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Glossary of Agricultural and Behavioral Health Terms

By Steve Barnes,2014-06-27 10:29
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Glossary of Agricultural and Behavioral Health Terms ...

Glossary of Agricultural and Behavioral Health Terms

    thAgriWellness, Inc., 1210 7 Street, Suite C, Harlan, IA 51537 Telephone 712-235-6100

    Email info@agriwellness.com Website http://www.agriwellness.org

Some of the definitions in this glossary were extracted from the Chicago Board of

    Trade Commodity Trading Manual, available on their website:

    www.cbot.com. Other definitions were obtained from literature provided by the

    USDA Farm Service Agency. Still other definitions were devised by staff of

    AgriWellness, Inc. and are copyrighted.

    Suggestions for additional terms for this glossary are welcome.

    Agricultural Population? The agricultural population includes producers of food and fiber, including farmers, ranchers, farm workers, fishers, persons

    involved in lumber production, any other persons whose economic livelihood

    depends substantially on agriculture and the families of all these persons.

    Agrology The scientific study of soils, as they contribute to the production of

    crops.

    Agricology The science of agriculture; this term is used mainly in Canada,

    Australia and Britain.

    Agronomy The scientific study of crop production and usage for food, fuel,

    feed and fiber.

    AI - Artificial Insemination involves the fertilization of ova in an animal such as a

    cow by introducing sperm which has been collected from the male of the species

    and which is deposited through a tube into the uterus by a trained technician or

    farmer.

    Barrow - A male pig that has been castrated.

    Basis - The difference between the current cash price and the future price of the

    same commodity. Unless otherwise specified, the price of the nearby futures

    contract month is generally used to calculate the basis.

    Broker - A company or individual that executes futures and options orders on

    behalf of financial and commercial institutions and/or the general public.

    Buck - Although buck has many other meanings, in agriculture buck refers to a

    male deer, goat, sheep or rabbit.

    Buffer Strip - Also known as a filter strip, a buffer strip is vegetation, usually grasses, which is planted alongside streams and varying in width from 30 to 100'

    or more, to help curtail fertilizer, pesticides, manure and other undesirable

    substances from readily flowing into waterways.

    Buying Hedge - Buying futures contracts to protect against a possible price increase of cash commodities that will be purchased in the future. At the time the

    cash commodities are bought, the open futures position is closed by selling an

    equal number and type of futures contracts as those that were initially purchased.

    CAFO - Confined Animal Feeding Operation, also known as concentrated or

    consolidated animal feeding operation; CAFOs produce livestock in confinement

    buildings or feedlots.

    Call Option - An option that gives the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to purchase the underlying futures contract at the strike price on or before the

    expiration date.

    Carryover - Grain (e.g., wheat) and oilseed commodities (e.g., soybeans) not consumed during the market year and remaining in storage at year's end. These

    stocks are "carried over" into the next marketing year and added to the stocks

    produced during that crop year.

    Cash Contract - Contract for the purchase of grain, usually from producers, by brokers or elevators guaranteeing a specific number of bushels.

    Commodity - An article of commerce or a product that can be used for commerce. In a narrow sense, products traded on an authorized commodity

    exchange. The types of commodities include agricultural products, metals,

    petroleum, foreign currencies, and financial instruments, to name a few.

    Commodity Credit Corp. (CCC) - A branch of the U.S. Department of

    Agriculture, established in 1933, that supervises the government's farm loan and

    subsidy programs.

    Cow - A bovine that has given birth to at least one calf.

    Cow-calf Operation - The production of cattle or beef with a herd of cows which

    are bred and produce calves. Usually the calves are sold to a feedlot operator

    for fattening.

    CRP - Conservation Reserve Program offered by the United States Department

    of Agriculture (USDA), which involves planting land that is subject to erosion or

    along waterways such as creeks and rivers in prairie grasses and other approved

    crops which are not harvested; the CRP program is a minimal 10-year program

which pays the farmer incentives to keep the land out of production and in

    compliance with approved conservation practices.

    Dam Although dam has many other meanings, in livestock production the dam refers to the mother of an animal.

    Doe - Although doe has many other meanings, in agriculture doe refers to a

    female deer, goat or rabbit.

    EPS's - Expected Progeny Differences are statistical calculations of

    improvements or deductions contributed by a sire to his offspring in comparison

    to the breed average. For example, a bull with a yearling weight of +5 produces

    calves which weigh five pound heavier on average than all other known calves

    sired by other bulls of the same breed at precisely one year (365 days) of age.

    Ewe - A female sheep that has given birth at least once.

    Ewe Lamb - A young female sheep that has not yet given birth. Farrow - A term which refers to the birthing process of pigs. Farrow-to-Finish Operation - The production of swine which involves

    maintaining a herd of sows to produce pigs, which are then raised to market size

    and sold by the same farm.

    Filly - A female horse that has not given birth to a colt.

    Forward (Cash) Contract - A cash contract in which a seller agrees to deliver a

    specific cash commodity to a buyer sometimes in the future. Forward contracts,

    in contrast to futures contracts, are privately negotiated and re not standardized.

    FSA - Farm Service Agency offices operated by the USDA to assist farmers with

    federal government programs such as crop insurance, incentives to install

    conservation practices such as terraces and filter strips along waterways, the

    Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and other federal programs.

    Futures Contract - A legally binding agreement, made on the trading floor of a

    futures exchange, to buy or sell a commodity or financial instrument sometime in

    the future. Futures contracts are standardized according to the quality, quantity

    and delivery time and location for each commodity. The only variable is price,

    which is discovered on an exchange trading floor.

    Gelding A male horse that has been castrated. Gilt - A female pig that has not yet given birth to piglets.

GMO - Genetically Modified Organisms. A genetically modified organism is an

    organism such as plant or animal, with an artificially modified genetic make-up.

    Greensnap - A condition in which corn stalks break, due to high wind, when the

    corn plant is growing very quickly and is immature and vulnerable, usually around

    the time of pollination.

    Hedging - The practice of offsetting the price risk inherent in any cash market position by taking an equal but opposite position in the futures market. Hedgers

    use the futures markets to protect their business from adverse price

    changes. Selling (Short) Hedge - Selling futures contracts to protect against

    possible declining prices of commodities that will be sold in the future. At the

    time the cash commodities are sold, the open futures position is closed by

    purchasing an equal number and type of futures contracts as those are initially

    sold. Purchasing (Long) Hedge - Buyer futures contracts to protect against a

    possible price increase of cash commodities that will be purchased in the

    future. At the time the cash commodities are bought, the open futures position is

    closed by selling an equal number and type of futures contracts as those that

    were initially purchased. Also referred to as a buying hedge.

    Heifer - A female bovine that has not yet given birth to a calf. LDP - Loan Deficiency Payment, which is the difference between the county loan

    rate set by the USDA and the posted county price of the crop. These may

    change on a daily basis. The Commodity Credit Corporation may pay this to the

    farmer for the bushels of grain that have been produced and before they are sold

    in order to guaranteed a minimal price for the commodity, such as corn.

    Loan Rate - The amount lent per unit of a commodity, such as bushels of corn,

    to farmers, usually by the Commodity Credit Corporation.

    Long Hedge - Buyer futures contracts to protect against a possible price

    increase of cash commodities that will be purchased in the future. At the same

    time the cash commodities are bought, the open futures contracts as those that

    were initially purchased. Also referred to as a buying hedge.

    Mare - A female horse that has given birth to at least one colt. Margin - Financial safeguards to ensure that clearing members (usually companies or corporations) perform on their customers' open futures and options

    contracts. Clearing margins are distinct from customer margins that individual

    buyers and sellers of futures and options contracts are required to deposit with

    brokers. Within the futures industry, financial guarantees are required of both

    buyers and sellers of futures contracts and sellers of options contracts to ensure

    fulfilling of contract obligations. Margins are determined on the basis of market

    risk and contract value. Also referred to as performance-bond margin.

    Margin Call - A call from a clearinghouse to a clearing member, or from a brokerage firm to a customer, to bring margin deposits up to a required minimum

    level.

    Monopoly - Exclusive control of a commodity or service by sellers which makes possible the fixing of prices and the virtual elimination of free

    competition. Usually monopoly results in unfairly high prices demanded by the

    seller(s).

    Monopsony - Exclusive control of a commodity or service by buyers which lead to control of the market and the fixing of prices by virtual elimination of free

    competition from other buyers. Usually monopsony results in unfairly low prices

    paid by the buyer(s).

    Option - A contract that conveys the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell a

    particular item at a certain price for a limited time. Only the seller of the option is

    obligated to perform.

    Put Option - An option that gives the option buyer the right but not the obligation to sell (go "short) the underlying futures contract at the strike price on or before

    the expiration date.

    Scours - Diarrhea in livestock caused by an intestinal infection.

    Shipping Fever - A respiratory disease of cattle involving coughing, nasal discharge and general malaise which is usually spread during the shipment of

    livestock.

    Short Hedge - Selling futures contracts to protect against possible declining prices of commodities that will be sold in the future. At the same time the cash

    commodities are sold, the open futures position is closed by purchasing an equal

    number and type of futures contracts as those that were initially sold.

    Sire In livestock production a sire is the father of an animal.

    Spread - The price difference between two related markets or commodities.

    Stallion or Stud - A male horse, usually of sufficient maturity to successfully

    breed a female horse.

    Steer - A male bovine that has been castrated.

    Strike Price - The price at which the futures contract underlying a call or put option can be purchased (if a call) or sold (if a put). Also referred to as exercise

    price.

Yearling - An animal such as a bovine or horse that is approximately one year

    old and not yet mature.

    Behavioral Health Terms Addictions Counselor - May be trained at the bachelors, masters or doctoral levels, usually in counseling, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of addictions,

    such as substance abuse (drug abuse, alcohol abuse, abuse of prescribed

    medications) and gambling. Certified addictions counselors may diagnose and

    treat addictions.

    Advanced Registered Nurse Practitioner Nurses who have completed a

    master’s degree in an area of specialization such as midwifery, family medicine,

    psychiatric nursing, and who in some states, and with proper training, may be

    licensed to prescribe psychotropic medications.

    Agrarian Imperative? - The agrarian imperative is a purposeful drive to acquire the territory and resources necessary to undertake agricultural activities that lead

    to the production of essentials for life: food, fiber and renewable energy. The

    agrarian imperative is a basic human instinct.

    Agricultural Behavioral Health? The field of health involving the behavioral

    healthcare of the agricultural population. Agricultural behavioral health entails

    understanding the cultures of farmers, ranchers and others involved in the

    production of food and fiber. Agricultural behavioral health requires

    understanding the unique behavioral health issues of agricultural people and

    methods of restoring maladjusted behaviors to wellness.

    Authorization - Written permission to authorized the release of information that

    is otherwise usually confidential to specific individuals and/or agencies, for a

    specific purpose and timeframe (i.e., usually one year from the date of approval).

    Behavioral Healthcare? - Includes treatment for mental health conditions, substance misuse and other addictions; treatments such as psychotherapy,

    psychiatric medications, support groups, etc., for these behavioral disorders are

    referred to as behavioral healthcare services.

    Behavior? Observable activity of an organism, such as a human.

    Consent for Treatment - The approval or consent of an individual, or in the case of a minor-aged child or incapacitated adult, by an approved representative to

    undertake treatment procedures.

    CPC Administrator - Central Point of Coordination Administrator in each Iowa

    county; this person is usually appointed by the county board of supervisors to

    manage the mental health/developmental disability budget for the county and to

ensure that all county citizens have access to necessary services for their mental

    health, substance abuse, mental retardation or developmental disability.

    DSM-IV - The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, (4th Ed.), published by the American Psychiatric Association which lists diagnostic criteria

    for behavioral disorders, including symptoms and commonly used code numbers.

    Health Care Professional Shortage Area - Regions of the country, usually rural areas, in which the number of available health care professionals such as family

    doctors, dentists and mental health professionals per 100,000 persons are well

    below the national average. The determination of health care professional

    shortage area is made by state and federal officials. These areas are deemed

    "underserved" in the field, such as mental health, where there is an undersupply

    of available health care professionals to deliver service. Through the National

    Health Service Corps, licensed mental health care professional may receive

    inducements, such as repayment of education loans, to practice in a designated

    mental health care professional shortage area.

    Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist - Individuals who have completed a minimum of a masters degree in individual, marriage and family counseling

    techniques and have passed a licensing examination to practice in the field.

    Licensed Mental Health Counselor - Individuals who have completed a minimum of a masters training program in counseling and human service and

    have passed a licensing exam in mental health counseling.

    Licensed Professional Counselor Individuals who have completed a minimum of a master’s training program in counseling and human service and

    have passed a licensing exam in professional counseling.

    Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner - Nurses who have completed a masters

    degree in psychiatric nursing and, in some states, may be licensed to prescribe

    psychotropic medications.

    Psychiatry - Treatment for mental health disorders by a psychiatrist. A

    psychiatrist is a medical doctor or doctor of osteopathy who has completed a

    residency in psychiatry. Psychiatry usually involves the use of psychotropic

    medications to treat symptoms of behavioral disorder. Licensed psychiatrists

    may diagnose and treat behavioral health disorders.

    Psychology - The science and study of behavior. Psychologists usually

    complete 4-6 years of graduate study, leading to the Ph.D. or Psy.D. degree.

    There are many areas of psychology, such as child, clinical, counseling,

    experimental, organizational and social psychology. Psychologists who become

    licensed practitioners must complete an internship and obtain a license in their

    area of expertise. These psychologists usually treat behavioral health disorders

through psychotherapeutic techniques. Some psychologists are licensed to

    prescribe psychotropic medications in states where this practice is

    approved. Licensed psychologists may diagnose and treat behavioral health

    disorders.

    Psychotropic Medication - Drugs and medications prescribed for the purpose

    of altering behavior. For example, antidepressant medications are psychotropic

    drugs designed to alleviate depression.

    Primary Symptom Bearer - The member of a family or system whose

    symptoms are most noticeable and serious. Usually the primary symptom bearer

    is the family member whose diagnosis is indicated on the insurance claim form.

    Social Work - A human service field which may involve specialized training in social welfare, individual, family, group and community mental health

    services. Social Workers may be licensed at the bachelor or master degree

    level. Licensed social workers may diagnose and treat behavioral health

    disorders in states where permitted.

    Stress Although stress has many meanings, as a behavioral health concept, stress is the mental and/or physical response of a human or animal to

    uncomfortable events that affect the individual.

    Wellness? Wellness is the condition of being in maximum physical and behavioral health.

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