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Peace Education Curriculum

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Peace Education Curriculum

    Peace Education Curriculum

    Programa Pendidiken Damai

    Translated by Darni M. Daud, Ph.D.

    Edited by Asna Husin, Ph. D.

    Reviewed by Karim Douglas Crow, Ph. D.

    Sponsored by:

    UNICEF

    NonViolence International

    AusAID

    iii

    TABLE OF CONTENTS Table of Contents……………………………………………………………………………… i Preface to the English Translation…………………………………………………………… iii Preface ………………………………………………………………………………………..v Acknowledgments ……………………………………………………………………………vi Foreword from Head of the Regional Office of the National Education Depart., Special Province of

    Aceh ……………………………………………………………………………viii Foreword from Head of the Regional Office of the Depart. for Religious Affairs Special Province of

    Aceh …………………………………………………………………………….ix Preface from Chair of Curriculum Team …………………………………………………….x How to Use This Manual ……………………………………………………………………..xi The Philosophical Foundation ………………………………………………………………..1 Goals……………………………………………………………………………………………7 PEACE BEGINS WITH ME

    1. Looking Within……………………………………………………………………………...8 2. Forgiveness and Honesty ………………………………………………………………….11 3. My Mouth is My Tiger ……………………………………………………………………14

    OUR RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES

    4. Rights and Responsibilities of Children…………………………………………………..17 5. The Right and Duty to Learn …………………………………………………………….21 6. Exploitation and Us………………………………………………………………………24

    ALLAH’S DIVERSE CREATION 7. Nature and Me……………………………………………………………………………27 8. We Live in Diversity ……………………………………………………………………..30 9. We are Different but the Same …………………………………………………………..32

    CONFLICT

    10. Conflict and Me …………………………………………………………………………36

    iv

    11. Managing Conflict ………………………………………………………………………41 12. Our Social Divides ……………………………………………………………………….44 13. Your Agony, Our Pain……………………………………………………………………47

    DEMOCRACY AND JUSTICE 14. Democratize and Us ……………………………………………………………………..51 15. Respect Just Laws ……………………………………………………………………….54 16. Social Peace and Us ……………………………………………………………………..57 17. Economic Justice, Our Desire …………………………………………………………..60

    PATHS TO PEACE 18. Violence is Not Our Way ………………………………………………………………..64 19. Longing for Solutions ……………………………………………………………………68 20. Meeting Needs through Negotiation …………………………………………………….72 21. We Love Peace d…………………………………………………………………………75

    References Preface to the English Translation

    v

The idea of translating the Indonesian Kurikulum Pendidikan Damai (Peace Education Curriculum)

    into English was first expressed by Mr. Rolf Carriere, UNICEF Representative in Indonesia. We at the

    th event with its Peace Education Program in Aceh embraced the proposal, and the September 11

    reinforcement of widespread negative perceptions of Islam makes it a pressing need. We hope this translation of the Kurikulum will make it accessible to a larger audience of Muslims and non-Muslims outside the Indonesian-speaking world. We welcome constructive criticism and suggestions from friends and colleagues, students, as well as practitioners of peace education for the improvement of our manual since we are in the process of revising the current edition of the Curriculum.

    Our Peace Education Curriculum was the first of its kind to be developed in Indonesia, representing peace education from an Islamic and Acehnese perspective. It promotes a positive, comprehensive peace encompassing peaceful relations with God the Creator, with oneself, with one‘s fellow humans,

    and with the environment. The Curriculum teaches communal peace in accordance with the positive

    Islamic approach, namely the absence of war and discrimination and the necessity of justice in society. This manual emphasizes that peace is neither a subjugation to situations nor a passive acceptance of injustice, discrimination, and war, but rather a recognition of these problems and addressing them in a peaceful manner. The Curriculum also stresses the importance of process and ends, since peace is both process and results, as reflected in active involvement of students in a system of learning by doing. Two points require some clarification. The first one is that every lesson in the Curriculum begins with

    a verse from the Qur`an or a tradition of the Prophet (hadith), followed by an Acehnese proverbial

    saying (Hadih Maja). The English version of the Hadih Maja occurs at the beginning of each topic,

    while its Acehnese original is found in the footnote. The second point is the issue of gender neutrality. The Indonesian Kurikulum Pendidikan Damai is gender neutral, partly because of the nature of

    Indonesian as a language, which is primarily gender-free, and partly because of the efforts of the Curriculum Team and staff to be sensitive to this issue. Despite our attempt to maintain such original neutrality, the English translation however encounters some problems, for we avoid employing a dual pronoun: he/she or his/her. In many cases we use the third form of ―one‖ or ―they‖ rather than he or she, yet the pronoun ―his‖ occurs occasionally.

    We would like to extend our gratitude and appreciation to our dear friend, DR. Darni M. Daud, chair of the Curriculum Team, for translating the manual into English and to Prof. DR. Karim D. Crow of ISTAC for reviewing the English translation. Thanks also go to Mr. Rolf Carriere, DR. Andrew McGregor, and Ms. Perseveranda So of UNICEF and to DR. Mubarak Awad and Mr. Michael Beer of Nonviolence International for their leadership and guidance. Finally, it is a pleasure to acknowledge the hard work of our PPD staff, especially Muslahuddin and Armia, for putting the manual into a beautiful and attractive format.

    We humbly seek the gracious guidance of the All-Mighty in our efforts, and pray earnestly for His support and help in increasing true understanding of peace among all humans. There is no strength or power save in Allah, Exalted and All-Powerful.

DR. Asna Husin

    Peace Education Program Director

    Banda Aceh, March 2002

    Preface

To begin with, three perspectives on peace: Einstein, Lennon, and UNESCO.

First Albert Einstein: “Peace cannot be kept by force. It can only be achieved by understanding”.

Then John Lennon: “Give peace a chance”.

And finally the UNESCO Constitution: ―Since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of

    men that the defenses of peace must be constructed”.

    This ―Kurikulum Pendidikan Damai‖ is an important cultural contribution to relate the basic tenets and practical teachings of Islam to the urgent needs and long longings of the people of Aceh for peace. But the book‘s significance and applicability go well beyond the borders of that troubled province. Indeed, it carries a message that ought to be read, heard, and discussed in any place where Islam finds violence or war. And I trust that it will be an eye-opener for many whose views have been formed by the media.

Aristotle already knew that war is easier than peace. Peace must be given a chance, it must be

    achieved, and that is hard work. It is particularly hard inner work, because war is not only man-made,

    but also mind-made. That‘s why this book is as timely as it is profound.

One final quotation, from Roger Walsh: ―Eventually we’ll have to confront the fact that world

    suffering is the result of ill–conceived thoughts taking form through misdirected action. If we’re

    going to survive as a species, we must relinquish to unprecedented levels qualities such as

    greed, hatred, and delusion. In other words, our very survival depends on accelerated levels of psychological and spiritual maturation”. For too long have religions been associated with war. The

    time is long overdue to reperceive them, and appreciate their potential contributions to peace.

Rolf C Carriere

    UNICEF Representative in Indonesia

Acknowledgments

    It is a great pleasure to work on the present peace education manual for the use of high school students and teachers in Aceh. As the first such curriculum to be developed in Indonesia, we depend upon international resources on peace education, the expertise of our curriculum team and staff, as well as the experience and wisdom of Acehnese. While adopting peace education issues, our curriculum is entirely Islamic, being a peace education manual from an Islamic-Acehnese perspective. This makes peace education not only sensitive to local culture and tradition but also familiar to the people. Thus, it becomes accessible to, and understood by, Acehnese, as well as other Muslims in Indonesia and the rest of the world. Our peace education manual embodies both locality and universality.

    The creation of the Aceh Peace Education Program would not have been possible without the generosity of the United Nations Children‘s Fund (UNICEF) and the Australian Government AID Agency (AusAID). We are also indebted to UNICEF both in Jakarta and Aceh for its leadership and supervision. I would like to single out DR. Andrew McGregor of UNICEF Australia, Mr. Rolf Carriere, Ms. Anne-Marie Fonseka, Ms. Penseveranda So, and DR. Kevin O‘Railly of UNICEF Jakarta, as well

    as Drs. Fauzi Ali Amin, M. Kes of UNICEF Aceh.

    We are also grateful to DR. Mubarak Awad and Mr. Michael Beer of Nonviolence International (NI), Washington DC, and Mr. Muhammad Ilyas, MA of the Forum for Nonviolence in Aceh (FRAKA) for their leadership and guidance. The Indonesian Ministers of National Education and Religious Affairs, the Kakanwils of the Provincial Departments of National Education and Religious Affairs are all supportive of this initiative. Bapak Drs. Malik Raden, MM, Bapak Drs. H. M. Nur Ali, Bapak Drs. Amudi AE, Bapak Drs. A. Rahman TB, Bapak Drs. Nasruddin Sulaiman, and Bapak Drs. Anwar Muhammad, MSc deserve sincere acknowledgments. The head of Majelis Ulama Indonesia Aceh, the Rectors of the Ar-Raniry

    Institute for Islamic Studies and Syiah Kuala University, as well as the members of the Provincial Committee on Education (MPD) have all inspired us.

    We are also glad to recognize the contribution of the principles of high schools and Madrasah Aliyahs, student bodies, women groups, youth leaders, and NGO partners who contributed tremendously to this effort. Without their interest and enthusiasm, our work on developing this manual would have been futile. I wish to express our gratitude as well to Mr. Ridha and Mr. Edi Armia whose inspiration has made our curriculum richer. The two drew all the caricatures and pictures that appeal to the imagination of the youth.

    The real credit in creating this peace education manual goes to our Curriculum Team and staff. DR. Darni Daud, Drs. Fuad Mardhatillah, MA, Drs. Abdurrahman Hanafiah, Drs. Usman Husein, MA, and Drs. Syamsuddin Umar have endured the pressure to develop the manual in four months. The staff members: Abdul Azis Muslim, Muslahuddin, Armia, and Risa Yudhiana, have worked not only to provide technical support to the team but often acted as additional members of the team. Our curriculum consultants Prof. DR. Hakim Nyak Pha and Dra. Nurjannah Nitura were also helpful. Finally, our project consultant Prof. DR. Karim D. Crow contributed to the improvement of the manual.

    I would like to end these acknowledgments with an Islamic invocation that Muslims recite after every one of the five-daily prayers: ―O God, You are Peace, the Source of Peace, and to You Peace returns. Grant us a peaceful life in this world, O our Lord, and lead us to the Garden the Realm of Peace

    in the Hereafter. May You be Blessed and Exalted, our Lord, Possessor of Majesty & Honor!‖

DR. Asna Husin Peace Education Program Director July 2001

    Foreword

    from Head of the Regional Office of the National Education Department

    Special Province of Aceh

Assalamualaikum warahmatullah wabarakatuh Peace upon you and

    God’s loving mercy and His blessing.

Peace education is a necessity because conflict is the sunnatullah kehidupan (God‘s natural order of

    life). This means that conflict is a reality of life and it has existed since humans know life. Therefore, we need to understand not how to avoid conflict but rather ways to manage it, so that conflict can become a positive factor in our life. Based on this reality, the Head of the Regional Office of the National Education Department of the Special Province of Aceh sincerely hopes that peace education targeting general high schools (Sekolah Menengah Umum, SMU) in the province can contribute to

    realizing a lasting solution to the conflict hampering Aceh.

After carefully examining this Peace Education Curriculum, we fully support its implementation as a

    pilot project for SMU during the 2001/2002 academic year. We also thank UNICEF and AUSAID, the

    Peace Education Program staff, the Curriculum Team, and all personnel and institutions that helped realize the authorship of this curriculum. May Allah guide us all in safeguarding our beloved nation for future generations!

Drs. H. A. Malek Raden, MM Head

    Regional Office of the National Education Department Special Province of Aceh

Banda Aceh, July 2001

    Foreword

    from Head of the Regional Office of the Department of Religious Affairs

    Special Province of Aceh

Assalamualaikum warahmatullah wabarakatuh

    Peace upon you and God‘s loving mercy and His blessing.

    Seeking God‘s loving-mercy, we plead for His guidance and blessings in performing our duty as a form of sincere submission to Him.

    From the start we welcomed the initiative of implementing peace education, and after scrutinizing this curriculum we strongly recommend its application in the madrasah aliyah (Islamic public high

    schools), and dayah (private Islamic boarding schools) of the Special Province of Aceh. This is one of our efforts to help create peace in our region that has long been beset by endless conflicts. Its implementation in the Madrasah Aliyah and Dayah schools is vitally important because these students

    and younger generations are the future of our nation, and it is through them that we may materialize the striving for peaceful life and freedom from injustice and oppression.

    We highly appreciate and deeply thank the Peace Education Program staff and the Curriculum Team who have made optimum efforts to author this curriculum. We also appreciate the United Nations Children‘s Fund (UNICEF) and Australian Government AID Agency (AUSAID) for assisting this

    program. Hopefully this preliminary step can be a foundation for further significant steps.

    Thus this foreword is presented. It is to Allah, the true source of Peace, that we surrender.

Drs. H.M. Nur Ali Head

    Regional Office of the Department of Religious Affairs Special Province of Aceh

Banda Aceh, July 2001

    Preface from Chair of the Curriculum Team

    Alhamdulillah Praise be to God, the curriculum of peace education for public high school students in Aceh is now completed. From late February through June 2001, we worked hard to produce this curriculum. This is a relatively short length of time to write a curriculum that expresses the socio-cultural values of the Acehnese people. The values that substantiate this curriculum are closely related to Islamic values, and to those of the Acehnese, as well as universal norms conveying the eternal message of peace. These values and norms not only vivify the philosophy behind this curriculum but also represent its content as shown in each theme and topic.

    The values inspiring this Peace Education Curriculum were examined in such a manner that they might become meaningful for students. In identifying, classifying, analyzing, and interpreting the relevant theme and topic, the Curriculum Team not only evaluated the materials but also the methodologies. Concerning the material, we considered the degree of difficulty and appropriateness both for students or society. From the methodology viewpoint, we chose the approaches, methods, and techniques capable of producing the learning process that are not only interesting but also motivating teacher and students to maximize their activities. We view this curriculum to be a systemic contribution to materialize peace education in Aceh beginning with facilitating high school students.

    The Curriculum Team is convinced that peace is not something emerging by itself without any human efforts to create it. To approach peace through education, it is necessary to have programmed efforts initiated by a written curriculum. The ideas preceding this Peace Education Curriculum were begun from trustworthy input from the director of the Peace Education Program for Aceh DR. Asna Husin and all her staff. On the one hand, this trust is an honor; but on the other, it is simultaneously a challenge to be handled in a short time. Input from the consultants, Prof. DR. Hakim Nyak Pha and Dra. Nurjannah Nitura, helped improve the substance and execution of this curriculum. Suggestions from various other parties, including Nonviolence International, UNICEF, Syiah Kuala University, Ar-Raniry State Institute for Islamic Studies, the Council of Ulama, Local Education Board, Local Office of National Education Department, Regional Office of Religious Affairs Department, Aceh‘s Institute of Adat and Culture, non-governmental organizations, school principals, students, and many other parties, individually or institutionally, that cannot be mentioned one by one, have also enriched the approaches and contents of this curriculum. For their comments I here thank them all.

    It is anticipated that this peace education curriculum will bear meaningful results in our efforts to gain salam and a quiet and peaceful future for Aceh

DR. Darni M. Daud

    Chair, Curriculum Team

Banda Aceh, July 2001

    How to Use This Manual

    It is the expectation of the Curriculum Team and the staff of the Peace Education Program that this manual can be a guideline for the creative and innovative pilot project of peace education in general high schools, madrasah aliyah, and dayah schools. The materials and learning

    activities were authored in such a manner to allow the students dominant roles in the learning process. The students are guided to observe, analyze, and seek for solutions to existing conflicts. We feel that this strategy can better improve the students’ knowledge on conflict and peace, build their skills in managing conflicts without violence, and actualize them all in their real life. Giving such dominant roles to students is based on the understanding that peace is not just a goal but

    also a process. This means that the students’ active role in seeking and

    building peace is an integral part of the peaceful life to be sought.

    A friendly, democratic, cooperative classroom atmosphere exemplified in this curriculum reduces the ice rock of the learning process, and at the same time builds discipline. This is because students are not mere objects to be disciplined, but subjects who have to create and uphold discipline themselves. Using this approach is possible because this curriculum has its own attraction, combining narration and role-play, and interesting games and exercises, and it can function as an effective teaching-learning technique. This approach was created to make students interested in learning the materials, and allows the teacher to teach autonomously, effectively, creatively, and flexibly. For this reason the teacher’s diligence, patience, and preparation are crucial in making peace education beneficial for developing peaceful and humane attitudes among future generations of Acehnese.

    The Curriculum Team and the Peace Education Program staff have critically selected the topics for building students‘ perspectives. Three key words dominate the offered topics: Aku kamu (I you),

    kami (we) and kita (we all). Aku-kamu is chosen in order to build a positive self-concept, where the value of aku and kamu does not lead to egoism and self-interest, but to self-worth and self-respect. Kami does not include the person(s) who is/are addressed and serves as a bridge towards broader cooperation. Kita (we all) is an inclusive expression that involves I-You, We and They. Kita (we all) is

    used to build a comprehensive cooperative awareness in which the diversity of divine creation is its chief characteristic.

    This curriculum is prepared for 14 sessions of 90 minutes each, with six themes and 21 topics. The first three themes each have three topics, while the latter three themes have four topics each. It is

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