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# Edexcel Additional Science P2a Topic 09 Lesson 08 - Collins

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Edexcel Additional Science P2a Topic 09 Lesson 08 - Collins

Take a brake

Specification reference Other lessons in this book P2.9.15 Present an argument to explain how the stopping P2: 9.1 How fast?

distance of a vehicle depends on the speed of P2: 9.4 Forcing the pace

travel.

P2.9.16 Discuss the impact of factors such as driver’s

reaction time and the condition of the vehicle and

Student Book pages 210 to 211 Worksheet P2: 9.8(1)

Worksheet P2: 9.8(2)

Worksheet P2: 9.8(3)

Worksheet P2: 9.8(4)

Technician’s notes P2: 9.8

braking distance reaction time stopping distance thinking distance

Review distance speed time (low/standard demand)

Ask pupils to write down how the distance travelled at a certain speed is changed by:

a doubling the time of travel, b halving the time of travel, c travelling for 10 times as long. Ask pupils to write down how the distance travelled in a certain time is changed by:

a doubling the speed, b halving the speed, c travelling at ten times the speed.

Ask pupils to write down how the distance travelled is changed by:

doubling the speed and doubling the time of travel.

Review acceleration force/mass (standard/high demand)

Ask pupils to write down how the acceleration of an object with a certain mass is changed by: a doubling the force acting, b halving the force acting.

Ask pupils to write down how the acceleration caused by a certain force is changed by: a doubling the mass of the object being acted on, b halving the mass of the object being acted on.

Learning outcomes

explain what is meant by ‘thinking distance’ and ‘braking distance’

state that stopping distance thinking distance ; braking distance

Teaching and learning activities Resources Pupils make a reaction timer using the worksheet to guide them. Technician’s notes P2: 9.8 Ask the pupils to answer questions 1 to 4 from the Student Book. Worksheet P2: 9.8(1) Go through the answers.

Student Book page 210

Learning outcomes

explain what is meant by ‘thinking distance’ and ‘braking distance’ state that stopping distance thinking distance ; braking distance describe factors that will affect thinking distance

describe factors that will affect braking distance

Teaching and learning activities Resources

Pupils investigate the effect of speed on braking distance. The worksheet will guide them. Technician’s notes P2: 9.8 This can be a demonstration or done by groups of pupils if sufficient equipment and space Worksheet P2: 9.8(2) is available. Ask the pupils to answer questions 5 to 8 from the Student Book. Student Book page 211 Go through the answers.

Learning outcomes

explain what is meant by ‘thinking distance’ and ‘braking distance’ state that stopping distance thinking distance ; braking distance describe factors that will affect thinking distance

describe factors that will affect braking distance

calculate thinking, braking and stopping distances

Teaching and learning activities Resources

Pupils investigate other factors affecting braking distance. The worksheets will guide them. Technician’s notes P2: 9.8 These can be done as demonstrations or by groups of pupils if sufficient equipment is Worksheet P2: 9.8(3) available. Worksheet P2: 9.8(4) Ask pupils to answer questions 9 to 12 from the Student Book. Student Book page 211 Go through the answers.

Pupils choose one or more of ‘thinking distance’, ‘braking distance’ or ‘stopping distance’ as answers to these statements:

always greater than the braking distance

proportional to speed

increased by drinking alcohol

increased by luggage in the car

increased by ice on the road.

Ask pupils to write down three things they could do to minimise each of: thinking distance

braking distance.

LOW DEMAND STANDARD DEMAND HIGH DEMAND

1 Thinking distance increases as 6 30 m/s 0.5 s 15 m 12 Stopping distance 8 m ; 30 m 2speed increases 38 m 7 10 000 N/1000 kg 10 m/s 2 Braking distance increases as speed 28 a 15 m/s/10 m/s 1.5 s increases. 2b 30 m/s/10 m/s 3 s 3 Thinking distance increases steadily, but braking distance increases more at higher speeds.

4 Stopping distance increases as speed increases and it increases more at higher speeds.

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