about the shadows formed

    by different objects or materials and make careful observations and measurements of

    the shadows

    some children will not have recognise that shadows are similar in shape to the objects forming them, that a shadow

    made so much progress and will: from the Sun changes over the course of a day and make observations of changes in

    shadows

    some children will have explain that the changes in shadows from the Sun over the course of a day arise from progressed further and will also: the movement of the Earth and that even transparent objects block some light and form

    shadows

    Browse, save, edit or print Schemes of Work from the Standards Site at www.standards.dfee.gov.uk Ref: QCA/98/210W QCA 1998

Browse, save, edit or print Schemes of Work from the Standards Site at www.standards.dfee.gov.uk Primary Schemes of Work: Science Unit 3F Light and shadows

    LEARNING OBJECTIVES POSSIBLE TEACHING ACTIVITIES LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NOTE

    CHILDREN SHOULD LEARN CHILDREN

     Review children’s existing understanding of light and dark by A concept map shows the connections between different ideas

    helping them to draw a concept map linking their ideas in a particular topic and is a useful source of information about

    about light, using terms eg light, dark, night, day, light children’s understanding. This activity will indicate children’s

    source, seeing, shiny, Sun, Earth, lighting up, sunshine. understanding of light and dark. Teachers will need to take this

    Discuss children’s ideas with them. into account in their short-term planning.

     that shadows are formed ; Let children explore shadow formation using torches and recognise that light can be The understanding of shadow formation is an important step when light travelling from a other light sources eg OHP and objects of different shapes blocked by objects and towards establishing that light travels from a source.

    source is blocked and different materials. Introduce children to the idea of light shadows are formed

     to make and record travelling from a source by shining a powerful torch beam recognise that when light

    observations and to present through a comb with widely spaced teeth or a cardboard from sources other than the

    information in drawing and tube and showing that the beam is blocked and doesn’t Sun is blocked shadows are

    writing bend round corners. Show that a shadow is formed on a formed

    screen. Ask children to record what they see in drawings

    and writing.

     that shadows are formed ; On a bright sunny day visit the school grounds to observe identify eg in drawings that When children trace shadows it may be helpful to draw their when objects block light from shadows, possibly including those formed by clouds. the shape of the shadow is attention to the fact that the shadow is ‘joined’ to the object (but the Sun Suggest children explore shadows of themselves in different like the shape of the object not clouds).

     that shadows are similar in positions eg standing, crouched down, with arms extended. and is different at different Some children may draw ‘faces’ on their shadows. They need to shape to the objects forming Record some shadows (not of clouds) with chalk on the times of day be encouraged to look carefully at what they can actually see. them tarmac. Later in the day look to see if the shadows are in the explain that the light has been SAFETY Warn children NEVER to look directly at the Sun. that shadows of objects in same place and are the same size and shape. Talk about blocked by the object and this Blindness can result. See ‘Be Safe’ section 13. sunlight change over the the shadows with the children and ask them to make is what causes the shadow

    course of the day drawings to show their observations and to describe what

     to make and record those show. Encourage children to try to explain how the

    observations of shadows and shadows were formed.

    to try to explain these using

    knowledge about light

    1 Ref: QCA/98/210W QCA 1998

Browse, save, edit or print Schemes of Work from the Standards Site at www.standards.dfee.gov.uk Primary Schemes of Work: Science Unit 3F Light and shadows

    LEARNING OBJECTIVES POSSIBLE TEACHING ACTIVITIES LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NOTE CHILDREN SHOULD LEARN CHILDREN

     that shadows change in ; At different times during a bright sunny day visit the describe what happens to the This activity focuses on the changes in length of the shadow of

    length and position playground and set up a stick. Ask children to measure and shadow of the stick during the the stick. A later activity will focus on the direction of the

    throughout the day record the length of the shadow at different times of day. course of the day eg it gets shadow and how its position and length relate to the apparent

     to measure the length of the Ask children to predict eg by drawing on the ground the shorter and then longer again movement of the Sun across the sky. shadow in standard height of the shadow at intermediate times. Help children to and predict eg by drawing SAFETY Warn children NEVER to look directly at the Sun. measures present their results in a table and to make a bar chart what the shadow will be like Blindness can result. See ‘Be Safe’ section 13. to make a table and bar chart showing the length of the shadow at different times of day. at an intermediate time

    to show how the length of the make accurate

    shadows changes during the measurements of the length day of the shadows

     with help, present results in a

    table and construct a bar

    chart

     to record and identify a ; Remind children of earlier work and ask them to think about describe how the position of Children sometimes think the Sun moves across the sky in one

    pattern in the observations of where (or whether) the Sun shines into the classroom or the Sun appears to change in direction one day and moves back the next day. the Sun room at home in the same place all through the day. Ask relation to their classroom (or that the Sun appears to move children whether it follows the same pattern every day and room at home) during the day

    across the sky during the day suggest they observe it every sunny day over a period of two

    weeks. Ask them to think of a way of recording their

    observations eg by putting stickers on the window at the

    same time each day or by making sure an object is always

    in sunlight. At the end of the period question children about

    observations and whether the Sun appears to move in a

    regular way.

    2 Ref: QCA/98/210W QCA 1998

Browse, save, edit or print Schemes of Work from the Standards Site at www.standards.dfee.gov.uk Primary Schemes of Work: Science Unit 3F Light and shadows

LEARNING OBJECTIVES POSSIBLE TEACHING ACTIVITIES LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NOTE

    CHILDREN SHOULD LEARN CHILDREN

     that when the Sun is behind ; Take the children out in the playground on a sunny day and generalise that when the Sun If children are not aware of the directions north, south, east and them their shadow is in front ask them to mark the direction their shadow is pointing in is behind an object the west then a circular dial without these labels but with four that the Sun appears to move and the direction of the Sun. Remind them of the dangers of shadow is in front marked directions at right angles to each other can be used.

    across the sky in a regular looking at the Sun. Ask children to explain what these marks state that the shadows

    way every day show. Set up a shadow stick in the playground and mark change in a similar way each

     that the Sun appears highest south, east and west in relation to it. At regular times day and that shadows are

    in the sky at midday eg 9.00, 12.00, 15.00 over a period of several days mark the shortest in the middle of the

     that the higher the Sun direction and length of the shadow and the direction of the day

    appears in the sky the shorter Sun.

    the shadow

     that the Sun does not move, ; Use a model eg a powerful torch and a short shadow stick recognise that the higher the To avoid misconceptions move the stick relative to the torch its apparent movement is to illustrate that the higher the light source is the shorter the Sun appears in the sky the rather than the torch relative to the stick. At this point children caused by the spinning of the shadow, and how changing the relative position of the torch shorter the shadow should be told that it is not the Sun that moves but the Earth. Earth on its axis and stick causes the length and position of the shadow to recognise the apparent This can be illustrated using models or secondary sources

    change. Talk with children about whether they think the Sun movement of the Sun is due eg video. This idea will be revisited in Year 5.

    does in fact move. Illustrate using models eg a model to the movement of the Earth

    person stuck on a globe or secondary sources that the

    shadows can change as we move and the Sun stays still.

     that shadows can be used to ; Use secondary sources eg reference books, CD-ROMs to describe how a sundial was

    tell the approximate time of investigate how sundials were used and constructed. Make used to tell the time and

    day a poster illustrating how they worked and some of their explain their limitations in our

    limitations. climate

    3 Ref: QCA/98/210W QCA 1998

Browse, save, edit or print Schemes of Work from the Standards Site at www.standards.dfee.gov.uk Primary Schemes of Work: Science Unit 3F Light and shadows

    LEARNING OBJECTIVES POSSIBLE TEACHING ACTIVITIES LEARNING OUTCOMES POINTS TO NOTE CHILDREN SHOULD LEARN CHILDREN

     that opaque objects/materials ; Remind children of earlier work when they saw shadows of predict that the opaque This activity offers children the opportunity to carry out a whole

    do not let light through and wide-toothed combs and possibly demonstrate this again. materials will form shadows investigation. It may be helpful to concentrate on the aspects of

    transparent objects/materials Present children with a collection of objects/material identify results that were investigation highlighted in the learning objectives. let a lot of light through including some that are opaque, some that are transparent unexpected eg the plastic to use their knowledge about eg plastic bottles, colourless and coloured acetate sheets bottle made a pale shadow, light and shadows to predict and some that are translucent eg fine net, thin nylon, the nylon and greaseproof which materials will form a greaseproof paper. Ask children to make a prediction about paper let some light through

    shadow and to plan how to what will happen when a strong torch is shone on to them. make a generalisation test this Ask children to test their predictions, to record their results eg opaque materials form to compare the shadows and to compare them with the predictions made. Help dark shadows because they formed by different materials children to write an account of what they did and what they do not let any light through, and to draw conclusions from found out. and even transparent their results materials can make a faint

     to decide whether the results shadow because they block support their predictions and some light

    to use knowledge about

    shadow formation to explain

    the conclusions

     Review work on shadow formation and light by asking

    children to think of questions a younger child might ask and

    what answers they would give. Try out the questions and

    answers with the class.

    4 Ref: QCA/98/210W QCA 1998

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