FOREIGN TRADE 16
DEFINITIONS AND EXPLANATIONS
VALUE OF COMMODITIES THE INVESTIGATED POPULATION Export data presented in this Abstract The foreign trade data presented in this (Tables 16.6-16.8) are classified according to chapter deal with Israel's trade with other the new classification of economic activities. countries. (Standard Classification of All Economic Activities 1993, The detailed data on imports and exports do Technical Series No. 63, Central Bureau of Statistics). not include the trade with the Palestinian The distribution of products among the Authority. The trade data, including the trade various industries is based on the commodity with the Palestinian Authority, are presented description in the classification of only in Table 16.1 - “Balance of Foreign commodities and not on the exporter’s Trade”. industry. Export figures classified by new
industry can be obtained from the database CLASSIFICATION OF COMMODITIES of the Central Bureau of Statistics as of 1988. The import and export data of Israel are Imports are valued c.i.f. (cost, insurance and published according to two commodity freight), including cost of wharfage and classifications: porterage (customs value). Exports are 1. “The Standard International Trade valued f.o.b. (free on board), before deduction Classification” prepared by the Statistical of discounts and commission fees to foreign Bureau of the U.N. (Standard International Trade factors. Classification, Revised III, United Nations Statistical Office, The exception to this rule is exports of citrus, Statistical Papers series 14, No. 34, New York, 1986) fresh fruit and vegetables and flowers. These 2. “The Harmonized System of Commodity exports are recorded here - and in other Description and Coding” (the new publications of the Bureau on exports - after commodities terminology) prepared by the deduction of all expenses abroad. Customs Co-operation Council (The Harmonized In the Balance of Payments statistics (see Commodity Description and Coding System, Customs Chapter 15), imports of commodities are Cooperation Council, Brussels, June 1983). presented on the basis of their f.o.b. value. This classification was revised by the Council The value of imports and exports, as in 1983 and introduced into use by Israeli presented in the balance of payments, was Customs and the Central Bureau of Statistics adjusted to the balance of payments in 1988. Therefore, data for 1988 and onwards definitions. cannot be compared with data for previous
years. Further explanations on the CLASSIFICATION OF COUNTRIES classification are presented in Foreign Trade Country of purchase: The country that sent Statistics Quarterly, No. 4, 1988. the invoice for the goods imported to Israel. Import data are also classified by economic Country of destination: The country to use. In this classification, import items are which the invoice for the goods exported from categorized according to the first destination Israel was sent. of the commodities.
The classification is based on surveys IMPORTS conducted by the Central Bureau of Statistics Imports are recorded according to the special every few years. These surveys investigate system, representing total of imports passing the use made in imports commodities. directly through customs (including those for Exports data are classified also by technological exchange and repair), or withdrawals from intensity, according to the classification of the bonded warehouses; goods are considered OECD. imported when they are released by the (Classification of Manufacturing Industries based customs authorities. Their release date on Technology, OECD Science, 2001) determines the date of import.
to Israel and sold abroad without further Gross imports refer to the value of flow of
processing. Goods in the latter category imported goods released by customs.
include such items as polished diamonds, Total net imports refers to the value of flow imported to complete the collection of gems of commodities imported to Israel after offered for sale by Israel's manufacturers; deduction of returned imports. Unless aircraft and ships manufactured in other otherwise stated, the data for imports refer to countries, imported and later sold after use. gross imports, i.e., imports without deduction Since a considerable proportion of fresh of returned imports. agricultural produce is generally exported on Returned imports are those shipments a consignment basis, the values declared to returned abroad (without further processing) the customs authorities upon shipment do after previously having been imported to not always represent the final sales value of Israel. the produce. Average Payment by the Importer in As of the 1991/92 agricultural export season, Israeli Currency per US Dollar (Table 16.11) following the dismissal of the Board of Citrus refers to all the importer’s expenses on Marketing, exports are transferred to other imports, in NIS, on delivery from customs (i.e., companies. Consequently, most shipments the c.i.f. import value in NIS plus the taxes arrive in Belgium, where they are bought by imposed on these imports), divided by the various agents, and so there is no c.i.f. value of imports in US dollars. Taxes on information about the country of final imports include only those taxes, which were destination. Also, the sale of flowers through imposed on the importer upon the delivery of the flower exchange is registered as exports the goods from customs: customs duty, to the Netherlands and cannot be classified compulsory payments and purchase tax by country of final destination. which does not include Value Added Tax. Net total exports are gross exports less Total imports include among other things: returned exports. Personal effects of immigrants; personal Returned exports comprise shipments effects imported by tourists and not taken out returned from abroad (without further of the country again; estimated value of processing), which had previously been presents received by mail, ships and aircraft; exported. Unless otherwise stated, all the non-monetary gold and silver; shipments of data for exports refer to gross exports i.e., commodities returned after their import and exports without deduction of returned exports. received again from abroad. Total exports include among other things: The total import figures do not include: personal effects which were exported by returned shipments of equipment to local emigrants who left Israel; fuel and food firms from other countries after use in supplied to foreign ships and aircraft in Israeli contract work; import into bonded seaports and airports; the estimated value of warehouses; fuelling of ships and aircraft gifts sent by mail; ships and aircraft. abroad; other commodities (such as food), Since 1990, sales of unworked diamonds to ballast and dunnage supplied to Israeli ships foreign countries are recorded as exports, and aircraft abroad; import of currency of whereas they were previously recorded as legal tender; military equipment and weapons returned exports and subtracted from the (the estimated value being included in the import data. goods account in the balance of payments). Total exports do not include: shipments of engines and parts of aircraft by local firms to EXPORTS their branches or representatives abroad; Since March 1982, the date of statistical shipments of goods imported returned for recording of exports is the date of the loading purposes of exchange, repairs, etc. These of the goods. From November 1962 till shipments appear under the heading February 1982, the date of statistical Returned Imports; exports from bonded recording of exports was the date of releasing warehouses; export of currency of legal the export entries by the customs authorities. tender. (107) Gross exports are defined as the gross As of Statistical Abstract 2001, data on value of outflow of goods from Israel whether exports of software from trade in they were totally or partially manufactured in commodities were deducted, because they the country, and whether they were imported are defined as services. Data on exports of
commodities (other than software) for of the previous year and are chained and previous years, which are not published in presented in the publications on the basis of the Statistical Abstract for 2001,can be the average for 1980.
obtained from foreign trade department of the Foreign trade price indices were calculated Central Bureau of Statistics. according to the Fisher formula, i.e., as a
geometrical mean of the indices according to
the Laspeyres and Paasche formulas. INDICES OF PRICES, VOLUME AND Foreign trade volume indices are intended VALUE to measure the quantitative changes which Price indices measure the change which occurred between two periods in the total of occurred in the average price of total imports, imports and exports or of a group of of total exports, or of a group of commodities, commodities. The calculation of volume between two periods. The price of a single indices is also based on the Fisher formula. commodity is determined according to the Value indices measure the changes in the average unit value of the exported or value of imports and exports between two imported commodity. The definition of periods (without weighting). commodities is based on the classification Exchange conditions measure the change in used for customs tariffs (imports) and on the average export prices, relative to average Classification of Export Commodities made in import prices between two periods. Israel. In these classifications, commodity Quarterly price and volume indices according groups do not always specify single items of to the Fisher formula are published in the a uniform quality, but may also specify Foreign Trade Statistics Quarterly. groups of similar commodities. In some
cases, the changes obtained in the price of
SOURCES the commodity, as it is defined in the
The sources of the data are the forms classification, may also reflect changes in the
submitted to the customs authorities by various components of the commodity group.
importers or exporters or their agents (import In such cases, price indices of similar
and export enteries). commodities which are published abroad are
In special cases, data are derived from used as a substitute for the average unit
administrative summaries made by various value.
institutions (as in cases of ship and aircraft The information used to estimate price
records). indices of foreign trade encompasses about 50 percent of the total import or export value.
Once a year, the selection of items used for
calculating the indices is checked and
updated. Indices are calculated on the basis
952 Import Destinations Survey 1988
Foreign Trade Statistics - annual
Imports, by commodities and countries, 1996-2001 (CD only)
Imports, by commodities and countries, 2002-2003 (CD only)
Exports, by commodities and countries, 1996-2003 (CD only)