Annotated Bibliography for Metadiscourse Article
Hyland, K. (1998). Exploring corporate rhetoric: Metadiscourse in the CEO’s letter. Journal
of Business Communication. 35(2): 224 – 245.
This article examines 137 letters from the CEO to their shareholders in the annual report of the each company. All of the letters and reports were published in Hong Kong but not all companies were based in HK. The persona of the CEO is carefully formulated to project power, wisdom, confidence and leadership. 110 director’s reports were also analyzed. The
director’s reports are concerned with pointing out specific details of the overall report. It is not suprising therefore that the CEO’s letters had much more interactional metadiscourse and the director’s reports contained more interactive metadiscourse.
This article will likely be mentioned once in my literature review, in section IV, A where I talk about genre specific research. It is too narrow in focus to be much use in my article.
Hyland, K. & Tse P. (2004). Metadiscourse in academic writing: A reappraisal. Applied
Linguistics. 25(2): 156 –177.
This article examines 240 graduate dissertations totaling some 4 million words. The author refine a model of metadiscourse which they claim can explain the ways in which an author engages with his or her audience and his or her text. The study uses 20 masters and 20 PhD dissertations from each of the following fields: electronic engineering, computer science, business studies, biology, applied linguistics and public administration. They dissect texts in terms of propositional vs. non-propositional, writer-reader relational vs. non- writer-reader relational and external to the text vs. internal to the text.
Since this article contrasts article by genre (PhD vs. Masters thesis) and by field and since it occurs in Hong Kong, it can possibly be cited in three sections of my literature review. (sections IV A, B, E) Possibly it will also merit a mention in section III B, where I seek to define Hyland’s model of metadiscourse.
Hyland, K. (2007). Applying a gloss: Exemplifying and reformulating in academic
discourse. Applied Linguistics. 28(2): 266 – 285.
This article looks specifically at code glosses and how they are used in academic literature. The author demonstrates how punctuation, set phrases and other conventions allow writers to provide more information about terms or ideas in the text which may be difficult for the reader to grasp. Glosses are categorized into two broad categories: reformulation and
exemplification. The corpus included 240 articles from research journals in the following fields: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, marketing, philosophy, sociology, applied linguistics, physics, and microbiology. Marketing, applied linguistics and physics tended to make the most use of these devises.
This article is of limited value to my research. It can be mentioned once in my literature review, probably in section IV, D. Because its scope is so limited, there’s no need for me to
read it in an in-depth way.
Jalilifar, A. & Alipour, M. (2007). How explicit instruction makes a difference:
Metadiscourse markers and EFL learners’ reading comprehension skill. Journal of
College Reading and Learning. 38(1): 35 – 53.
This article reports on a slightly confusing experiment involving testing 90 second-language speakers of English. In a pre-test, everyone received the same text and the subjects reading ability was checked. In a post-test, 1/3 of the texts remained the same, 1/3 were altered so as to have no metadiscourse and 1/3 were modified after removing the metadiscourse so that they read somewhat smoothly. They used Vande-Kopple’s model of
metadiscourse. There was no significant difference between the original and modified texts in the post-test, but both groups fared better than the group with no metadiscourse. Over one
semester one group received instruction in metadiscourse and at the end of the semester they were better able to interpret a reading test of original material (unaltered).
This will be appropriate to mention in section V on education, I think it is also notable that they used a PPP approach to present metadiscourse in their semester-long segment on it.
Steffensen, M.S. & Cheng, X. (1996). Metadiscourse and text pragmatics: How students
write after learning about metadiscourse. In Bouton, L.F. (Ed.) Pragmatics and
Language Learning, Monograph Series Vol. 7 (pp 153 –170). Urbana IL:
University of Illinois Press.
This chapter describes an experimental study in which native speakers were formed into a control group and a group taught the conventions of metadiscourse. These groups were administered pre and post-tests during a semester-long writing course and what results analyzed to determine changes in their writing style. The article argues that the group taught conventions for metadiscourse were markedly better than the control group in the post-test at using metadiscourse markers and attending to audience needs. However, the article makes no mention of how the students in the experimental group were taught about metadiscourse.
This chapter can be discussed in section V of my literature review and will serve as a good basis to carve my niche. Since it shows the efficacy of explicit metadiscourse education, but lacks the specific sequencing or direction on how to carry it out, it will establish an excellent niche.