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Functions

By Cheryl Howard,2014-03-29 19:09
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Functions

    On Functions of language

    Clsaa:08 English Education No:2008124104 Name:古婷婷

    Language is system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human

    communication. Language have many specific functions in our daily lifesuch as to

    chatto thinkto buy and sell, to read and writeto keep good relations and so on. In

    the first part of this paper, I will give a brief introduction about M .A. K. Halliday and talk about the three Function Grammars by Halliday .in the second part, I talk about the seven functions in children‟s model of language by Halliday. In the third

    part, I listed three more functions of language which are summarized by other functional linguists .

    M .A. K. Hallidayrepresentative of the London school, believes that

    language is the product of social activities and holds that language is what it is because it has to serve certain functions. M.A.K. Halliday has sought to create an approach to linguistics that treats language as foundational for the building of human experience. His insights and publications form an approach called systemic-functional linguistics. A key concept in Halliday's approach is the "context of situation" which obtains "through a systematic relationship between the social environment on the one hand, and the functional organization of language on the other" (Halliday, 1985:11).

     Halliday recognizes language serves three major functions:the ideational

    functionthe interpersonal functionand the textual function (Halliday.197398).

    1. The ideational function refers to the use of language to express contentto

    communicate factual, propositional information (factual ideas and knowledge).In other wordsit is the use of language as „a means of knowing‟ (Halliday.1978121).

    When we use language to identify things, to think, or to record information, we use language as a symbolic code to represent the world around us. Playing this function, language serves as a medium that links a person with the world. Everything in mind exists through language. The ideational function is, then, the function language plays

    in human cognition, in our conceptualization of the world. It is this function of language, in a sense, that brings the world into our mind.

    2. The interactional or interpersonal function is the function that language serves in establishing social relations and personal attitudes or the use of language as „a means of doing‟ (Halliday. 1978:121) (language in the doing and social mode). In addition

    to using language to conceptualize the world, we use it as a medium to get along in a community. We use it to identify ourselves and others, to soothe or anger someone, to argue with or to convince others, to thank or to apologize to somebody, and more importantly, to get things done together with others or by others. This function of language binds individuals together. With this function language is able to glue all members of a speech community.

    3. The textual function „fills the requirement that language should be operationally relevant that it should have a texture, in real contexts of situation, that distinguishes a living message from a mere entry in a grammar or a dictionary‟(Halliday.1973: 42). In other wordsthe textual function is the use of language in the „relevant‟ or „linking‟ mode. In using language, we organize messages in a logical way so that they fit in with the other messages and with the wider context in which we are talking or writing. When we speak or write we usually don't confine ourselves to single phrases or sentences; we string them together to form a text. There are expressions that refer backwards and forwards, or substitute for others, or link phrases or sentences. They play the role of bringing units of language into unity.

     What‟s more , Halliday proposes seven functions in children‟s model of

    language.He said that language has at least seven functions: phatic, directive, Informative, interrogative, expressive, evocative and performative.

    1.The “phatic function” refers to language being used for setting up a certain atmosphere or maintaining social contacts(rather than for exchanging information or ideas). Greetings farewellsand comments on the weather in English and on

    clothing in Chinese all serve this functionMuch of the phatic language (e.g. “How

    are you?” “Fine, thanks.”) is insincere if taken literallybut it is important. If you

don't say “Hello” to a friend you meetor if you don‟t answer his “Hi”you ruin your

    friendship.

    2.The “directive function” means that language may be used to get the hearer to do something. Most imperative sentences perform this functione. g.“Tell me the result

    when you finish. ” Other syntactic structures or sentences of other sorts can

    according to J.Austin and J.Searle‟s “indrect speech act theory”(胡壮麟.2002

    271-278) at least, serve the purpose of direction tooe.g “If I were youI would

    have blushed to the bottom of my ears

    3.Language serves an “informational function” when used to tell something, characterized by the use of declarative sentences. Informative statements are often labelled as true (truth) or false(falsehood). According to P.Grice‟s “Cooperative Principle”(胡壮麟.1989282-283), one ought not to violate the “Maxim of Quality”, when he is informing at all.

    4.When language is used to obtain informationit serves an “interrogative function”.

    This includes all questions that expect repliesstatementsimperatives etc.

    according to the “indirect speech act theory”, may have this function as well e.g.

    “I‟d like to know you better.” This may bring forth a lot of personal information. Note

    that rhetorical questions make an exception, since they demand no answer at least

    not the reader‟s/listener‟s answer.

    5.The “expressive function” is the use of language to reveal something about the feelings or attitudes of the speaker. Subconscious emotional ejaculations are good exampleslike “Good heavens!” “My God!” Sentences like “I‟m sorry about the delay” can serve as good examples too, though in a subtle way. While language is used for the informative function to pass judgement on the truth or falsehood of statementslanguage used for the expressive function evaluatesappraises or asserts

    the speaker‟s own attitudes.

    6.The “evocative function” is the use of language to create certain feelings in the hearer. Its aim isfor example, to amuse, startleantagonizesootheworry or please.

    Jokes (not practical jokesthough) are supposed to amuse or entertain the listener

    advertising to urge customers to purchase certain commodities; propaganda to

influence public opinion. Obviouslythe expressive and the evocative functions often

    go togetheri.e.you may expressfor exampleyour personal feelings about a

    political issue but end up by evoking the same feeling in, or imposing it on, your listener. That‟s also the case with the other way round.

    7. Performative means people speak to “do things” or perform actions. On certain occasions the utterance itself as an action is more important than what words or sounds constitute the uttered sentence. When asked if a third Yangtze bridge ought to be built in Wuhan, the mayor may say “OK”, which means more than speech, and more than an average social individual may do for the construction. The judge‟s imprisonment sentence, the president‟s war or independence declaration, etc., are performatives as well.(胡壮麟.1989271-278)

    Besides, three functions are generally notedthere is perhaps nothing more

    subtle than language isand nothing has as many different uses. without a doubt

    identifying just these three basic functions is an oversimplificationbut an awareness

    of these functions is a good introduction to the complexity of language.

     1. Informative language function essentiallythe communication of

    information .The informative function affirms or denies propositionsas in science.

    This function is used to describe the world or reason about it (whether a state of affairs is true or false).These sentences have a truth valuehencethey are important

    for logic.

    2. Expressive language functionreports feelings or attitudes of the writer (or

    speaker)or of the subjector evokes feelings in the reader (or listener).Poetry is one of the best examplesbut much ofperhaps most ofordinary language discourse is the

    expression of emotionsfeelings or attitudes. Two main aspects are generally noted

    (1) to evoke certain feelings and (2) to express feelings. Expressive discourse, is best regarded as neither true or false. E.g. Shakespeare's King Lear's lament "Ripeness

    is all !" Even sothe nature of "fictional statements" is an interesting area of inquiry. 3. Directive language functionlanguage used for the purpose of causing (or

    preventing) overt actions. The directive function is most commonly found in

    commands and requests. Directive language is not normally considered true or false (although a logic of commands have been developed).(王东波.200317

     Shortly speaking, language has its special functions which are significant and influential. We should learn the functions of language so that we could use language in a better way.

[参考文献]

[1]王东波.〈〈英语语言学〉〉.[M].山东大学出版社.200317

    [2]Halliday.〈〈功能语言探索〉〉.[M].1973:42.98

    [3]Halliday.〈〈作为社会符号的语言〉〉.[M].1978121

    [4]《功能语言学-布拉格学派》评介.〈〈解放军外国语学院报〉〉.[J].1999年第二

    期:1-5

    [5]胡壮麟、朱永生、张德禄.《系统功能语法概论》.湖南教育出版社.[M

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