Unit 4 Language Points
a) adj: created and existing only in a computer虚拟的
I can visit a virtual store and put what I want in my basket at the click of a mouse button. Some people spend too much time escaping from reality into the virtual world.
b) adj: being or acting as what is described, but not accepted as such in name or officially
almost what is stated; in fact though not in name.
Our deputy manager is the virtual head of the business.
Now that the talks have broken down, war in the region looks like a virtual certainty. The officials hear this kind of talk in virtual silence.
The king was so much under the influence of his wife that she was the virtual ruler of the country.
adv: virtually 实质上
a) understand (sth said, ordered, or done)
They are worried that the students might interpret the new regulation as a restriction of their
She interprets the dream as an unconscious desire to be young again. The gift is generally interpreted as a bribe.
She made a gesture, which he chose to interpret as an invitation. b) give or provide the meaning of, explain
How do you interpret his refusal to see us?
This dream can be interpreted in several different ways.
Poetry helps to interpret life.
The evidence is difficult to interpret.
c) translate what is said in one language to another , esp. orally.
No one in the tour group spoke Spanish so we had to ask the guide to interpret.
a particular quality or intimation of the voice
From the tone of her voice I could tell she was very angry.
(cause to) become longer, wider, etc. without breaking
My working day stretches from seven in the morning to eight at night. You are stretching my patience to limit.
My wool coat stretched when I washed it.
The child stretched the rubber band to its full extent.
a) give (sth to sb so that it may be formally considered (followed by to)
You should submit you reports to the committee.
I am going to submit an application for that job in Microsoft. Peter submitted his plans for the new town square to the local government. 2. yield (oneself); agree to obey
pattern: submit (oneself) to
Should a wife submit herself to her husband?
We should submit ourselves to discipline.
revise or correct
Jack is busy editing Shakespeare’s plays for use in schools.
John did not finish editing the annual report until the end of last month. Scholars often edit Shakespeare’s plays
a) vi. contact sb in any way, esp. by speaking to them, writing to them or calling them (followed
Many young people depend heavily on email to communicate with each other. They have been divorced for years and never communicated with each other.
We can communicate with people in most parts of the world by telephone.
Young people sometimes complain of not being able to communicate with their parents. b). vt. Make ( news, opinions, feelings, etc.) known
The radio stations communicate the storm warnings to the islanders.
She communicated her ideas to her subordinates.
8. The Internet
The worldwide network of computer links which allows computer users to connect with computers all over the world, and which carries electric mail Whether we like it or not, the Internet is an ever-growing part of our lives. You can take online courses and earn your degree via the Internet whenever and whatever you
9. At times
At times, I feel that I want to leave this job.
state of being connected
What is the relationship between language and thought?
11. Take in
a) absorb (sth) into the body by breathing or swallowing
The earth takes in heat and light from the sun.
Fish take in oxygen through their gills.
I didn’t take in what you were saying.
Don’t be taken in by her promises.
Take apart 拆开
Take back 收回！所说的或者所写的事，
Take down 记下
Take … for 把。。。视作
Take off 脱掉！衣服等，，起飞
Take on 从事
Take out 取出
Take over 接管
Take up 占据(开始从事
information, usu. In the form of facts or statistics that you can analyze The data is stored on the network and can be accessed by anybody. The data is still being analyzed, so I cannot tell you the results.
send (liquid, food, etc.) out from the month (spit sth out / at /on / onto sb/sth)
The baby spat its food onto the table.
He took one sip of the wine and spat it out.
He’s very ill and spitting (up) blood.
He angrily spat out his answer.
14. On line
Connected to or controlled by a computer (network)
Our system is on line to the main computer.
The largest online institution is the University of Phoenix, with some 1000 students today and
hope of reaching 200,000 students in 10 years.
1) sign of the existence of sth. bad
High interest rates are a symptom of a weak economy. They regard the increase in crime as a symptom of a more general decline in moral standards.
The government must not ignore these symptoms of discontent among their own supporters.
2) change in the body that indicates an illness
A cold, fever and headache are the usual symptoms of flu. If the symptoms persist, it is important to go to your doctor. A persistent cough may be a symptom of a typical pneumonia.
a terrifying dream
Watching horror films gives me nightmares.
I had a nightmare about falling off the skyscraper.
Driving through that snowstorm was a nightmare.
in a way that is opposite to sth.
$1 will buy 100 yen worth of Japanese goods. Conversely, 100 yen will buy $1 American goods. You can add the fluid to the powder or, conversely, the powder to the fluid.
18. But then
yet at the same time
The failure of China’s soccer team looks inevitable. But then, anything can happen in football. Mary performed better than the others in the final exam; but then, she spent much longer on it than they did.
The circus was not a very good one; but then, the audience was not demanding.
have a harsh or an unpleasant effect (used in the pattern: jar sth, jar on sb/sth) You shouldn’t have too many colours in a small space as the effect can jar. The loud bang jarred my nerves.
He squeaky (吱吱声) voice jarred on me.
The fall jarred every bone in my body.
The way he laughs jars on me.
20. Suck in
(usu. passive) involve (sb) in an activity, an argument, etc. usu. against their will (used in the pattern: such sb in/into sth; suck in)
I don’t want to get sucked into the debate about school reform.
Some teenagers don’t want to get involved with gangs, but they find themselves getting sucked in.
21. Keep up with
1) learn about or be aware of (the news, etc.)
Carrie likes to keep up with the latest fashions.
He did not bother to keep up with the news. His only concern was to study. 2) move at the same rate as
My salary doesn’t keep up with inflation.
He hired a tutor because he wasn’t able to keep up with the rest of the class.
22. In sight
It was early in the morning and there was not anyone in sight on campus. As the train pulled into the station my parents standing on the platform were soon in sight. No vehicle is in sight.
He is nowhere in sight.
2) likely to come soon
Two months passed, and victory was not yet in sight.
The end of the economic nightmare is still nowhere in sight. A solution to the problem of environmental pollution now seems in sight. Peace was in sight at last after four years of war.
An immediate agreement is nowhere in sight.
Lose sight of 忘记，没有考虑到
Out of sight 看不到(在视野之外
a) n. thing said or written as a comment
Mr. Smith approached us and made a couple of remarks about the weather. His rude remarks about my book jarred on me.
He closed the discussion with remark that “he who plays with fire gets burnt”
Mr. Smith approached us and made a couple of remarks about the weather. b) v. say esp. something which one has just noticed; give as an opinion A local newspaper remarked that inflation was not to be checked for the time being. His fluency with the Chinese language was remarked upon by all his Chinese colleagues.
Cf: remark & comment
I should be pleased to have your remark.
Her absence of hair could hardly escape remark.
Some comments were heard form visitors.
It became a matter of cynical comment among the neighbors.
a) of the emotions
She is grateful to him for his emotional support while she was in trouble. It is quite difficult to handle emotional problems.
2) having emotions that are easily excited
Marie got very emotional when we parted, and started to cry. It is said that the Italians are more emotional than we are. He was very emotional; he cried when I left.
anything that serves as a signal about what to do or say (followed by to/for) When he started to talk about the finances, that was our cue to get up quietly and leave.
When I nod my head, that is your cue to give flowers to him.
Mr. Clinton’s excitement was the cue for a campaign.
The time had come to say good night. At mother’s cue, we all ascended.
a fixed and regular way of doing things (often adjectival) The job is really just a dull series of fairly routine tasks. I don’t think you will take it. He established a new routine after retirement.
These two babies have different daily routines.
Please do it according to routine.
27. Rely on/upon
depend confidently on, put trust in
Nowadays we rely increasingly on computers to control the flow of traffic.
Some children relied heavily on the advice of their parents. He can always be relied upon for help.
You may rely on my early arrival.
n. a) wrong or bad use or treatment of sth/sb wrong or excessive use The World Health Organization (WHO) has published a report on drug abuse and addiction.
The abuse of power
b) cruel treatment
The abuse of the helpless prisoner made him bitter. Human rights abuses.
The policemen are making an investigation of child abuse. v. a) put to wrong use; use badly
He abused his privileges in activities outside his official capacity. He has abused my confidence in him
b)) do cruel things to (a person or animal)
I won’t allow you to abuse that dog.
The arrested men have been physically abused.
CF: abuse, misuse & mistreat
He was always abusing people when he was drunk.
The serf-owners had the right to beat, abuse or even kill the serfs at will.
He misused the idiom.
He misused his knife at the table by lifting food with it. Mistreat多用于美国英语(表示苛刻或残暴对待。例如；
The dog’s owner mistreated it terribly.
The magistrate administered a public thrashing to the landlord who had mistreated his brother.
bring back to a former condition (used in the pattern: restore sth; restore sb to sth) Law and order will be quickly restored after the incident.
Winning three games restored their confidence.
Doing sports every day restored the old man to good health.
The deposed king was restored to power.
a) prepare or plan (used in the pattern: arrange sth; arrange to do sth; arrange for sb/sth to do sth) Her marriage was arranged by her parents.
A marriage has been arranged between Mr. Brown and Miss White.
Let’s arrange to have a dinner together some time before we graduate.
I have arranged for a taxi to pick us at 8:00 a.m.
I could arrange for you to come along with us if you like.
The Tourist Bureau arranged everything for our journey to Rome.
b) put in order
I arranged the books on the shelves.
Before going away, he arranged his business affairs
31. Flee fled fled
run away (from) (used in the pattern: flee from/to; flee someplace)
The customers fled from the bank when the alarm sounded.
During the war, thousands upon thousands of Afghans fled the country. Up to five million political refugees have fled to other countries.
He killed his enemy and fled the country.
n. a) a meeting at which a journalist asks sb. questions in order to find out their news In an exclusive interview with our reporter the film star revealed some of his personal affaires. Radio interviews are generally more relaxed than television ones.
2) A formal meeting at which sb applying for a job is asked questions, as a way of judging how suitable they are
I have been asked to go for an interview for a project I applied for at Harvard University. She has had a couple of jot interviews, but no offers.
v. ask questions of (somebody) in an interview
As a journalist, he interviewed many government officials.
After the press conference, the journalist interviewed the UN Secretary General about the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
I will be interviewed next week for the chief executive’s job.
Job interviews ！对申请工作者的，面试
Have an interview with 会见
Give an interview to 接见
n. 1) agreement to meet or visit sb. At a particular time (followed by with) You can’t see the president of the university unless you make an appointment. I have an appointment with my dentist at 3 p.m.
2) choosing of someone for a position or job.
John took the appointment as director.
press or release a mouse button rapidly, as to select an icon (followed by on) When shopping online, you just click the mouse and order what you want to buy.
a series of musical notes that is pleasant and easy to remember She whistled a happy tune all the way home.
He was humming a merry tune while cooking.