2005 Growing Season

By Scott Smith,2014-11-24 15:50
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2005 Growing Season

2005 Growing Season


    This year we are attempting something different with our CSA program. Instead of weekly recipes and tips we are giving you this booklet. It contains the information you would normally get weekly, nutritional information, saving your harvest, histories, and recipes. This way if you miss a week, you don‟t miss out on the recipe information.

    Keep in mind, we are not professional writers, you may find typos, poor grammar and all the other mistakes I usually make every week, and it won‟t be a well ordered as a professional cookbook. What you will find is plenty of information on what to do with your produce. This book is made up with recipes for what we plan to grow, you may find a few surprises and a few things may be missing but we do our best to continue to provide you with the freshest most nutritious produce available.

    With that said, the recipes included in this booklet are not my own. They come from neighbors, friends, customers, the internet and cookbooks (notably: Lidia’s Italian Table, The Humble

    Spud, You Say Tomato and Betty Crocker’s Cookbook) I would like to extend a special thanks

    to my mother who passed on to me Betty Crocker who has become my kitchen bible and to my mother in law who passed on to me Better Homes and Gardens book on preserving. Between these two books, I have saved and created thousands of meals for my family, when in doubt I often refer to Betty. I hope my children find her as helpful to them. I would also like to thank Dianna Reese who spent many hours last year searching for recipes, nutritional, and historical information on our many varieties of produce.

    We thank you for your support and hope this booklet will help you utilize your harvest well.

Dan and Denice

Here is something that was on the wall at the tire store in town.

    What is a Farmer?

    By Doris T. West, as originally printed in Farm Journal

    Farmers are found in fields - plowing up, seeding down, rotating from, planting to, fertilizing with, spraying for and harvesting if. Wives help them, little boys follow them, the Agriculture Department confuses them, city relatives visit them, salesmen detain them, meals wait for them, weather can delay them, but it takes Heaven to stop them.

    When your car stalls along the way, a farmer is a considerate, courteous, inexpensive road service. When a farmer‟s wife suggests he buy a new suit, he can quote from memory every expense involved in operating the farm last year plus the added expenses he is certain will crop up this year. Or else he assumes the role of the indignant shopper, impressing upon everyone within earshot the pounds of pork he must produce in order to pay for a suit at today‟s prices.

     A farmer is a paradox - he is an overalled executive with his home his office; a scientist using fertilizer attachments; a purchasing agent in an old straw hat; a personnel director with grease under his fingernails; a dietitian with a passion for alfalfa, aminos and antibiotics; a production expert faced with a surplus, and a manager battling a price-cost squeeze. He manages more capital than most of the businessmen in town.

     He likes sunshine, good food, State Fairs, dinner at noon, auctions, his neighbors, Saturday nights in town, his shirt collar unbuttoned and, above all, a good soaking rain in August.

     He is not much for droughts, ditches, throughways, experts, weeds, the eight-hour day, helping with housework, or grasshoppers.

     Nobody else is so far from the telephone or so close to God. Nobody else gets so much satisfaction out of modern plumbing, good weather and home-made ice cream. Nobody else has in his pockets at one time a three-bladed knife, checkbook, a billfold, a pair of pliers and a combination memo book and general farm guide.

     Nobody else can remove these things from his pockets and, on washday, have

    overlooked; 5 “steeples,” one cotter key, a rusty spike, 3 grains of corn, the stub end of a lead pencil, a square tap, a $4.98 pocket watch and a cupful of chaff in each trouser cuff.

     A farmer is both Faith and Fatalist - he must have faith to continually meet the challenges of his capacities amid an ever-present possibility that an act of God (a late spring, an early frost, tornado, flood, drought) can bring his business to a standstill. You can reduce his acreage but you can‟t restrain his ambition.

     Might as well put up with him - he is your friend, your competitor, your customer, your source of food, fibre, and self-reliant young citizens to help replenish your cities. He is your countryman - a denim-dressed, business-wise, fast-growing statesman of stature. And when he comes in at noon having spent the energy of his hopes and dreams, he can be recharged anew with the magic words: “The market‟s up!”


    2005 Planned Produce Schedule



    Lettuce Radishes Turnips Broccoli Cauliflower Poc Choi Komutsuna Swiss Chard Toscano Kale Arugula Tat Soi Green Tomatoes

    Beets Peppermint Beans Peas Spring Onions Cabbage

    Early Summer


    Tomatoes Green Peppers Cucumbers Summer Squash Beans Lettuce Onions Cantaloupe

    Beets Basil Parsley Celery Potatoes Peppermint Swiss Chard Toscano Kale



    Tomatoes Cherry Tomatoes Colored Peppers Eggplant Cantaloupe Watermelon Potatoes Summer Squash Cucumbers Basil Parsley Garlic Sweet Corn

    Early Fall


    Tomatoes Cherry Tomatoes Colored Peppers Eggplant Cantaloupe Watermelon Potatoes Summer Squash Cucumbers Basil Parsley Garlic Winter Squash Beans



    Lettuce Radishes Turnips Broccoli Cauliflower Cabbage Beans Swiss Chard Toscano Kale Arugula Tomatoes Green Tomatoes

    Beets Winter Squash Pumpkins Gourds Apples Pears


    History and Nutrition

    Some vegetables listed here have more information than others. It is not because they are any less important. It is that I have never spent the time to research everything we grow. This information I have collected from various sources over the years. If you have something to add, I would be happy to do so. With that said, here is what I have, I hope you find it interesting and helpful (if nothing else, trivia for your next dinner party).


    A member of the mint family, basil probably originated in India, then spread to other parts of Asia and to the Mediterranean by the spice routes. It's most commonly associated with Italian and Thai cuisine‟s today, and is one

    of the most widely used herbs. The Greeks called basil "the herb of kings" and it was used in embalming and preserving. It was said to have been found growing around Christ's tomb after the Resurrection; that's why some churches place it around altars and use it to prepare holy water. Basil has an interesting reputation. In some parts of Italy, men still wear a sprig of basil on their lapel to indicate they're looking for a mate. Basil's place in literature is a little less attractive. The herb has been a popular place for hiding decapitated heads: Salome hid the head of John the Baptist in a pot of basil.

     Boccaccio‟s Lisabetta buried the head of her lover in a pot of basil.

     Keat‟s Isabella also burried the head of her lover, Lorenzo-guess where- and watered the plant with her tears.;

Green Beans

    One cup of green beans has around 40 calories and is a good source of vitamin A and potassium.


    We band each head to prevent sun burn, but sometimes the bands break and the sun keeps shining. Worms are very persistent and you might find a couple in your cauliflower. Just rinse the cauliflower in a little vinegar water. Of course, we could spray more toxic chemicals -- but we don't want to, and we don't think you want that, either. Sun exposure may cause the cauliflower to look a little gray or purple, but that discoloration will disappear with cooking. Add a teaspoon of fresh lemon juice if you're boiling cauliflower to keep the white color.

    Surprising nutritional fact: Cauliflower is a good source of vitamin C! It's a member of the cabbage group in the mustard family of plants. Mark Twain described cauliflower as "cabbage with a college education."


    Cabbages were among the first plants to be cultivated. Northern Europe was the starting point for wild cabbage, which were originally loose leafed like collards. When introduced to the Mediterranean, Egyptians worshipped cabbage heads as god. Cabbage was among the first European plants brought by colonists to the New World where it thrived. There are various types of cabbage, the most common the red and green. The savoy is the one that is wrinkly.

    Cabbage is high in vitamin C but low in calories -- half a medium head contains only 25 calories! It can be eaten raw or used in soups, stews and casseroles, and can be frozen to use later in cooked recipes. Cabbages are a great source of phytochemicals, or "plant chemicals." These compounds, found in fruits and vegetables, as well as in soy products, other legumes, grains, nuts and seeds, act as a natural defense system for our bodies. 4


     What passes for cantaloupe in the U.S. is actually muskmelon. The true cantaloupe is a different species of melon that is mostly grown in France and rarely found in the United States. It derives its name from the Italian papal village of Cantalup where it was first cultivated around 1700 A.D. The cantaloupe, or muskmelon, is a melon that belongs to the same family as the cucumber, squash, pumpkin and gourd, and like many of its relatives, it grows on the ground on a trailing vine.

    The exact origin of melons is unclear, although they are thought to have originated in either India, Africa or ancient Persia and have been cultivated in these lands since ancient times. Historical texts from Greek and Roman times note that these ancient civilizations enjoyed cantaloupes. They were introduced to the United States during colonial times but were not grown commercially until the very late 19th century.

    One cup of cantaloupe provides 129 percent of the RDA for vitamin A and 90 percent of the RDA for vitamin C, but only 56 calories. "Since cantaloupe is among the 20 foods on which pesticide residues have been most frequently found, individuals wanting to avoid these health risks may want to avoid consumption of cantaloupe unless grown organically."

Sweet Corn

    According to Indian legend, corn was of divine origin: "It was the food of the gods that created the earth.” Many of us think corn is one of summer's divine gifts. Archaeologists have found corn pollen in Mexico that's more than 80,000 years old. The Mayans, Incas and Aztecs all cultivated corn, also known as maize, and there's evidence corn was grown in Ontario, Canada before 1200 A.D. And yes, the Pilgrims' first Thanksgiving meal most likely featured corn. In fact, corn was key to the survival of the Pilgrims.

    Although corn's history is ancient, what we know as sweet corn is relatively recent. It was discovered in 1779 in an Iroquois village along the Susquehanna River in central New York. But it didn't become popular until the 1840s, and after 1870, sweeter varieties were developed.

    An average ear of corn has three grams of fiber and around 83 calories. It's a good source of folate and also contains Vitamin C, niacin and thiamine. But it may be one of the best dietary sources of two antioxidant carotenoids (think of them as cousins of Vitamin A): lutein and zeaxanthin. Some studies indicate they may protect against macular degeneration, a leading cause of blindness in the elderly.



    Cucumbers probably originated in India. There's evidence that they were cultivated in western Asia 3,000 years ago. From India, cucumbers spread to Greece and Italy and China. By the mid-16th century, the vegetable had reached North America. Cucumbers contain 96 percent water, so are very low in calories. A cup of sliced cucumber contains 14 calories and is a source of Vitamin C.


    We all know eggplants aren't eggs, the early versions were small and round, hence the name but they're not vegetables, either. They're a fruit and a member of the nightshade family, related to the potato and tomato. In early times it was believed that eating eggplant could cause insanity. Eggplant has been known in Asia for at least 2,500 years. It was brought to northern Africa where it became part of Mediterranean cuisine. The Anglo-Saxons and French grew it as an ornamental plant. Thomas Jefferson introduced eggplant to the United States. He did several growing experiments with the plant and an heirloom variety of eggplant is still grown in the gardens of Monticello.

    Eggplants are not necessarily purple or black; other varieties are lavender and white or even striped, pale green, yellow and reddish. Some eggplants are small and round, while the Black Beauty can be 12 inches long. Japanese eggplant are long and thin, like zucchini, with fewer seeds. The seeds are edible in all varieties, however.

    Eggplants aren't exactly a powerhouse of nutrients, but they are high in fiber and low in calories (unless you fry them, of course). However, new research indicates eggplants contain a class of phytochemicals called phenols that are among the most potent scavengers of the "free radicals," or molecules that promote the development of cancer or heart disease. These phenols are what give eggplant its sometimes bitter taste.


    Peppers are rich in vitamin C. They're also versatile: Grill them, roast them, add them to eggs, put them in salsa, or grill with onions and mushrooms to top just about anything. If you have too many, they're incredibly easy to freeze (see below). Peppers start out green and slowly ripen to red, yellow or orange. Colored peppers are difficult to get because they are very sensitive to sun and burn easily as they ripen, we lose about 15 for every colored one we get. However fully ripened peppers are nothing like a green one and are worth the wait. We think you will really enjoy the sweetness of a ripe pepper.

    Chile Peppers have been cultivated for more than 7,000 years, used extensively by the Incas and the Aztecs. Today, they are used by many ethnic groups in their daily cooking preparations. There are several varieties of fresh chile peppers, each with their own heat index. Chile peppers get their heat from „capsaicin‟, an oil in them that can burn your eyes and mouth. The hottest of these mentioned is the Habanero chile, which is off the heat scale in comparison to the others. Generally, the smaller the chile, the hotter the bite. Also, when preparing chiles, if you remove the seeds, the chile will be milder. We also suggest wearing gloves and use caution not to touch your eyes.

    Chile peppers add a delightful flavor to any dish they are added to. Try them in eggs, soups, stir-fries, sauces or even bread. They are very versatile...and you can use more or less to your liking. Chiles should be refrigerated and used immediately for best flavor. They are low calorie and are a great substitute for salty seasonings.



    The potato is a starchy edible tuber, which grows at the end of underground stems of the plant, Solanum tuberosum, a member of the nightshade family. Above ground, the plant has a stem and coarse, dark green leaves resembling those of the tomato. Its flowers range from white to purple. The tuber has external buds, or "eyes", which can sprout into new plants.

    Few foods have a more legendary past, natural diversity, fascination for scientists or greater potential to feed the world‟s population than the potato. It is the most familiar of all vegetables and one of the world‟s most important

    food crops. There are now more varieties than ever before, adapted for different climatic zones and grown in about 130 countries around the world. The potato can be cooked in more ways than any other vegetable. It is easy to grow and inexpensive to buy, and extremely filling.

    Potatoes are native to South America. The first archaeological evidence dates back almost 6,000 years to areas in the Peruvian Andes where the potato plant is part of the native flora. It was cultivated in Peru and Bolivia and was a staple of the Inca diet. The influence of potatoes permeated the Incan culture and potato shaped pottery complete with "eyes" is commonly found at excavated sites. Incan units of time correlated to how long it took for a potato to cook to various consistencies; potatoes were even used to divine the truth and predict weather.

     thThe potato was introduced to Europe from South America by Spanish explorers towards the end of the 16

    century. Cultivation spread slowly form Spain to Italy, then Belgium, Germany, and Switzerland. It took a very long time for the crop to become established in some countries. In Germany, for example, potatoes were widely cultivated only after the cereal crops failed in 1743 and 1755. In France the general populace had to be tricked into growing and eating them. In 1785 King Louis XVI had a field of potatoes planted near Paris and had a guard posted around it during the day. The local peasants were convinced that the crop must be very valuable, so they stole the plants at night and planted them in their own fields. And although the potato was brought to England in thththe 17 century, it was not until the 19 century that farmers in England and Scotland actually started to cultivate

    it on a large scale. They story in Ireland was quite different, however. There the potato was widely grown by the ththbeginning of the 17 century. It was early 18 century Irish immigrants who brought the potato to the United

    States, since it had failed to spread here directly from South America. The first large scale cultivation of the potato in the United States was in New Hampshire.

     thBy the middle of the 19 century the potato had become the staple diet in Ireland and was also relied on as animal fodder. The dependence on potatoes led to intensive cultivation and the dominance of one prolific variety of potato, which created the ripe circumstances for the rapid spread of the fungal disease, blight. The potato blight struck Ireland three times in the 1840‟s, each time destroying most of the crop. The country‟s virtual monoculture meant that there was little else for the people or their livestock to eat. Relief efforts were mounted but they were only partially effective, and over a million people died. Between 1841 and 1851 Ireland‟s population fell dramatically from 8.2 million to 6.6 million as a result of starvation, disease, and emigration. Nearly 200 years later, during World War II it was the potato that helped to save people in Europe from starvation.

     thThe second half of the 20 century saw the introduction of and increasing reliance on convenience foods. There is now a large world wide market for an extensive range of dehydrated and frozen potato products, the most of which is undoubtedly the French fry. This was first encountered by American soldiers in Belgium during World War I.

    Today scientists and agriculturists continue to study and develop new potato varieties. This results in making them higher yielding, more disease resistant and suited to a variety of climates worldwide. In developing countries the production of potatoes is increasing faster than that of any other crop.

    It is interesting to examine the different ways in which the potato has been regarded over time. While the Incas worshiped potato gods, the vegetable was often feared, reviled and shunned for the first few centuries following its arrival in Europe. At various times it was blamed for leprosy, scrofula, and flatulence, and was considered


Potatoes continued:

    poisonous, since it came from the same family as deadly nightshade. It was also, however, attributed with the ability to cure impotence, and had a reputation as an aphrodisiac in Shakespeare‟s England, according the Merry Wives of Windsor.

    Other sayings and superstitions relating to potatoes are of unknown origin. Laying a potato peeling at the door of a girl on May Day was said to show her that you disliked her, while a woman expecting a baby was not to eat potatoes, especially at night, or her baby would be born with a big head. A potato carried in the pocket was believed to cure rheumatism and eczema. Similarly, carrying a peeled potato in a pocket on the same side as a bad tooth would cure the tooth as soon as the potato fell apart. A person with a wart was advised to rub it with a cut potato , then buy the potato in the ground. As the potato rotted in the ground the belief was that the wart would disappear.

    With its high starch content, the potato was long regarded as being a “fattening” food, but now a more complete understanding of nutrition has let to it‟s rehabilitation. The addition of too much fat when cooking and serving potatoes is now recognized as being the culprit. By itself, the potato is in fact a near perfect food. It is 9939% fat free and yet it is rich minerals and vitamins that are important for a healthy and nutritious diet.

    According to food experts, a diet of potatoes and milk will supply all the nutrients the human body needs. Although potatoes are about 80% water, they provide a valuable source of easily digested starch, vitamin C, protein, potassium, iron, thiamine, niacin, and dietary fiber, while containing almost no fat or cholesterol.

    The vitamin C content is highest in freshly harvested potatoes, particularly “new” ones, and steadily decreases thereafter. After three months‟ storage the vitamin C content is less than half the original. Lengthy soaking of potatoes in cold water also diminishes their vitamin C content as should be avoided. Many of the vitamins and minerals found in potatoes are concentrated in or just under the skin and are therefore best retained by cooking potatoes in their skin or by peeling them as lightly as possible. Potato skins are also high in fiber. Concerns over agricultural chemical residues in skins, which are not removed by scrubbing potatoes with water, can be addressed by eating organically grown potatoes.

    The Irish lived on potatoes, and no wonder. They provide potassium, vitamins B6 and C, copper and manganese. In fact, the potato is the leading source of vitamin C in the American diet -- perhaps because the average American consumes 126 pounds of spuds a year -- more than any other vegetable.


    Raw radishes contain high amounts of folate (folic acid), calcium, potassium, and dietary fiber and a moderately high amount of vitamin C. But they're also high in sodium, so anyone on a special diet for kidney disease or high blood pressure should check with their physician or dietitian.

Squash (Summer)

    Summer squashes are relatives of melons and cucumbers. Unlike winter squash, they cannot be stored for long periods of time. The ancestors of today's squash were wild squash that grew between Mexico and Guatemala. Christopher Columbus even took squash back to Europe. Today, numerous varieties have been developed and are grown from China to Argentina.


Summer Squash continued:

    Although zucchini may be the most well-known of the summer squashes, all summer squashes can be used interchangeably in recipes. Here's a breakdown of the general types, according to the University of Illinois Extension Office:

     The patty pan or scallop is round and flattened like a plate with scalloped edges, usually white but sometimes

    yellow or green.

     Constricted neck is thinner at the stem end than the blossom end, and is classified as either "crookneck" or

    "straightneck" depending on if the stem end is straight or bent, and is usually yellow.

     Cylindrical to club-shaped Italian marrows, such as zucchini, cocozelle and caserta, are usually shades of

    green, but may be yellow or nearly white.

    Summer squashes may weigh in as nutritional lightweights when compared to their winter counterparts, but they are low in calories and don‟t contain fat or cholesterol. Summer squash is an excellent source of magnesium and a good source of vitamin C, vitamin A, fiber, potassium, vitamin B6, folate, copper, riboflavin, and niacin.

    Summer squashes are one of the few foods that contain oxalates, a substance which interferes with the body's absorption of calcium. Wait two or three hours between taking calcium supplements and eating squash. Anyone with kidney or gallbladder disease may need to watch their intake of summer squash because oxalates can crystallize and cause kidney or gallbladder stones.

Squash (Winter)

    The Native Americans considered winter squash such an important part of their diet that they buried squash with their dead to feed them on their final journey. Winter squash is the fruit of an annual plant belonging to the same family as melon and cucumber and includes a staggering array of choices. Cultivated squash as we know it is descendent from wild squash, believed to have originated in the region between Mexico and Guatemala, in Central America, later spreading to North and South America.

    Squash are related to both the melon and the cucumber and are divided into summer or winter varieties. Summer squash are delicate and highly perishable, while winter squash, harvested when fully ripe, are hearty and sweet. They vary in shape, size, and color, but have in common a denser and much sweeter flesh that turns delightfully creamy when cooked. Like melon, winter squash has an inner cavity that houses an abundance of edible seeds, which, when washed, dried and roasted are a yummy treat, loaded with nutrients. Many people think that the hard outer skin of winter squash is inedible, but it can be enjoyed with few exceptions. And since many delicate, surface nutrients reside in the skin, you may want to reconsider peeling them. Varieties of winter squash include: Butternut: Shaped like a pear, beige-colored, with rich orange flesh

     Buttercup: Round, deep green-skinned squash with bright orange, intensely sweet flesh

     Turban: Green, with colored stripes or speckled on the skin, and a pale golden flesh that is drier than most

    but very sweet; hint of hazelnut flavor

     Hubbard: Rough and tough outer skin and often very large with a flavor that's less sweet than others, may be

    blue or black, sort of duck-shaped and very bumpy; often used for fall decoration, but are one of the best-

    tasting squashes

     Acorn: Wide-ribbed with a tough skin that can be hard to digest so peeling may be recommended; flesh is not

    overly sweet -- some say the flavor is nutty and peppery -- and is ideal for stuffing

     Kabotcha: Bright orange skin and flesh, intensely sweet and creamy when cooked and great for stuffing Spaghetti: Football-shaped and yellow; flesh is very stringy once cooked, use a fork to pull it out and use as a

    substitute for pasta.

    Having been consumed for over 10,000 years, squash was originally more prized for its seeds, as early wild squash was less fleshy. Over the years, cultivation has led to the squash we know and love today, with its seeds housed in succulent, moist, sensually sweet flesh. With many varieties already available - and continually expanding, winter squash can be enjoyed all season, with no risk of boredom.


Winter Squash continued:

    Winter squash will keep in a cool, dry place for several weeks to months, depending on the variety of squash you choose. Once you have cut a squash, if you will not be using it all, remove all the seeds, even from the unused portion, wrap the remainder in plastic, and store in the refrigerator. It will keep for 1-2 weeks. If you leave the seeds in the unused portion the squash will sour easily. Rich in complex carbohydrates, potassium, vitamin A (in the form of beta-carotene) and C, folic acid, as well as pantothenic acid, B1, B5 and folate, potassium and fiberBeta-carotene, a powerful antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties, may help prevent atherosclerosis (clogged arteries) and may help protect against heart disease resulting from diabetes. Both the beta-carotene and the fiber in winter squash may reduce the risk of colon cancer. Winter squash is not only delicious but is an incredible source of fuel.

Swiss Chard

    Similar to spinach, this vegetable is also a good source of vitamin A.


    Botanically a fruit but legally in America a vegetable, the omnipresent lycopersicon esculentum, or as we know it, the garden tomato, has survived multiple names, transformations, disingenuous descriptions, and a long migration from the New World to the rest of the world and back to become one of the most popular foods in American cuisine. Not only do we like to eat tomatoes, but between twenty-five and forty million of us love to grow hundreds of varieties in gardens, containers, and window boxes. There's a tomato for just about every personality, space, and climate.

    The ancestor of our garden tomato started as a small red fruit on a long vine that most resembled the currant and cherry tomatoes of today. It grew wild, as many types of tomatoes still do (just check out our field or compost pile), in the Andes region of Peru and the coastal highlands of western South America hundreds of years ago. Whether or not the Incas used the berries for food is disputable; however, we do know that once the tomato seeds were carried to the Galapagos Islands and then to Central America, the Mayans, among other native inhabitants, cultivated the small wild fruit and serendipitously produced a large, lumpy specimen. Farther north, the Aztecs soon adopted the new plant, which resembled a small husked fruit that grew in the Mexican highlands. The husked fruit and other small plump round fruits were called tomatl. The Aztecs called the new large version of the round fruit xitomatl. It was used in sauce, or salsa, with chiles and ground squash seeds, and served with fish, seafood, venison and other meats.

    After Cortes led the Spanish Conquest in 1519, the conquerors lumped the tomatl and xitomatl plants together under the name tomate. They introduced the tomate throughout their empire, including the Caribbean and the Philippines. The tomate continued its migration through Southeast Asia, and eventually the rest of Asia, where it didn‟t exactly become part of the cuisine. However, the tomate plants - actually the xitomatl plant - quickly

    adapted to the Mediterranean climates of Spain, southern France, and Italy, where the fruit was cooked with olive oil and onions for sauce, and combined with cucumbers for salads. In England for many years and in early colonial America, the British had reservations about eating the tomate, but they did grow the fruit for medicinal applications such as cool wet dressings for skin inflammations and headaches. The smooth skinned red tomates were used for decorative purposes.

A Tomato by Any Other Name

    In the first known reference to the tomate in Europe, Italian herbalist Pietro Andrae Matthioli referred to the tomates as mala aurea, or golden apples, because the first tomates brought to Europe were yellow. Later he used the Italian version of the term, pomi d‟oro, which is still used today.

    But as Europe was inundated with new plants from the Americas, Africa, and Asia during the 1500s, confusion seemed inevitable as the tomate received numerous names in different languages. Botanists, herbalists, and physicians did their best to name and classify the new plants according to their original location (pomi de Peru), 10

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