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english by newspaper

By Lisa Franklin,2014-03-23 23:02
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english by newspaper

English by Newspaper

    (2007-12-26 19:45:46)

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    english

    newspaper

    linguistic

    教育

     ‘The day of the printed word is far from ended. ’that statement is as true today as it was when made by Erwin Canham.In fact,there may be even more printed words around today than ever before. Many people just may be reading or seeing them in new and different sources such as web pages on the internet and electronic mail.

    A reporter today must have a far broader perspective than ever before. News writing follows all the accepted rules of English grammer,sentence stucture,spelling and punctuation.Yet it differs in many ways from other forms of writing.It strives for certain qualities of

    style:simplicity,conciseness,vividness,directress,clarity,brevity and accuracy.

    The news paragraph rarely should exceed 50 words and should be broken up into two or more sentence,if possible.Thirty to 40 words often makes a well-proportioned paragraph.

     We have learned the language change from the textbook "A NEW CONCISE COURSE ON LINGUISTICS FOR STUDENTS OF ENGLISH".Similary ,Newpaper English also should adhere the principle of the language change. Here are some general principle of news style.

    BREVITY

    a .Use of abbreriation and acronyms

    1.2nd fl flt mod blk close west end with 2 dble recep.It means"a second floor flat in a modern block close to west and with 2 double reception rooms.

    2. Months of the year of more than five letters when the day of the month is given:

    Nov.24 the last week in January March 21

    3.Times of the day,as'6P.M.'

    4.Names of states only when they follow names of cities or countries: Blankville, Ark. a town in Arkansas

    5.Familar college degrees,as B.A.,Ph.D.,M.D.

    6'MR','MRS','DR','the Rev','Prof.','Gov.''Gen'and so on when they precede the name of a person.

    7.'Saint'and'mount'only when preceding names:

    St.Louis Mt.Mc Kinley

    8.'Sr','Jr'following proper names.

    9.Titles of pubic and private organizations that are well known by the readers after such titles have been used once in spelled out form: FBI SEC CIO YMCA UCLA

    Do not abbreviate

    1.christmas

    2.percent as'%',except in tabulation.

    3.Names of persons.

    4.Points of the compass.

    5.Names of cities or countries.

    6.Days of the week.

    7.'And 'as'&',unless it is part of a formal name of a firm. b.Preference of short words

    1.Eliminate unnecessary articles

    ‘The club members attended the meeting.’shoule be:’Club members attended the meetong.’

    ‘He returned a part of the money’shoule be:’ He returned part of the money’

    (However,only unnecessary articles should be eliminated. For example,the article in ‘club member attended the meeting.’shoule not be eliminated. The same applies to’a’ and ‘an’)

    2. .Eliminate circuitous verb forms

    ‘The group will hold a meeting.’should be’ The group will meet’.

    ‘The judge arrived at a decision.’should be’ The judge decided’

    3. Eliminate adjectives,adverbs,prepositions

    “Both cars were completely destroyed’should be’ Both cars were destroyed’

    ‘A tall 18-story building’should be’ An 18-story building’.

    ‘He stepped off of the train.’should be’ He stepped off of train’.

    ‘The club will meet on Friday.’should be’ The club will meet Friday.’

    4. Eliminate connectives

    ‘He said that he would go’should be ‘He said he would go’

    (However,when two or more’that’clauses follow a verb,the conjunction should be usec with all clauses for purposes of clarity.) 5. Eliminate well-known place names

    ‘He came from Chicago,Ill.’should be‘He came from Chicago’.

    6 Eliminate.Phrases

    ‘The accident occurred at the corner of Vine and Maple street.’should be’The accident occurred at Vine and Maple’.

    ‘The debate lasted for a period of two hours.’ Should be The debate lasted two hours.’

7. Eliminate clauses

    ‘All who are interested can vote.’ Should be‘All can vote.’

    ‘The drought that occurred last summer.’should be‘Last summer’s

    drought.’

    8.Eliminate redundancies

    ‘Past experience had taught him the way.’should be‘Experience had

    taught him the way.’

    c.Use simple,accurate,and vivid words

    1.Short words are usually best.The newspaper is written to be read

    hurriedly by persons of all levels of intellect. USE RATHER THAN

    Fire holocaust,conflagration Died passed away,deceased Man gentleman

    Woman lady

    Left departed

    Body remains

    Buried interred

    Cancer carcinoma

    2.Superlatives are usually inaccurate.There are few ‘catastrophes’’panics’and’fiascos

    More accurate Less accurate

    A beautiful woman the most beautiful woman An exciting game the most exciting game

Seldom never

    Frequently always

    Probably true absolutely true

    Escape miraculous escape

    Improper: The decision was unjust.

    Proper: The attorney general said the decision was unjust. Improper: The prisoner lost his temper.

    Proper: The prisoner kicked the chair over.

    Improper: The witness lied.

    Proper: The prosecuting attorney said the witness lied. Improper: He committed suicide by jumping from the window. Proper: He was killed in a fall from the window, and the corneo ruled it a suicide.

    Improper: Little Johnny B;ack,6-year-old darling son of Mr. and Mrs.WR.Black,died today.

    Proper: Johnny Black,6,died today.He was the son of Mr. and Mrs,WR. Black. Improper: The young lady will win the hearts of all visitors when she begins serving as hostess at the chamber of commerce next week. Proper: The young woman will begin serving as hostess at the chamber of commerce next week.

    Improper: The judge told me the case was dismissed.

    Proper: The judge said the case was dismissed.

     Rhetorical features

    In newspaper English, people prefer to use rhetorical features like alliterical,rhyme,euphemism and so on. Newspaper English attach more importance on the rhetorical, that some news need to be over-stated while some need to be understated .The Bush’s government use the word ’regime

change’ to state their policies to overthrow the Iraq’s government,

    instead of using ’overthrow’ or ‘topple’.

    A critic pointed that if you have the chance to work in the white house

    for a year, then you will be more professional than the graduates from

    the English major of famous college.

     The following are some good examples of using euphemism to express the

    word like ’poor’ ‘the old’ ‘dismiss/sack/fire’ without affence.

    1. the poor

    the culturally disadvantaged

    the culturally deprived

    the deprived

    the disadvantaged

    the have-nots

    the indigent

    the needy

    the underprivileged

    2.the old

    The graying army

    The senior citizens

    The gray hair

    The aged

    The aging

    The golden-agers

    The seasoned men

    The veterans

The well-preserved man

    The mature men

    The longer living

    The sunset years

    The second childhood

    Getting on in years

    Past one’s prime

    Feeling one’s age

    Stricken in years

    3.dismiss/sack/fire

    Ease out

    Get the walking ticket/papers Lay off

    Rif

    Right-size

    Select out

    Slim

    4. subvert: destabilize 5. illegal activities: preventive action

    6. concentration camp : strategic village/hamlet

    7. leave the party :take a walk

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