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Remote sensing and urban

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Remote sensing and urban

Remote sensing and urban analysis: a research agenda

    Abstract: The European Science Foundation meeting on which the chapters of this book are based took place at an interesting and exciting period in the development of urban remote sensing. In some senses, the meeting came too early in that it predated both the launch of the ‗new generation‘ of very high spatial resolution (optical) satellite sensors,

    and the wide dissemination of a variety of digital data sources that can now be used to augment detailed satellite data. Some of the techniques presented at the meeting were proprietary, and their natures were neither immediately transparent nor open to scrutiny through the peer-reviewed academic literature. Opaqueness of exposition survives in some of the contributions to this book, although we have tried to make the message, if not the detail, of the contributions as clear as possible. In these respects paucity

    of ‗good‘ data and a ‗grey‘ literature of developing technique — the formative days

    of urban remote sensing (RS) seem to have been akin to the early development of

    GIS. Today the field is developing rapidly (Donnay et al., Chapter ?? this volume)

    and is converging with mainstream GIS applications.

Authors: Paul A. Longley, Michael J. Barnsley and Jean-Paul Donnay

Keywords: n/a

    url: http://stress.swan.ac.uk/~mbarnsle/GISDATA/conclusions.pdf

GLACIER- AND PERMAFROST-RELATED HAZARDS IN HIGH MOUNTAINS:

    INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENT IN THE SWISS ALPS BASED ON REMOTE SENSING

    AND GEO-INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    Abstract: Especially due to their ability to provide information touch-less and with complete spatial coverage air- and satellite-borne remote sensing technologies have a large and still growing importance for analyzing high mountain hazards. Periglacial lakes and their outburst risk can be detected using aerial and satellite imagery as well as related changes be monitored. In a similar way, it is possible to observe glacier fluctuations endangering infrastructure and potentially causing ice avalanches. Early recognition of ice break-offs themselves is difficult by remote sensing, though it contributes to the assessment of hazard disposition. High precision photogrammetry allows for measuring slow creep and slide processes. In such a way, slope instabilities in the periglacial environment and potential starting zones of debris flows can be monitored. A major step towards improving the accuracy and reliability of remote sensing based hazard assessments consists in the fusion of spectral and radiometric data with digital elevation models inside geo-information systems and subsequent application of knowledge-based analysis techniques for such multi-sensor and multi-dimensional data. A downscaling strategy from low resolution imagery and models over large areas towards detailed high resolution analyses of hazard zones detected from previous strategy steps is presently applied in the Swiss Alps.

Authors: A.Kääb, W. Haeberli, C. Huggel and F. Paul

Keywords: n/a

    url: http://folk.uio.no/kaeaeb/publications/inagga.pdf

    Gee/Environmental and Medical Data Management in the RasDaManl System

    Abstract: Multidimensional discrete data (MDD) - i.e., arrays of arbitrary size, dimension, and base type - appear in a variety of business, technical,

    and scientific application fields. Ras- DaMan is an effort to give comprehensive domain-independent MDD database support. Based on a formal algebraic array model, Ras- DaMan offers declarative array operators embedded in standard SQL; key DBMS components are an MDD query optimizer and a streamlined storage manager for efficient access to subsets of huge arrays. We present the RasDaMan approach to MDD management based on the medical and geographic application fields addressed in the project.

    Authors: Peter Baumann Paula Furtado2 Roland Ritsch Norbert Widmann FORWISS (Bavarian Research Centre for Knowledge-Based Systems)

    Orleansstr. 34, D-81667 Munich, Germany

    {baumann,furtado,ritsch,widmann}(Oforwiss.tu-muenchen.de

Keywords: n/a

    url: http://www.sigmod.org/vldb/conf/1997/P548.PDF

Changes in inferred spawning areas of Todarodes pacificus

    (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) due to changing

    environmental conditions

    Abstract: Annual catches of Todarodes pacificus in Japan have gradually increased since the late 1980s. Paralarval abundances have also been higher since the late 1980s compared to the late 1970s and mid-1980s. Here is proposed a possible scenario for the recent stock increase based on changing environmental conditions. Based on trends in annual variations in stock and in larval abundances, catches are reviewed and potential spawning areas inferred, assuming that egg masses and hatchlings occur over the continental shelf at temperatures between 15 and 23_C. Changes are then inferred in the spawning areas during 19841995, based on GIS data. Since the late 1980s, the

    autumn and winter spawning areas in the Tsushima Strait and near the Goto Islands appear to have overlapped, and winter spawning sites seem to have expanded over the continental shelf and slope in the East China Sea.

Authors: Y. Sakurai, H. Kiyofuji, S. Saitoh, T. Goto, and

    Y. Hiyama. Sakurai, Y., Kiyofuji, H., Saitoh, S., Goto, T., and Hiyama, Y. 2000. Changes in

    inferred spawning areas of Todarodes pacificus (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) due

to changing environmental conditions. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57: 2430.

Keywords: GIS, paralarvae, regime shift, spawning areas, fluctuations, Todarodes

    pacificus.

url: http://www.cephdev.utmb.edu/refdb/pdf/7241.pdf

QUALITY CONTROL AND UPDATING OF ROAD DATA

    BY GIS-DRIVEN ROAD EXTRACTION FROM IMAGERY

    Abstract: Describing the quality of digital geodata in a geodatabase is required for many applications. We present our developments for automated quality control of the German topographic vector data set ATKIS using images. The automation comprises automatic cartographic feature extraction and comparison with ATKIS data, which both are triggered by additional knowledge derived from the existing scene description. To reach an operational solution the system is designed as an automated system which admits user interaction to perform a final check of the fully automatically derived quality description of the data.

Authors: Felicitas Willrich

    Institute for Photogrammetry and GeoInformation (IPI)

    University of Hannover, Nienburger Str. 1, 30167 Hannover

    willrich@ipi.uni-hannover.de

    Commission IV, ICWG II/IV

Keywords: Quality, Updating, GIS, Automation, Knowledge-Base, Imagery, Acquisition, System

url: http://www.ipi.uni-

    hannover.de/html/publikationen/2002/paper/willrich_comm_IV_paper_final_col.pdf

USING GIS, ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS AND REMOTE SENSING TO

    MODEL URBAN CHANGE IN THE MINNEAPOLIS-ST.PAUL AND DETROIT

    METROPOLITAN AREAS

    Abstract: We parameterized the GIS and neural net-based Land Transformation Model for the Detroit and Twin Cities Metropolitan Areas using historical land use data derived from aerial photography. We built several neural net models and attempted to test whether these models were transferable across the two metropolitan regions and whether a regional model provided as good a fit as a locally parameterized model. The overall accuracy of the model to predict urban transitions was 37% and 33% for the TCMA and DMA, respectively. An ―internal‖ versus ―external‖ learning exercise resulted in models that appeared to be fairly transferable in one case (DMA applied to TCMA) and not well transferable in the other case (TCMA applied to DMA). A ―local‖ versus ―regional‖ exercise produced results suggesting that learning from larger scale spatial patterns does not reduce the affect of the model to

    predict smaller, local trends. We discuss the implications of these two learning exercises and suggest ways in which the models could be improved. Overall accuracy of the presented models is judged against previous LTM applications in Michigan‘s Grand Traverse Bay Watershed and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

AuthorsBryan C. Pijanowski

    Bradley A. Shellito

    207 Manly Miles Building

    College of Natural Science

    Michigan State University

    East Lansing, Michigan 48824

    pijanows@msu.edu

    shellit1@msu.edu

    Marvin E. Bauer

    Kali E. Sawaya

    115 Green Hall

    Department of Forest Resources

    University of Minnesota

    St. Paul, Minnesota 55108

    mbauer@forestry.umn.edu

    ksawaya@gis.umn.edu

Keywords: n/a

url: http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~bpijanow/ASPRS%202001%20pijan.pdf

OBJECT-ORIENTED IMAGE ANALYSIS AND SCALE-SPACE: THEORY AND

    METHODS MODELING AND EVALUATING MULTISCALE LANDSCAPE

    STRUCTURE

    Abstract: Landscapes are Complex Systems, which by their very nature necessitate a multiscale approach in their monitoring, modeling and management. To assess such broad extents, remote sensing technology is the primary provider of landscape sized data sets, and while tremendous progress has been made over the last thirty years in terms of improved resolution, data availability, and public awareness, the vast majority of remote sensing analytical applications still rely on basic image processing concepts: in particular, per-pixel classification in multi-dimensional feature space. In this paper we describe and compare two technically and theoretically different image processing approaches, both of which facilitate multiscale pattern analysis, exploration, and the linking of landscape components based on methods that derive spatially-explicit multiscale contextual information from a single resolution of remote sensing imagery. Furthermore, we suggest how both methods may be integrated for improved results.

Authors: Thomas Blaschke1 and Geoffrey J. Hay2

    1 Department of Geography and Geoinformation, University of Salzburg, Austria, Hellbrunner Str. 34, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria. Email: thomas.blaschke@sbg.ac.at

    2 Geocomputing Laboratory, Département de géographie, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, succursale Centre-Ville, Montréal,

    Québec, Canada, H3C 3J7. Email: ghay@sympatico.

Keywords: n/a

url: http://www.geo.sbg.ac.at/larg/079_full.pdf

    A review of remote sensing technology in support of the Kyoto Protocol

    Abstract: This paper presents an overview of the role of remote sensing technology in the context of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Kyoto Protocol and is based largely on discussions held at an international workshop in MI, USA, and the report that followed [A. Rosenqvist, M. Imhoff, T. Milne, C. Dobson (Eds.), Remote Sensing and the Kyoto Protocol: A Review of Available and Future Technology for Monitoring Treaty Compliance, Workshop Report, Ann Arbor, MI, USA, 2022 October 1999, 2000a, 159 pp. Available at

    http://www.eecs.umich.edu/kyoto]. The implications of significant decisions pertaining to the definition of the key terms forest and afforestation, reforestation and deforestation (ARD) activities taken at the conference of parties (COP 6:2 and COP 7) meetings in Bonn and Marrakesh, respectively in 2001 are also discussed. Past, current and near-future remote sensing instruments with applications appropriate to Kyoto requirements are short listed; research topics that need to be advanced to support use of these are outlined, and future actions recommended.

    ? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Authors: Åke Rosenqvist a,?, Anthony Milne b, Richard Lucas c, Marc Imhoff d,

    Craig Dobsone

    a Earth Observation Research Center, National Space Development Agency of Japan, Triton Square X-22F, 1-8-10 Harumi, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-6023, Japan b School of Biological, Environmental and Earth Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia c Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of Wales at Aberystwyth, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion SY23 3DB, UK d Biospheric Sciences Branch, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mailcode 923, Greenbelt, MD 20771-0001, USA e Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, 3228 EECS Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2122, USA

Keywords: Kyoto Protocol; remote sensing; Verification; Compliance; ARD

Url: http://www.eorc.jaxa.jp/ALOS/kyoto/ref/ESP_2003_6_5_Rosenqvist-etal.pdf

Use of Remote Sensing Data at Thematic Mapping in GIS

    Abstract: The geoinformation approach for solving the problem of thematic mapping with use of remote sensing (RS) data is offered. The geoinformation technology for solving of RS data interpretation problem in the framework of vector-raster GIS with the purpose of thematic mapping and the method of extracting spatial information from aerospace images are considered. The realization aspects and results of applying of the geoinformation technology are given.

Authors: N.G. Markov, A.A. Napryushkin

    Tomsk Polytechnical University

    84, Sovietskaja street, Tomsk, 634034 Russia,

    e-mail: markov@ce.cctpu.edu.ru

Keywords: n/a

url: http://www.agile-secretariat.org/Conference/2000-helsinki/15.pdf

Indigenous Values and GIS: a Method and a Framework

    Abstract: In New Zealand, geographic information systems (GIS) are becoming increasingly important in all areas of resource management and environmental planning. There is growing interest among the Maori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, in the use of GIS to help them achieve some of their goals and aspirations. This article describes recent efforts to identify Maori values which are part of Maori traditional knowledge (maatauranga Maaori). It then presents a method and

    framework for incorporating these values into GIS tools.

Authors: by Garth Harmsworth1

Keywords: n/a

url: http://www.iapad.org/publications/ppgis/indigenous_values_and_GIS-

    a_method_and_a_framework.pdf

    Perspectives of Environmental Informatics and Systems Analysis

    Abstract: The development of novel information technologies has been in extraordinarily rapid progress, and some

    new techniques and tools have yet to be applied to environmental management. In many cases, however, the roles of these technologies have been limited in the provision of improved convenience for system implementation and presentation. Although these roles are meaningful for extensive transfer of new methodologies and convenient access of research out-comes, they do not directly contribute to methodology development. Therefore, further development of high performance computing and knowledge management potentials associated with artificial intelligence techniques is desired to promote long-term viability of environmental informatics. In this paper, recent developments, advancements, challenges, and barriers associated with practices of environmental informatics research are analyzed. A number of related methodologies, applications, and policy considerations are examined. Issues of the needs for environmental systems analysis, the challenges of environmental systems modeling, and the impacts of environmental informatics are discussed. Perspectives of the environmental decision-making in the 21st century are investigated, demonstrating many demanding areas for enhanced re-search efforts.

     Authors: 1* 2

     G. H. Huangand N. B. Chang 1Environmental Systems Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering, University of Regina, Regina, SK S4S 20A2Canada Department of Environmental Engineering, Texas A&M University, Kingsville, TX 78363, USA

Keywords: Environmental informatics, systems analysis, modeling, optimization, decision making

url: http://www.iseis.org/JEI/fulltext.asp?no=0300001

    Monitoring urban land cover change: An expert system approach to land cover classification of semiarid to arid urban centers

    Abstract: The spatial and temporal distribution of land cover is a fundamental dataset for urban ecological research. An expert (or hypothesis testing) system has been used with Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data to derive a land cover classification for the semiarid Phoenix metropolitan portion of the Central Arizona-Phoenix Long Term Ecological Research (CAP LTER) site. Expert systems allow for the integration of remotely sensed data with other sources of georeferenced information such as land use data, spatial texture, and digital elevation models (DEMs) to obtain greater classification accuracy. Logical decision rules are used with the various datasets to assign class values to each pixel. TM reflectance data acquired in 1998 [visible to shortwave infrared (VSWIR) bands plus a vegetation index] were initially classified for land cover using a maximum likelihood decision rule. In addition, spatial texture of the TM data was calculated. An expert system was constructed to perform postclassification sorting of the initial land cover classification using additional spatial datasets such as texture, land use, water rights, city boundaries, and Native American reservation boundaries. Pixels were reclassified using logical decision rules into 12 classes. The overall accuracy of this technique was 85%. Individual class user‘s accuracy ranged from 73% to 99%, with the exception of

    the commercial/industrial materials class. This class performed poorly (user‘s accuracy of 49%) due to the similarity of

    subpixel components with other classes. The results presented here indicate that the expert system approach will be useful both for ongoing CAP LTER research, as well as the planned global Urban Environmental Monitoring (UEM) program of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument. D 2001 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

Authors: William L. Stefanova,b,*, Michael S. Ramseyc,1, Philip R. Christensena,2

aDepartment of Geological Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA bCenter for Environmental Studies, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA cDepartment of Geology and Planetary Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Received 28 December 2000; received in revised form 27 February 2001; accepted 1 March 2001

Keywords: Arid environment; Knowledge-based systems; Surface properties; Thematic mapper; Urban environment

url: http://ivis.eps.pitt.edu/courses/ars/pdf/stefanov.pdf

Visual Exploration of Uncertainty in Remote-sensing Classi_cation

    Abstract: Exploratory analysis of remotely-sensed data aims at acquiring insight as to the stability of possible classi_cations of these data and their information value for speci_c applications. For this purpose, knowledge of the uncertainties underlying these classi_cations is imperative. In this paper, we introduce various measures that summarise for a classi_cation, in a single number per pixel, the distribution and extent of the uncertainties involved. Since exploratory analysis needs e_ective ways of conveying information to the user, we in addition address various ways of cartographic visualisation of uncertainty

Authors: Frans J.M. van der Wel

    Utrecht University, Faculty of Geographical Sciences, Cartography Section From April 1997: Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI)

    P.O. Box 201, 3730 AE De Bilt, The Netherlands

    e-mail: welvdf@knmi.nl

    Linda C. van der Gaag

    Utrecht University, Department of Computer Science,

    P.O. Box 80.089, 3508 TB Utrecht, The Netherlands

    e-mail: linda@cs.ruu.nl

    Ben G.H. Gorte

    International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences (ITC) P.O. Box 6, 7500 AA Enschede, The Netherlands

    e-mail: ben@itc.nl

Keywords: n/a

url: http://webdoc.gwdg.de/ebook/ah/2000/techrep/CS-1997/1997-29.pdf

TerraLib: Technology in Support of GIS Innovation

    Abstract: This work describes the development of a new GIS library (called TerraLib), that is aimed at providing a rich and powerful environment for the development of GIScience research. The motivation for this proposal is the current lack of either public or commercial GIS libraries that cater for the diversity of GIS data and algorithms, especially when viewed upon the latest advances in geographical information science. TerraLib is open source software, allowing a collaborative environment and its use for the development of multiple GIS tools.

Authors: GILBERTO CÂMARA1, RICARDO CARTAXO MODESTO DE SOUZA1

    BIANCA MARIA PEDROSA1, LÚBIA VINHAS1

    ANTÔNIO MIGUEL VIEIRA MONTEIRO1, JOÃO ARGEMIRO PAIVA1

    MARCELO TILIO DE CARVALHO2, MARCELO GATTASS2

    1 Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais - INPE

    Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, São José dos Campos (SP), Brazil 12227-001

    {gilberto, cartaxo, bianca, lubia, miguel, miro}@dpi.inpe.br

    2 Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro

    Rua Marquês de São Vicente 225, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 22.453-900

    {gattass, tilio}@tecgraf.puc-rio.br

P.O. Box 80.089, 3508 TB Utrecht, The Netherlands

    e-mail: linda@cs.ruu.nl

    Ben G.H. Gorte

    International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences (ITC) P.O. Box 6, 7500 AA Enschede, The Netherlands

    e-mail: ben@itc.nl

Keywords: GIS, Spatial Analysis, Software Libraries.

url: http://www.dpi.inpe.br/terralib/docs/papers/TerraLib_Paper_GeoInfo2000.pdf

A COMPARISON OF SEGMENTATION PROGRAMS FOR HIGH

    RESOLUTION REMOTE SENSING DATA

    Abstract: Methods of image segmentation become more and more important in the field of remote sensing image analysis in particular due to the increasing spatial resolution of imagery. The most important factor for using segmentation techniques is segmentation quality. Thus, a method for evaluating segmentation quality is presented and used to compare results of presently available segmentation programs. Firstly, an overview of the software used is given. Moreover the quality of the individual segmentation results is evaluated based on pan-sharpened multi-spectral

    IKONOS data. This is done by visual comparison, which is supplemented by a detailed investigation using visual interpreted reference areas. Geometrical segment properties are in the focus of this quantitative evaluation. The results are assessed and discussed. They show the suitability of the tested programs for segmenting very high resolution imagery.

    Authors: Leibniz Institute of Ecological and Regional Development (IOER), Weberplatz 1, D-01217 Dresden, Germany - G.Meinel@ioer.de, M.Neubert@ioer.de

Keywords: Automation, Land cover, Classification, Software, IKONOS, Performance, Comparison, qualitative

url: http://www.isprs.org/istanbul2004/comm4/papers/506.pdf

    Intelligent recreation agents in a virtual GIS world

    Abstract: This paper describes a method for simulating the interactions of different human recreators in a complex natural environment by integrating intelligent agents and geographic information systems (GIS). The purpose of this model is to assist recreation planners and managers to evaluate a set of alternative management scenarios that i) alter the scheduling of recreators as they enter a park; ii) increase or decrease the size or access to facilities such as roads and trails, parking lots, visitor centres or camp grounds; or iii) separate recreators onto different roads and trails. By simulating the behavior of different agents in a virtual environment as described by GIS, it is possible to manipulate the number and type of agents, and characteristics of the environment to study the dynamic relationships between the two systems. This provides park managers with an insight into the probable effects of a given management scenario on user flows and satisfaction.

Authors: R.M. Itami1, H.R. Gimblett2

    1 Digital Land Systems Research and

    Department of Geomatics, University of Melbourne

    Parkville 3010, Australia

    Email: b.itami@eng.unimelb.edu.au

    2 School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona

    BSE 325, Tucson, Arizona 85721 USA

    Email: gimblett@Ag.arizona.edu

Keywords: n/a

url: http://www.srnr.arizona.edu/~gimblett/2001_Complexity%20Internation.pdf

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