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Lama Temple

By Ashley Morgan,2014-03-28 22:20
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Lama Temple

    Lama Temple (Yonghegong)

    This Lama Temple was built as a mansion宅第 for Emperor Yongzheng in the Qing

    Dynasty when he was a prince. In 1744, the temple was converted修改的 into a lamasery喇嘛庙

    and the home of larger numbers of monks from Mongolia and Tibet. The lamasery has five halls. The prayer halls contain many superb statues including the 23-meter-high Maitreya弥勒佛, caved

    from a white sandalwood 檀香tree brought from Tibet, as well as Tibetan sculptures and a great copper['kɔpə]铜的 cauldron. ['kɔ:ldrən]大锅

    Yonghegong The Lama Temple is a famous lamasery located in the northeastern part of the old city of Beijing.It was a palatial宏伟的 residence住宅 built in 1694 by Qing Emperor

    Kangxi for his fourth son Prince Yongzheng who later succeeded to the throne[θrəun]

     This magnificent宏伟的 temple consists of five main buildings lying on the northsouth

    axis with annex'[æneks] 附属 halls standing on both sides The temple is listed by the

    Chinese Government as one of the important historical monuments遗迹 under special

    preservation After the death of his father Emperor Yongzheng moved to the Forbidden

    City The compound was closed to ordinary people and was renamed yonghegong the Palace of

    Harmony?, Green roof tiles屋顶瓦片 were replaced by yellow ones to suit a monarch's ['mɔnək]

    君主home In 1744 his successor继承者 Emperor Qianlong converted the palace into a lamasery

    Several renovations革新 修理 have been carried out since 1949The temple has taken on a

    new look and was reopened to the public in 1981It is now not only a functional功能的 lama

    temple but also a tourist attraction

    Of interest to visitors in the Lama Temple are the 18metrehigh Maitreya statue engraved

    雕刻from a 26metrelong white sandalwood log圆木, "the Five hundred Arhats Hill"

    made of gold silver copper iron and tin锡, and the niche[ni:ʃ, nitʃ]壁龛 carved out of

    nanmu this kind of Phoebe['fi:bi:] nanmu can give off a unusual scent气味 reputed to被认

     Repel抵制 mosquitoes in summer?, These three objects are accredited[ə'kreditid] 公认的

    as the three matchless无比的 masterpieces杰作 in the Lama Temple

    The Yonghe Temple , also known as the "Palace of Peace and Harmony Lama Temple", the "Yonghe Lamasery", or - popularly - the "Lama Temple" is a temple and monastery['mɔnəstəri]

    修道院 of the Geluk 格鲁派School of Tibetan Buddhism located in the northeastern part of Beijing, China. It is one of the largest and most important Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in the

    world. The building and the artworks of the temple combine Han Chinese and Tibetan styles. History

    Building work on the Yonghegong Temple started in 1694 during the Qing Dynasty. It originally served as an official residence官社 for court eunuchs['ju:nək]宦官. It was then converted into

    the court of the Prince Yong (Yin Zhen), a son of the Kangxi Emperor and himself the future Yongzheng Emperor. After Yongzheng's ascension上升 to the throne in 1722, half of the

    building was converted into a lamasery, a monastery for monks of Tibetan Buddhism. The other half remained an imperial palace.皇城

After Yongzheng's death in 1735, his coffin['kɔfin] 棺材 was placed in the temple. The

    Qianlong Emperor, Yongzheng's successor, gave the temple imperial status signified表明 by

    having its turquoise['tə:kwɔiz, -kwɑ:z] 蓝绿色的 tiles replaced with yellow tiles which were

    reserved for the emperor. Subsequently随后, the monastery became a residence for large numbers

    of Tibetan Buddhist monks from Mongolia and Tibet, and so the Yonghe Lamasery became the national centre of Lama administration行政机构

    The temple is said to have survived the Cultural Revolution 文化大革命due to the intervention

    介入of Prime Minister总理 Zhou Enlai. It was reopened to the public in 1981.

    Formerly an imperial palace, later converted into a Tibetan Buddhist monastery, the Lama Temple is one of Beijing's most famous monasteries.

    The Yonghe Temple is arranged安排 along a north-south central axis中轴线, which has a length

    of 480m. The main gate is at the southern end of this axis. Along the axis, there are five main halls which are separated by courtyards: the Hall of the Heavenly Kings (Tian Wang Dian or Devaraja Hall), the Hall of Harmony and Peace (Yonghegong), the Hall of Everlasting永恒的 Protection

    (Yongyoudian), the Hall of the Wheel of the Law (Falundian), and the Pavilion of Ten Thousand Happinesses (Wanfuge). The Hall of the Heavenly Kings is the southernmost of the main halls, it served originally as the main entrance to the monastery. In the center of the hall stands a statue of the Maitreya Buddha, along the walls statues of the four Heavenly Kings are arranged. The Hall of Harmony and Peace is the main building of the temple. It houses three bronze[brɔnz]

    青铜的 statues of the Buddhas of the Three Ages, the statue of the Gautama['ɡautəmə] 释迦摩

     Buddha (Buddha of the Present) is in the center, it is flanked 在左右两边by the statue of

    Kasyapa Matanga药师佛 (Buddha of the Past, right) and the Maitreya Buddha (Buddha of the Future, left). Along the sides of两边的 the hall, the statues of the 18 Arhats are placed. A mural 壁画in the hall shows the bodhisattva[,bəudi'sʌtvə]菩萨 Avalokitesvara.观世音菩萨

    The Hall of Everlasting Protection was Emperor Yongzheng's living quarters住处 as a prince and

    the place where his coffin was placed after his death. Today, a statue of the Bhaisajya-guru药师佛

    (healing Buddha) stands in this hall.

    The Hall of the Wheel of the Law functions as a place for reading scriptures经文 and conducting

    执行 religious ceremonies. It contains a large statue of Je Tsongkhapa宗喀巴, founder of the

    Geluk Schoo格鲁派l. The hall also contains the Five-Hundred-Arhat-Hill, a carving made of red sandalwood with statues of the arhats made from five different metals (gold, silver, copper, iron, and tin).

    The Pavilion of Ten Thousand Happinesses contains a 26m tall statue of the Maitreya Buddha carved from a single piece of White Sandalwood. The statue is one of three artworks in the Temple which were included in the Guinness Book of Records in 1993.

    Location

    The Yonghe Temple is located in Beijing's Dongcheng District, near the northeastern corner of the Second Ring Road二环路. Lines 2 and 5 of the Beijing Subway both stop at Yonghegong, as do a number of city buses. The postal address is: 12 Yonghegong Dajie, Beixinqiao, Dongcheng District, Beijing.

    Further reading

    ; Lessing, Ferdinand, and Gösta Montell. Yung-Ho-Kung, an Iconography of the Lamaist

    Cathedral in Peking: With Notes on Lamaist Mythology and Cult. Stockholm: 1942. Lama Temple (Yonghe Temple; Yonghe Lamasery) is the largest and best-preserved lamasery in Beijing. It was built in 1694 during the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) as the residence of the Emperor Yongzheng (the third emperor of the Qing Dynasty) before he ascended the throne. In the year 1744, the residence was completely converted into a lamasery. So this resplendent architectural complex is endowed with the style of an imperial palace, making it distinctive from others. It occupies an area of 66,400 square meters (16 acres) and is described as a mini-palace with yellow glazed tiles on the roof and red walls circling the group of buildings.

    As a result of the ancient architecture, every element of the temple is entirely symmetrical, with main halls on a north-south axis and wing halls on both sides. It comprises of a courtyard in the south and five main halls in separate courtyards in the north: the Hall of the Heavenly Kings, the Hall of Harmony and Peace, the Hall of Everlasting Blessings, the Hall of the Dharma Wheel and the Pavilion of Infinite Happiness. Furthermore, this splendid temple combines various architectural styles of the Han, the Manchu, the Mongolian and the Tibetan.

    South Courtyard: In the south courtyard, a large wall screen and three tall Pailous (Pailou: a form of Chinese traditional buildings) herald the entrance to the building. After walking through the imperial passageway, you will reach the Zhaotai Gate which is the entrance to the north yard. A drum tower in the west and a bell tower stand solemnly as though greeting visitors.

    Hall of the Heavenly Kings: The Hall of the Heavenly Kings is actually no more than

    an entrance to the other four main halls. The corners of the hall are hung with Sanskrit

    bells and mantras are written on the lintels of the doors, which lends a religious

    atmosphere to the hall. The Hall of the Heavenly Kings is so called because Four

    Heavenly Kings are enshrined in the hall. At the center is a statue of Maitreya who is

    beaming with a kindly smile and sitting with his legs crossed.

    Hall of Harmony and Peace: On stepping out of the Hall of the Heavenly Kings you

    will see a courtyard. The courtyard is centered on the Hall of Harmony and Peace and

    has four wing halls. The Hall of Harmony and Peace is laid with statues of three

    Buddahas: Sakyamuni (Buddha of the Present), Kasyapa Matanga (Buddha of the

    Past) and Maitreya Buddha (Buddha of the Future). Just in front of the hall, a stramonium hill is both a precious art treasure and a holy thing of Buddhism. The four wing halls are where lamas study the Esoteric Buddhism, Exoteric Buddhism, Tibetan medicine, astronomy and geography. A copper cooking vessel made in 1747 in the courtyard is reputed as one of the 'three rarest objects in Beijing'.

    Hall of Everlasting Blessings: The Hall of Everlasting Blessings in the adjacent courtyard was the residence of Emperor Yongzhen when he was still a prince. The Amitabha (Infinite Life Buddha), the Medicine Buddha, and the Lion Buddha are positioned in the hall. Two depictions of White Tara and Green Tara respectively are hanged along the sides of the wall; the picture of Green Tara is quite unusual as it is made of over 4,000 pieces of silk of different shapes and colors.

    Hall of the Dharma Wheel: The Hall of the Dharma Wheel is where lamas hold ceremonies and read sutra. The hall houses a statue of Tsong Khapa, the father of the Yellow Hat Sect of Tibetan Buddhism. Behind the statue, there is an exquisite woodcarving in a shape of hill which has 449 statues of Arhats (originally 500 statues). A fine mural on the wall gives a detailed account of the whole life of Sakyamuni. Also displayed here are some Buddhist scriptures, the Gangyur of Tripitaka included. In the assistant halls five Heavenly Guardians are enshrined.

Pavilion of Infinite Happiness: The Pavilion of

    Infinite Happiness, the last main hall, is the

    highest hall of this temple. It is a three-storey

    building, accompanied by two smaller pavilions.

    In the main hall, a huge statue of Maitreya is

    positioned which the seventh Dalai presented to

    the Emperor Qianlong, the son of Emperor

    Yongzheng. The entire statue which is carved

    from a rare sandal tree is 26 meters (85 feet) in

    height and eight meters (26 feet) in diameter, with eight meters (26 feet) buried under the ground. A niche for Buddha in the assistant hall is another excellent woodcarving which is carved with ninety-nine lifelike dragons.

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