Exercise on Using EndNote
EndNote is one of the many computer programs now available that handle bibliographic references. Although bibliographic management software is expensive, it also saves enormous amounts of time. This exercise covers the processes of setting up an EndNote library, searching for references online, and saving them to the library, as well as using the ‘cite as your write’ feature. Much more detailed information
about using EndNote and other bibliographic software management programs can be found online, both at the sites of the software producers and at libraries.
The instructions are based on the X1 version of EndNote, but most of the details will be the same for EndNote versions 7-9.
Set up the new library
It is best to set up a new library for yourself within EndNote before you do searches. To do this, click on the EndNote icon. A screen should come up that gives you the option ‘Create a new EndNote library’. Click on the circle to select this, then on OK.
The system will now give you the chance to determine where the new library will be. Click on ‘My documents’ and then on an appropriate folder or create a new folder.
You will also need to decide on the name for your library. In the space after ‘File name:’ where it says ‘Untitled’, type the name for your new library, which will be
malaria in pregnancy journal articles. Then click on ‘Save’.
A new screen will now pop up. This is your new library. Note that it is labeled with the name you gave it, followed by ‘enl’ (EndNote Library). Now close the library by
clicking on the X box in the right hand corner.
Searching online and importing references
The next step is to connect to a catalogue or a database such as Medline/PubMed and do a search for relevant literature.
To do this, stay within the open EndNote program and click on ‘Tools’ and then on ‘Connect’ or ‘Online Search’. Select the bibliographic resource you want. Note that many library catalogues (OPACs) are available. Another valuable source is PubMed (Medline).
Click on the link to PubMed. Do NOT use one of the other connections to Medline. When you click, the program will make a connection and you will get a search screen labeled with the name of the resource, e.g., ‘PubMed MEDLINE at PubMed (NLM)’.
You can now do a search in Medline/PubMed, although the search interface looks quite different. You can use the drop-down menus to select fields (title, MeSH term, keywords, authors, language, etc.) for each term you enter. Please note that there are certain things you CANNOT do with this search interface.
; Use clinical queries
; Use Boolean operators in a single search bar (although you will join the various search bars with Boolean operators)
; Use truncation
Set the search so it looks like this:
Click on ‘Search’. A message will come up showing the number of references, which
will be quite large. Click on the little dark arrows to the left of ‘More Options’. Several other options will be shown. Click on ‘Add Field’. In the new field, type
2000:2009 and set the field to ‘Entered between’. Click again on ‘Search’.
You will now have a reasonable number of references. Click on ‘OK’ to begin the transfer of the references.
The EndNote logo in the upper right-hand corner will show little blinking lights while the transfer is taking place. Once the transfer has begun you can close the search interface.
When the transfer is complete, click on the button that is labeled ‘Copy all to..’. Your new library name will probably be shown. If not, click on ‘Choose library’ and then
find your new library. The program will copy the references into the library very quickly. Once it’s done, close the library by clicking on the X in the upper right hand corner of the library screen.
You will now be back at the screen with the originally transferred references. Close this also by clicking on the X in the upper right hand corner. You will get an inquiry screen asking if the program should discard the references retrieved from the catalogue or database. Click on OK, and you’re done.
Exporting references to EndNote from a bibliographic database
You can also add references by starting at one of these databases, carrying out a search, selecting those references you want to save, and exporting them to the appropriate library.
The system for exporting references is basically the same for all databases. You go online to the database and open it. You carry out your search and select the references you want to save in your EndNote Library. You ‘tell’ the system that you want to export these to EndNote, and the references are then sent to your computer. In some cases you may need to add an import filter.
At least in the past, exporting from Medline/PubMed into EndNote has been very difficult. It is probably preferable to use the import system described above. However, exporting works well with many other databases.
Detailed instructions for two databases are given below as examples. Wiley-Blackwell’s database is open and free to use. Science Citation Index is available in
Vietnam by subscription through NACESTI. Note that CINAHL, another valuable database that provides export of references to EndNote, is also available in Vietnam to HINARI users.
Go to http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/browse/?type=JOURNAL, which is the
home page for Wiley Interscience, the online interface for Wiley and Blackwell.
To find references, click on advanced search. Type in your search. Set the search field to ‘All fields’ or ‘Article title’ or ‘Keywords’.
Set ‘Product type’ to ‘Journals’. Set a reasonable span of years. Click on Go’
When you get the hit list, check the references that look interesting to you. Or click on ‘Select all’ at the very bottom of the page. Go to the next page of references and continue to select the references you want.
When you are finished, click on ‘Download selected citations’.
On the next page, set format to ‘EndNote’, export type to ‘Abstract and citation’ and ‘File type’ to ‘PC’. Then click on ‘Go’.
When a box pops up, it should be set to ‘Open with Web Export Helper’. Click on OK.
A new screen will come up with your own computer files. Find the EndNote library you want to save the references in. Click on it once to highlight, then on ‘open’. The
references will be saved automatically.
An EndNote Library screen of the selected library will pen up, but it probably will
show just the newly transferred references. For example, if you already had 100 references in the library and you have now downloaded 25 from Wiley, the screen will only show 25 references, and at the bottom of the screen you will see ‘Showing 25 of 25 references in Group (All references 125)’. To see the whole library, with all
the references, close the screen (with the small black x under the larger white X in the upper right-hand corner of the screen) and then open the library again.
Science Citation Index (at ISI Web of Science)
At the ISI Web of Science home page, you should be directed to Science Citation Index, which is the only one of the ISI databases available in Vietnam.
At the search page, type in your search. You will probably want to set the first search bar to ‘topic’ search bar and use Boolean operators (AND, OR). Make sure that the
search limits are set to cover the period you wish to search.
Click on the ‘Search’ button. If you get too many ‘hits’, go back and add other terms or limit the search to ‘title’ rather than ‘topics’.
When you have your hit list, go through it and mark those references on a specific page that look interesting and relevant for your work. Click on the box in front of each individual reference. When you have selected the references on a page, scroll to the bottom of the page. Go through the three steps: click on ‘Selected records on
page’, then on what you want to export (usually author, title, source), then on ‘Add to
Continue to the next page of references and repeat the process.
When you have completed saving the references you want, click on the ‘Marked List’ link at the top of the page. There will be a red check mark by it and the number of references you have saved.
On the new page, select what fields you want to include in the output. You may want to add ‘abstract’. Then click on ‘Save to EndNote, RefMan, ProCite’ (NOT on
EndNote Web unless you have that option on your EndNote program and prefer to use it.) On the next page, click on ‘Export’.
Wait for the system. After a few seconds, a box will come up in which ‘Open with
Web Export Helper’ should be marked. If not, mark it. Than click on ‘OK’.
A new box will come up showing the contents of your own computer. Often it is open to the part of the computer where you have your EndNote libraries. If this doesn’t happen, you will need to browse until you find them. Then click once on the library in which you want to store the references; the name will turn blue. Then click on ‘Open’.
An EndNote Library screen of the selected library will now open up, but it probably
will show just the newly transferred references. See the explanation above in the instructions for downloading references from Wiley.
Adding references to your library manually
The references for some of the materials you find will have to be added manually to your EndNote library.
To add a reference, click on the EndNote icon, then open your own EndNote library. In the new screen, click on ‘References’ and then on ‘New reference’. Select the reference type at the top of the screen. This will assure that the required fields are provided. For example, if you select ‘Journal article’, the fields will the name of the journal, as well as the volume, issue, and page numbers. If you select ‘Book’, the
fields will include the city of publication and the name of the publisher.
There are always more fields provided than you actually need to fill out. Check the instructions for the Vancouver style on the final pages of your course compendium to determine what you need for the particular item you are recording.
EndNote beginners often have trouble in handling authors’ names. Check a reference that has been downloaded to see how these should be entered. The correct form is last name, comma, first names(s) or initials. If there are multiple authors, each name has to be entered on a separate line within the author field.
When you have filled in the required information, just close the screen by clicking on the X in the upper right-hand window, and the reference will be added to your library.
Moving through the references in your library
After you have saved the references, you will want to go through them, checking each one and selecting those you feel are most relevant. Then you can begin finding the full text articles or the printed books.
There are two ways to move through the references. One is to open the library, double click on the first reference, check it out, then close the screen by clicking on the X in the upper right hand window. Then double click on the second reference, and so forth.
Another approach is to begin by opening the first reference. When you are ready to move on to the next, do not close the reference window. Instead, click on the icon in the reference screen that shows a stack of papers with an arrow pointed to the right. This will take you to the next reference. You can scroll through the references, forth forward and back, without closing the window and going back to the list.
Editing individual references in your library
There may be times when you need to edit a reference you have downloaded, to correct an error or add information such as key words or the web address for the abstract or full-text article.
To do this, open your library and double click on the reference. A new screen will open up, showing the details of the reference. Type in the URL in the field given and then close the screen. The changes will be saved automatically.
Managing the references in your library
There are several ways in which you can manage your library. First, if you find references that you know are not going to be useful, you can discard them. Open the library, click on the reference to highlight it, then click on ‘References’ at the top of the screen, and then on ‘Delete References’.
If you want to delete multiple references, you can highlight all of them at the same time. Click first on one you want to discard, then click on another while holding down the Control (Ctrl) button, then yet another while holding down the Control button. When you have highlighted all that you want to discard, click on ‘References’ and then on ‘Delete References’.
You may also want to clean up your library by getting rid of the duplicates, which you are sure to have if you have downloaded references from several databases.
To do this, go to ‘References’ and then on ‘find duplicates’. A new screen will pop up, showing just the references that have been entered more than once. All of the ‘extra copies’ will be highlighted.
To discard these (while keeping one copy), go back to ‘References’ and click on ‘Delete References’. The system will check that you are sure about discarding the duplicates. When you verify that you do want to get rid of these, they will disappear, and you will be left with just one copy of each. To get back to the whole library, close the screen and reopen the library, which will now be free of duplicates.
Finding things in your library
Most users have had the frustrating experience of trying to remember, unsuccessfully, which article contained certain information. With EndNote, you have a tool for quickly searching through your references to find the one you are seeking.
Let’s say you are studying micronutrients and pregnancy. You have collected up
hundreds of references in your EndNote library, gone through them, selected several dozen papers and gotten the full text of these. After reading the papers, you are now sitting down to write, and you reach a point where you want to refer to the impact of helminthes on miconutritient status, and you know you have read about this in a couple of the papers, but you can’t remember which ones.
Go into your EndNote library. Click on ‘References’, then on ‘Search References’. In the screen that comes up, type the term you are after (helminthes) and decide whether you want to look just in any field or in just the title or the abstract or whatever. Then click on search, and you will get a list of the relevant articles. You can then scan the abstracts to find the specific ones you are seeking.
Printing out the whole library
You may want at some point to print out your whole library, that is, the list of all the references you have collected. To do this, open the library and check that the reference style is set for ‘Vancouver’. Then go to the tool bar at the top of the library screen, and click on the printer icon.
Citing as you write
With EndNote, it is very simple to insert references from your library and build a reference list for your paper. When you are ready to write, begin by opening your EndNote library. At the top of the screen, select the reference style. Most EndNote versions offer many hundreds of styles, including Vancouver. Once you have set the style, don’t close the screen but minimize it by clicking on the little box in the upper
right-hand corner with the _.
Now open Word and begin writing. When you write something that refers to information or ideas that you have gotten from your reading, insert a reference to that source. To do this, click on the EndNote bar at the bottom of the screen and click once on the relevant reference to highlight it. Then go back to the Word screen and click on ‘Tools’ in the tool bar at the top of the Word screen. Then select EndNote and then ‘Insert selected citation(s)’.
If you have selected Vancouver style, the program will insert the reference as a number (1) and also give the reference just below where you are writing. This reference is the beginning of your reference list.
Continue writing, inserting references as you go along. If you need to refer to more than one publication, you can select multiple references from your EndNote library by clicking first on one and then on the others while holding down the Control button.
If you refer to a work that you have cited earlier in the paper, the EndNote program will automatically use the original number assigned to that publication. And, as you put in your citations, the reference list will grow automatically. When your paper is finished, all you have to do is type References above the list and it’s done!
Editing your reference list
You may find that the EndNote version you have does not handle certain references according to the latest Vancouver instructions. If this is the case, you will need to edit your reference list.
Probably the biggest problem will be that the program does not automatically include the URL for e-journal articles. If you have been careful about recording these in the EndNote library, it won’t take you long to fix this error. Go into the library, find the
reference, find the URL address, copy it, and then paste it into the reference list.
Copying a Web address can seem impossible if you try to highlight it from the front. Instead, put the mouse cursor at the end of the address and draw it backwards to the front, then click on the copy icon.
Changing to a different style
Once you have assembled a library and written a paper using EndNote, it is extremely simple to switch to another style. For researchers submitting papers to journals, this feature is very important, since individual journals differ in the style they require their authors to use. If you have been using an existing library to write a paper using Vancouver style, and you are now going to write another paper on the same topic but need to use the Harvard (name and date) system, just open the library and change the style at the top of the screen.
But what do you do if you have written a paper using Vancouver, and your adviser suddenly decides that the Harvard style is better? Just changing the preferred style in the library will have no impact on the style in your paper. But EndNote can fix this for you. Open the Word file and go to ‘Tools’ in the tool bar. Click on EndNote, and
then on ‘Format Bibliography’. When the new screen comes up, select the new style you want the paper to be in. Then click on OK. The program will automatically change both the citations in the text and the bibliography (reference list) to the new style.