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Morphology

By Rose Hunt,2014-03-22 13:26
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Morphology

    Morphology

    Catherine Di Wu

    Foreign Language Department

    Morphology

    Morphology refers to the study of internal structure of words, and the rules by which words are formed.

    Morphology is simply referred as the study of forms of words.

    Morphology is briefly the branch of grammar that deals with the internal structure of words.

     Morphology refers to the part of the grammar that is concerned with word formation and word structure.

     Nothing is more important to language than words. Unlike phonemes and syllables which are the elements of sound, words carry meaning. Sentences are made up with different classes of words, which are stored in a speaker’s mental dictionary or lexicon;

    they are the fundamental building blocks of a language.

     Basic words: the form and meaning cannot be predicted Countless other words are constructed and can be comprehended by the application of general rules of word constitution.

    Open Class and Closed Class

     In English, nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs make up the largest part of vocabulary. They are the content words of a

    language, which are sometimes called open class words, since new words can be added to these classes regularly.

     Conjunctions, prepositions, articles and pronouns consist of the grammatical or functional words, the number of such words is small and stable since few new words are added, and therefore such words have been referred to as closed class words.

    Morpheme

     Morphemes are called the minimal grammatical units. Recognition of the status of the morpheme in linguistic analysis was one of the achievements of the ancient Indian linguists.

The most important component of a word structure is the morphemethe

    smallest unit of langue that carries information about meaning or

function.

     Also morphemes are usually arbitrary: there is no natural connection between their sound and their meaning.

     When people wish to distinguish the sound of a morpheme from the entire morpheme, they may use the term morph. For example the English plural

    and possessive morphemes may be said to share a single morph, the suffix /-s/.

    Allomorphs

     Words may exhibit different shapes according to their position in spoken sentences; this is much more characteristic of morphemes in almost all languages.

     Allomorphs

     Spelling Pronunciation

     Allomorphs may have different forms. For example, the morpheme used to express indefiniteness in English has two forms, a before a word that

    begins with a consonant and an before a word that begins with a vowel.

     The variant forms of a morpheme are called its allomorphs.

    Free and Bound

    Morphemes

     A free morpheme is one that may constitute a word by itself; a bound morpheme is one that must appear with at least one other morpheme, bound or free, in a word.

    Word structures: Roots and Affixes

     The root is being the part of a word structure which is left when all the affixes have been removed.

     Root morphemes may be bound or free, and are potentially unlimited in number in a language.

     Affixes are bound morphemes; they are limited in number.

     Affixes are including prefixes and suffixes.

Roots typically belong to a lexical category, such as nouns, verbs,

    adjectives, or prepositions. Affixes do not belong to a lexical

    category and are always bound morphemes.

     Some bound morphemes are referred to as inflectional morphemes, while

    some are referred to as derivational morphemes.

    Inflectional Morphemes

     Inflectional morphemes are attached to words or morphemes, but they

    never change their syntactic category.

Some examples

     The Plural “s”

     The tense directors, “-ed”

     -ing”.

     The personal director “s”.

     The possessive director “s”.

    Derivational Morphemes

     Derivational morphemes can change the category or grammatical class of

    words when are put together with other morphemes or words.

    Derivation Derivation

    ; Derivation is an affixational process that forms a word with a meaning ; Derivation is an affixational process that forms a word with a meaning

    and/or category distinct from that of its bases. and/or category distinct from that of its bases.

    ; Sometimes derivation can apply more than once. However, derivation is also ; Sometimes derivation can apply more than once. However, derivation is also

    subject to special constraints and restrictions. subject to special constraints and restrictions.

    Derivation Derivation

    ; Class-changing: ; Class-changing:

    ; N>V: lengthen, hospitalize, discard ; N>V: lengthen, hospitalize, discard

    ; N>A: friendly, delightful, speechless ; N>A: friendly, delightful, speechless

    ; V>N: worker, employee, inhabitant ; V>N: worker, employee, inhabitant

    ; V>A: acceptable, adorable ; V>A: acceptable, adorable

    ; A>N: rapidness, rapidity ; A>N: rapidness, rapidity

    ; A>V: deafen, sweeten ; A>V: deafen, sweeten

    ; Adj>Adv: exactly, quickly ; Adj>Adv: exactly, quickly

; Class-preserving: ; Class-preserving:

    ; N>N: nonsmoker, ex-wife, booklet ; N>N: nonsmoker, ex-wife, booklet

    ; V>V: disobey, unfasten ; V>V: disobey, unfasten

    ; A>A: grayish, irrelevant ; A>A: grayish, irrelevant

    Word Formation Word Formation

    1. The ways words are formed are called morphological rules. These rules 1. The ways words are formed are called morphological rules. These rules determine how morphemes combine to form words. determine how morphemes combine to form words.

    2. Word-formation refers to the process of word variations signaling lexical 2. Word-formation refers to the process of word variations signaling lexical relationships. relationships.

    3. It can be further subclassified into the compositional type and the 3. It can be further subclassified into the compositional type and the derivational type. derivational type.

     Word, Word-form, Lexeme Word, Word-form, Lexeme ; Lexeme MAN ; Lexeme MAN

; Word man ; Word man

     (grammatical category) (grammatical category)

; Word-form man men ; Word-form man men

; Lexeme DIE ; Lexeme DIE

; Word die ; Word die

; Word form dies, died, dying, die ; Word form dies, died, dying, die

    A lexical item or a lexeme A lexical item or a lexeme

    ; A lexical item is an entry in a dictionary. A lexeme WRITE includes all ; A lexical item is an entry in a dictionary. A lexeme WRITE includes all of its grammatical forms: of its grammatical forms:

    ; write, writes, writing, wrote, written ; write, writes, writing, wrote, written

    Compound

     Compound refers to those words that consist of more than one lexical

    morpheme, or the way to join two separate words to produce a single

    form.

Noun compounds:

    1 N+V (daybreak, haircut) 2 V+N (playboy, callgirl) 3 N+N (windmill)

Verb compounds: N+V

     (brainwash, lipread, babysit)

Adjective compounds:

    1 N+V-ing (maneating)

    2 N+V-ed ( heartfelt ) 3 N+Adj ( dutyfree )

Preposition compounds: throughout

    Noteworthy Points Grammatical category

     Stress pattern

     Meaning

     Spelling

    1. What is word? 1. What is word?

    ; A unit of expression that has universal intuitive recognition by native ; A unit of expression that has universal intuitive recognition by native speakers, whether it is expressed in spoken or written form. A vague speakers, whether it is expressed in spoken or written form. A vague definition. definition.

    ; Three senses are involved in defining word, none of which is ; Three senses are involved in defining word, none of which is

    satisfactory to cope with all the situations. satisfactory to cope with all the situations.

    1.1 Three senses of word 1.1 Three senses of word

    ; A physical unit: a cluster of sound segments or letters between two ; A physical unit: a cluster of sound segments or letters between two pauses or blanks, eg pauses or blanks, eg

    ; Phonological: ; Phonological:

    It is wonderful; Orthographic: . ; Orthographic: It is wonderfu.l

    ; Three words are recognized. ; Three words are recognized.

; The common factor underlying a set of forms. The common factor underlying a set of forms. ;

     WORD is the common factor underlying a set of forms, a unit of WORD is the common factor underlying a set of forms, a unit of vocabulary, a lexical item, or a lexeme. vocabulary, a lexical item, or a lexeme.

; A grammatical unit. A grammatical unit. ;

     Word is a comparably abstract unit to be set up to show how words work Word is a comparably abstract unit to be set up to show how words work in the grammar of a language. in the grammar of a language.

     Word is a rank between morpheme and word group. Word is a rank between morpheme and word group.

1.2 Identification of words 1.2 Identification of words

    ; Stability: stable linguistic units. ; Stability: stable linguistic units.

    ; chairman, but not *manchair ; chairman, but not *manchair

    ; Relative uninterruptibility: though we recognize three components in ; Relative uninterruptibility: though we recognize three components in the word disappointment, we cannot pause and add another the word disappointmen,t we cannot pause and add another component in between, as in *disinterestappointment. component in between, as in *disinterestappointmen.t

    ; But we can add another word between words: Paul, (John) and ; But we can add another word between words: Paul, (John) and

    Mary ... Mary ...

    ; A minimum free form: the smallest unit that can constitute a complete ; A minimum free form: the smallest unit that can constitute a complete utterance by itself, eg utterance by itself, eg

    ; Is Jane coming tonight? ; Is Jane coming tonight?

    ; Possibly. ; Possibly.

    ; Hi. ; Hi.

    ; Wonderful. ; Wonderful.

    1.3 Classification of words 1.3 Classification of words

    ; Variable vs. Invariable Words: ; Variable vs. Invariable Words:

    ; Variable words: write, writes, writing, wrote, written; cat, cats. ; Variable words: write, writes, writing, wrote, written; cat, cats.

    ; Invariable words: since, when, seldom, through, etc. ; Invariable words: since, when, seldom, through, etc.

; Grammatical vs. Lexical Words: ; Grammatical vs. Lexical Words:

    ; Grammatical/Function words: conjunctions, prepositions, articles, ; Grammatical/Function words: conjunctions, prepositions, articles,

    pronouns. pronouns.

    ; Lexical/Content words: nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs. ; Lexical/Content words: nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs. ; Closed-class vs. Open-class Words: ; Closed-class vs. Open-class Words:

    ; Closed-class words: New members cannot normally be added, eg ; Closed-class words: New members cannot normally be added, eg

    pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, articles, auxiliaries. pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, articles, auxiliaries.

    ; Open-class words: New members can be added, eg nouns, verbs, ; Open-class words: New members can be added, eg nouns, verbs,

    adjectives, and adverbs. adjectives, and adverbs.

    ; Determiner: all the articles, demonstratives, and quantifiers that ; Determiner: all the articles, demonstratives, and quantifiers that appear before the noun and its modifiers. appear before the noun and its modifiers.

    ; As many as three determiners may be used in each case and there is ; As many as three determiners may be used in each case and there is

    a fixed order when there is more than one. a fixed order when there is more than one.

; *their all trouble ; *their all trouble

    ; *five the all boys ; *five the all boys

null

Abbreviation: it can be called clipping, that is a new word is created by:

     Cutting the final part advertisement

     Cutting the initial part telephone

     Cutting both the initial and final part accordingly

    refrigerator

     Acronym: EEC WTO

     Back-formation

     Borrowing

    Phonological Change

     / u: / / au /

     mus mouse

     hus house

     ut out

    Semantic Change

     Broadening

     Narrowing

     Shifting (meaning, class)

1 Bird: young bird

     Pile: heap of stone

    2 Girl: young person of either

     sex

     Deer: beast

    3 Bead: a prayer

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