Advanced Accounting

By Ronald Daniels,2014-11-22 17:08
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Advanced Accounting

    Accounting 401

    Advanced Accounting

    Foreign Currency Transactions

    Summer I 2009

    A. Introduction

    1. In most countries, a country’s currency is treated much like a

    commodity or money market instrument.

    2. In the United States, foreign currencies are bought and sold by the

    international banking departments of commercial banks.

    3. The buying and selling of foreign currencies result in variations in the

    exchange rate between the currencies of two countries. For example,

    suppose the exchange rates for the British pound are:

    Foreign Currency in Dollars in Foreign

     U.S. Dollars Currency

     $1.572 0.636

    Thus, 1 British pound could be exchanged for about $1.50; while $1

    could be exchanged for about .64 British pounds. Note that the two

    exchange rates are reciprocals (1/0.636 = 1.572 or 1/1.572 = 0.636). 4. Since our perspective will be from the U.S. company records, we will

    use direct exchange rates to convert to U.S. dollars. For example,

    suppose a contract indicates 152,000 British pounds. Using the

    exchange rate given above, the conversion is made by multiplying

    152,000 by $1.572 to arrive at $238,934.

    5. Factors that affect fluctuations in exchange rates include a country’s

    balance of payments surplus or deficit, global rates of inflation, money

    market variations (such as interest rates) in the individual countries,

    capital investment levels, and the monetary actions of central banks of

    various countries.

    B. Foreign Currency Transactions

    1. Transactions are usually measured and recorded in terms of the

    currency in which the reporting entity prepares its financial statements.

    This currency is usually the domestic currency or reporting currency.

    2. Assets and liabilities are denominated in a currency if their amounts

    are fixed in terms of that currency. Therefore, it is possible to have

    transactions measured in U.S. dollars but denominated in a foreign

    currency such as French francs.

    3. If a transaction between two U.S. companies requires payment of a

    fixed number of U.S. dollars, the accounts are both measured and

    denominated in U.S. dollars.

    4. With a transaction between a U.S. company and a foreign company,

    the parties usually negotiate whether settlement is in U.S. dollars or in

    the domestic currency of the foreign company. If settled in the foreign

    currency, the U.S. company will measure the receivable or payable in

    U.S. dollars, but the transaction will be denominated in the specified

    foreign currency. This situation is referred to as a foreign currency

    transaction. Exchange gains or losses will result. If unsettled at the

    end of the year, an unrealized exchange gain or loss should be

    recognized to show the change in exchange rates from the transaction

    date to the end of the period. To the foreign company, the transaction

    is both measured and denominated in its domestic currency. Thus, the

    transaction is a foreign transaction but not a foreign currency


    5. If a transaction is measured and denominated in U.S. dollars, no

    exchange gain or loss will result.

    6. Exchange gains or losses are handled by an approach known as the

    two-transaction approach. Under this approach, the initial foreign

    currency transaction is one transaction, while any exchange gains or

    losses that result from exchange rate changes are a second transaction.

    C. Forward Exchange Contracts

    1. A forward exchange contract is an agreement with a foreign currency

    dealer to exchange different currencies at some future date at a

    specified exchange rate. Forward exchange rates may be larger or

    smaller than spot exchange rates for a foreign currency depending

    upon the foreign currency dealer’s expectations about exchange rate


    2. Forward exchange contracts are used to hedge or neutralize the effects

    of changing exchange rates.

    3. Most forward exchange contracts are for 30 to 180 days. However,

    they are usually available for any time period up to 12 months. 4. If the forward exchange rate is greater than the spot exchange rate, the

    difference is referred to as a premium (the foreign currency is selling

    at a premium in the forward market). If the spot exchange rate

    exceeds the forward exchange rate, the difference is referred to as a


    5. Premiums or discounts are usually amortized by the straight-line

    method over the term of the forward contract and the amortized

    amount is reported as a financial expense or revenue.

    D. Illustration Export Transaction

    1. Suppose Amanda Company (of the U.S.) sells inventory to Tea and

    Crumpets, Inc. of Great Britain for 50,000 British pounds. The

    transaction occurs on March 1, 20X4 and will be settled on June 1,

    20X4. Amanda uses a periodic inventory system. On March 1, 20X4,

    the British pound is worth $1.55 and on June 1, 20X4, it is worth $1.48.

    2. Amanda Company entries would be:

    March 1, 20X4

    Accounts receivable 77,500

     Sales 77,500

June 1, 20X4

    Cash 74,000

    Exchange loss 3,500

     Accounts receivable 77,500

    The decrease in the value of the British pound from $1.55 to $1.48 results in an exchange loss to the U.S. company since the pounds it receives are worth less than they were at the transaction date ($1.55 - $1.48) X 50,000 pounds = 3,500 loss.

    3. Suppose U.S. company purchases goods from a British company on October 1, 20X4, for 3,500 British pounds. Payment for the goods is due on March 1, 20X5. On October 1, 20X4, the exchange rate is 1 pound = $1.50. On December 31, 20X4, the exchange rate is $1.48 and on March 1, 20X5, the exchange rate is $1.53.

    U.S. company entries:

    October 1, 20X4

    Inventory 5,250

     Accounts payable 5,250

December 31, 20X4

    Accounts payable 70

     Exchange gain 70

March 1, 20X5

    Accounts payable 5,180

    Exchange loss 175

     Cash 5,355

    Note that the year 20X4 will show a $70 exchange gain, while the year 20X5 shows an exchange loss of $175. The net exchange loss of $105 is allocated between the years as required by accrual accounting.

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