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Road to revolution

By Sherry Dunn,2014-03-31 06:51
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the jistory of amercian revolution

Road to revolution

    13 Original Colonies

    Why Were Colonists Angry?

    Unfair Taxation

    Lack of Representation

    Self-Government vs. British Rule

    Quartering of British Troops

    Liberty or Loyalty

    Liberty - Freedom to make your own laws

    Refusal to pay taxes not agreed upon by colonists

    Representation -Having someone to act and speak for you.

British Impositions and Colonial Resistance, 17631770

    After the French and Indian War, Britain was the premier colonial power in North America.

    The Treaty of Paris (1763) more than doubled British territories in North America and eliminated the French as a threat.

    While British power seemed more secure than ever, there were signs of trouble brewing in the colonies. The main problem concerned British finances. British Impositions and Colonial Resistance, 17631770

    The British government now had a massive debt from fighting in the French and Indian War, and now looked to the American colonies to help pay it. King George III noted that the colonists had benefited most from the expensive war and yet had paid very little compared to citizens living in England. Parliament passed a series of acts to get money from the colonies. Angry colonists did not like such tight control after years of relative independence.

    Unfair Taxation

    Taxes: Money paid by people to run

    the country

    The British were imposing more and higher taxes on the colonists to offset expenses of the French and Indian War.

Sugar Act and Stamp Act

    Sugar Act

    Passed in 1764

    Said that colonists must pay a tax on many goods coming into the colonies from other places

    This meant that when colonists purchased a pound

    of sugar, or any other item imported from Europe,

    they had to pay an extra amount in addition to the

    item’s price. (tariff)

    Tariff: Tax on goods brought into a country

    To counter smuggling of foreign sugar and to establish a British monopoly in the

    American sugar market.

    Allowed royal officials to seize colonial cargo with little or no legal cause. Was designed to benefit England at the expense of the American colonists.

Stamp Act

    Tax imposed on almost anything written or

    printed on paper in the colonies, from

    newspapers to playing cards

    A special stamp had to be applied to show

    that the tax had been paid.

    Violators faced juryless trials where guilt was presumed until innocence was proven. Aimed at raising revenue from the colonists

    In the colonies, legal pamphlets circulated condemning the act on the grounds that it was “taxation without representation.”

     “Taxation Without Representation”

    Colonists believed they should not have to pay Parliamentary taxes because they did

not elect any members of Parliament.

    They argued that they should be able to determine their own taxes independent of Parliament.

    Prime Minister Grenville retorted that Americans were obliged to pay Parliamentary taxes because they shared the same status as many British males who did not have enough property to be granted the vote

    Opposition to the Stamp Act

    The Stamp Act generated the first wave of significant colonial resistance to British rule.

    In 1765, many colonies passed their own legislation which denied Parliament’s right to tax the colonies under the Stamp Act.

    As dissent spread through the colonies, it quickly became more organized.

Opposition to the Stamp Act

    Radical groups calling themselves the Sons of Liberty formed throughout the

    colonies to channel the widespread violence, often burning stamps and threatening British officials.

    They boycotted British goods.

    With their economy slumping because of the American boycott of British goods, Parliament repealed the Stamp Act in March 1766.

    Townshend Duties and Boston Massacre

    The Townshend Duties

    In 1767, there were tax cuts for wealthy landowners in Britain

    The British treasury was short ?500,000 from the previous year

    Charles Townshend proposed taxing imports into the American colonies to recover Parliament’s lost revenue, and secured passage of the Revenue Act of 1767.

The Townshend Duties

    Known as the Townshend Duties, the Revenue Act taxed glass, lead, paint, paper,

    and tea entering the colonies.

    In practice, however, the Townshend Duties yielded little income for the British; the

taxes on tea brought in the only significant revenue.

Opposition to the Townshend Duties

    Didn’t raise a lot of money

    Made a lot of colonists angry

    Protest against the taxes first took the form of intellectual and legal dissents and soon erupted in violence.

    Quartering British Troops

    In 1768, 1,700 British troops landed in Boston to stem further violence, and the following year passed relatively peacefully.

    Colonists were required to quarter - pay for food and housing - for British troops

    serving in the colonies

    The British soldiers could search the colonists’ homes whenever they liked

    The colonists could not keep weapons in their homes

Boston Massacre

    On March 5, 1770, a group of schoolboys were making fun of a British guard. Soon, the boys were joined by others who began to call names and throw snowballs at the guard. When the guard called for help, a group of British soldiers came. A British musket fired, then more shots were fired into the crowd and over their heads. When the shooting was over, five colonists were dead and many more were wounded.

End of the Townshend Duties

    Parliament finally repealed most of the Townshend Duties in March 1770 Eliminated most of the taxes but insisted on maintaining the profitable tax on tea In response, Americans stopped most boycotts except on British tea. Boston Tea Party and the Intolerable Acts

    First Hand Account of Boston Tea Party

    The Tea Act

    The British East India Company suffered from the American boycott of British tea

To save the company, Parliament passed the Tea Act in 1773, which lowered the

    price of British tea to below that of smuggled tea

    Parliament planned to use the profits from tea sales to pay the salaries of the colonial royal governors, which angered colonists

The Boston Tea Party

    Common protests of the Tea Act included tea boycotts and the burning of tea cargos The response in Boston was most aggressive.

    In December 1773, a group of colonists dressed as Native Americans dumped about $70,000 worth of the tea into Boston Harbor. This event, known as the Boston Tea

    Party, took on an epic status.

The Intolerable Acts

    Parliament responded swiftly and angrily to the Tea Party with a string of legislation that came to be known as the Intolerable Acts.

    The Intolerable Acts included the four Coercive Acts of 1773 and the Quebec Act.

The Coercive Acts

    Closed Boston Harbor to trade until the city paid for the lost tea. Removed certain democratic elements of the Massachusetts government, most notably by making formerly elected positions appointed by the crown. Restricted town meetings, requiring that their agenda be approved by the royal governor

    Declared that any royal agent charged with murder in the colonies would be tried in Britain.

    Instated the Quartering Act, forcing civilians to house and support British soldiers The Quebec Act

    Unrelated to the Coercive Acts but just as offensive to the colonist Established Roman Catholicism as Quebec’s official religion

    Gave Quebec’s royal governors wide powers

    Extended Quebec’s borders south to the Ohio River and west to the Mississippi, thereby inhibiting westward expansion of the colonies

The Intolerable Acts

    The colonists saw the Intolerable Acts as a British plan reduce their ability to organize and protest.

    The acts not only imposed a heavy military presence in the colonies, but also, in the colonists’ minds, effectively authorized the military to murder colonists without punishment

The First Continental Congress

    In September 1774 the Committees of Correspondence of every colony except Georgia sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.

    The Congress declared that the colonies need not obey the Coercive Acts since they infringed upon basic liberties.

    The delegates voted for an organized boycott of British imports and sent a petition to King George III, which said Parliament had the power to regulate goods but objected to its random taxation and denial of fair trials to colonists.

    Preparing for possible British retaliation, the delegates also called upon all colonies to raise and train local militias.

    By the spring of 1775, colonists had established provincial congresses to enforce the decrees of the Continental Congress.

    The power of these congresses rivaled that of the colonial governors.

Lexington and Concord

    In April 1775, colonial minutemen met and exchanged fire with British soldiers

    attempting to seize a supply stockpile in Concord, a town near Boston. The first confrontation came in Lexington, just east of Concord.

    Once in Concord, the British troops faced a much larger colonial force.

Lexington and Concord

    In the skirmish, the British lost 273 men and were driven back into Boston.

    The Battle of Lexington and Concord convinced many colonists to take up arms. The next night, 20,000 New England troops began a month-long siege of the British garrison in Boston.

Midnight Ride of Paul Revere

    Silversmith

    Night-time messenger on horseback just before the battles of Lexington and Concord.

    His famous "Midnight Ride" occurred on the night of April 18/April 19, 1775, when he and William Dawes were instructed to ride from Boston to Lexington to warn John Hancock and Samuel Adams of the movements of the British Army.

    Revere had instructed a man in the church to send a signal by lantern to colonists in Charlestown about the movements of the troops

    One lantern in the steeple would signal the army's choice of the land route Two lanterns would signal the route "by water" across the Charles River Midnight Ride of Paul Revere

    The warning delivered by the three riders successfully allowed the militia to repel the British troops in Concord, who were harried by guerrilla fire along the road back to Boston

    Midnight Ride of Paul Revere

    Subject of the famous poem “Paul Revere’s Ride” by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in 1861

     Listen, my children, and you shall hear

     Of the midnight ride of Paul Revere,

     On the eighteenth of April, in Seventy-Five;

     Hardly a man is now alive

     Who remembers that famous day and year

Battle of Bunker Hill

    In June of 1775, the English attacked the colonial stronghold outside Boston in the Battle of Bunker Hill.

    The English Redcoats successfully dislodged the colonials from the hillside

    stronghold, but lost 1,154 men in contrast to the 311 colonial casualties.

Attempted Reconciliation

    In May 1775, as violence broke out all over New England, the Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia.

    Congress was split.

    New England delegates urged independence from Britain.

    Other delegates, mostly those from the Middle Colonies, favored a more moderate course of action.

    Olive Branch Petition

    This faction, led by John Dickinson penned the Olive Branch Petition, offering peace under the following conditions:

    A cease-fire in Boston

    The Coercive Acts be repealed

    Negotiations between the colonists and Britain commence immediately

Olive Branch Petition

    The Olive Branch Petition reached Britain the same day as news of the Battle of Bunker Hill.

    King George III rejected reconciliation and declared New England to be in a state of rebellion in August 1775.

The Declaration of Independence

    In June 1775, the Second Continental Congress elected George Washington

    commander in chief of the newly established American Continental Army In January 1776, Thomas Paine’s pamphlet, Common Sense, was published and

    widely distributed.

    Paine called for economic and political independence, and proposed that America become a new kind of nation founded on the principles of liberty.

The Declaration of Independence

    By May 1776, Rhode Island had declared its independence and New England was deep in rebellion.

    In June, the Second Continental Congress adopted a resolution of independence, officially creating the United States of America.

    Thomas Jefferson’s draft of the Declaration of Independence was officially

    approved on July 4.

    The Declaration of Independence proclaimed a complete and irrevocable break from England, arguing that the British government had broken its contract with the colonies.

    It had the virtues of democratic self-government, and promoted equality, liberty, justice, and self-fulfillment.

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