Plot of the Iliad
The theme of Iliad the Iliad :It mainly described the heroes in he Trojan War .Achilles was a great hero in Greek, he was courageous and prudent and helped the Greek army to fight against the Troy. Because the leader of Greek-Agamemnon took away Achilles‘s loved woman, he refused to fight any more. The Troy was going to win, at this time, Achilles showed up and killed the hero of Troy-Hector. Finally, the Iliad ended in the funeral of Hector.Odyssey
The plot of odyssey
"The Odyssey" focuses on the description of what happened on the last 40 days of the wandering of Odysseus 10 years at sea: Odysseus finally reached a island through all jeopardy, the king Axel treated him grand. During their dinner, he was invited to tell his encounter when the storms, the one-eyed giant, the wind bag, any female demon, lightning and other offshore experience. After returning home as beggars, he shot many nobles who forced her into marriage in a design contest, and reunion with his true to the core of his wife Penelope and brave son Twirler Marcos. "The Odyssey" mainly describes the sea adventure and family life, the description of Odysseus's brave and faithful Penelope, praised the wisdom, courage and loyalty. Socrates
; The mission of a philosopher and what it means that he is like a gadfly to the
The mission of philosopher is not to spread the knowledge but to help people produce it by themselves.
The Gadfly is a mosquitoes, its duty is to bite the skin, stimulate his nerve endings, let him march forward courageously [bites the numbness of the skin, arouse the public awareness. Because Socrates was asking people questions and through those questions, he exposed contradictions proposition, theory raised by the other party, to shake the foundation of argument, pointed out the ignorance of each other, and in the form of questioning, he helped people realize the truth and arouse the awareness. Just like the gadfly, he did help the people to aware the truth.
; His attitude towards death
The end of a world is the start of an another world, the disappearance of life is a symbol of the spirit of the eternal.
; Facts about Plato‘s life and works
The great philosopher of ancient Greece, and is also one of the greatest
philosophers and thinkers in all western philosophy and the western culture, he
and the teacher Socrates, students Aristotle are known as the three ancient Greek
Works-----The Republic, The Laws
; His allegory of the cave and the essence of his idea of education
Plato has described a group of people who have lived chained to the wall of a cave all of their lives, facing a blank wall. The people watch shadows projected on the wall by things passing in front of a fire behind them, and begin to ascribe forms to these shadows. According to Plato's Socrates, the shadows are as close as the prisoners get to viewing reality. He then explains how the philosopher is like a prisoner who is freed from the cave and comes to understand that the shadows on the wall do not make up reality at all, as he can perceive the true form of reality rather than the mere shadows seen by the prisoners.
The Allegory may be related to Plato's Theory of Forms, according to which the "Forms" (or "Ideas"), and not the material world of change known to us through sensation, possess the highest and most fundamental kind of reality. Only knowledge of the Forms constitutes real knowledge. In addition, the Allegory of the Cave is an attempt to explain the philosopher's place in society: to attempt to enlighten the "prisoners.
Platon noticed that the relationship between education and politics, the requirements of the national strict control of education, the education is to establish an ideal social order tool. He advocated education ruling class appropriate is the main tool of politics, must rely on education to prevent degradation of the ruling class. Education must serve the politics, education must adapt to the needs of the slave caste system.
He is one of the greatest philosophers and thinkers in western culture. He was born
in Athens. He was good at sports, painting and singing. When he was 20 years old, he destroyed all his works and start to learn philosophy form Socrates. Later, he left Athens and traveled around the world to learn from Pythagoras, Heracleitas. In AD 387,he returned to Athens and built the Academy.
The Allegory of the Cave—also known as the Analogy of the Cave, Plato's
Cave, or the Parable of the Cave—is an allegory presented by the Greek philosopher
Plato in his work The Republic to illustrate "our nature in its education and want of
education" (514a). It is written as a dialogue between Plato's brother Glaucon and
Plato's mentor Socrates, narrated by the latter at the beginning of Book VII
(514a–520a). The Allegory of the Cave is presented after the metaphor of the sun
(508b–509c) and the analogy of the divided line (509d–513e). All three are
characterized in relation to dialectic at the end of Book VII and VIII (531d–534e).
Plato has Socrates describe a group of people who have lived chained to the wall of a cave all of their lives, facing a blank wall. The people watch shadows projected on the wall by things passing in front of a fire behind them, and begin to ascribe forms to these shadows. According to Plato's Socrates, the shadows are as close as the prisoners get to viewing reality. He then explains how the philosopher is like a prisoner who is freed from the cave and comes to understand that the shadows on the wall do not make up reality at all, as he can perceive the true form of reality rather than the mere shadows seen by the prisoners.
The Allegory may be related to Plato's Theory of Forms, according to which the
"Forms" (or "Ideas"), and not the material world of change known to us through sensation, possess the highest and most fundamental kind of reality. Only knowledge
of the Forms constitutes real knowledge. In addition, the Allegory of the Cave is an
attempt to explain the philosopher's place in society: to attempt to enlighten the "prisoners."
Themes of Iliad
The Wrath of Achilles(1819), by Michel Drolling.
The poem‘s initial word, μῆνιν (mēnin, accusative of μῆνις, mēnis, "wrath, rage,
fury"), establishes the Iliad's principal theme: The "Wrath of Achilles." His
personal rage and wounded soldier‘s vanity propel the story: the Greeks‘ faltering in battle, the slayings of Patroclus and Hector, and the fall of Troy. In Book I, the Wrath of Achilles first emerges in the Achilles-convoked meeting, between the Greek kings and the seer Calchas. King Agamemnon dishonours Chryses, the Trojan priest of
Apollo, by refusing with a threat the restitution of his daughter, Chryseis—despite the
proffered ransom of "gifts beyond count". The insulted priest prays his god‘s help,
and a nine-day rain of divine plague arrows falls upon the Greeks. Moreover, in that
meeting, Achilles accuses Agamemnon of being ―greediest for gain of all men‖. To
that, Agamemnon replies:
But here is my threat to you.
Even as Phoibos Apollo is taking away my Chryseis.
I shall convey her back in my own ship, with my own
followers; but I shall take the fair-cheeked Briseis,
your prize, I myself going to your shelter, that you may learn well how much greater I am than you, and another man may shrink back
 from likening himself to me and contending against me.
After that, only Athena stays Achilles‘s wrath. He vows to never again obey orders from Agamemnon. Furious, Achilles cries to his mother, Thetis, who persuades Zeus‘s divine intervention—favouring the Trojans—until Achilles‘s rights are restored.
Meanwhile, Hector leads the Trojans to almost pushing the Greeks back to the sea (Book XII). Later, Agamemnon contemplates defeat and retreat to Greece (Book XIV). Again, the Wrath of Achilles turns the war‘s tide in seeking vengeance when Hector kills Patroclus. Aggrieved, Achilles tears his hair and dirties his face. Thetis comforts her mourning son, who tells her:
Accepting the prospect of death as fair price for avenging Patroclus, he returns to battle, dooming Hector and Troy, thrice chasing him ‘round the Trojan walls, before slaying him, then dragging the corpse behind his chariot, back to camp. Achilles Slays Hector, by Peter Paul Rubens (1630–35).
1 The Bible is a canonical collection of texts considered sacred in Judaism or
Christianity. Different religious groups include different books within their canons, in different orders, and sometimes divide or combine books, or incorporate additional
material into canonical books. Christian Bibles range from the sixty-six books of the Protestant canon to the eighty-one books of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church canon.
The first part of Christian Bibles is the Old Testament, which contains, at minimum,
the twenty-four books of the Hebrew Bible divided into thirty-nine books and ordered differently than the Hebrew Bible. . The second part is the New Testament, containing
twenty-seven books: the four Canonical gospels, Acts of the Apostles, twenty-one
Epistles or letters, and the Book of Revelation.
By the 2nd century BCE Jewish groups had called the Bible books "holy," and Christians now commonly call the Old and New Testaments of the Christian Bible "The Holy Bible" or "the Holy Scriptures" Many Christians consider the whole canonical text of the Bible to be divinely inspired.
3 Fall of man
In Christian doctrine, the fall of man, or the fall, was the transition of the first
humans from a state of innocent obedience to God to a state of guilty disobedience to
Genesis God. Though not named in the Bible, the concept for the Fall comes from chapter 3. At first, Adam and Eve live with God in a paradise, but the serpent tempts
them into eating the fruit from the tree of knowledge of good and evil, which God
forbade. After doing so, they became ashamed of their nakedness and God consequently expelled them from paradise.
Many Christian denominations believe that the fall corrupted the entire natural world,
including human nature, causing people to be born into original sin, a state from
which they cannot attain eternal life without the gracious intervention of God.
Calvinist Protestants believe that Jesus gave his life as a sacrifice for the elect, so they
may be redeemed from their sin. In other religions, such as Judaism, Islam, and
Gnosticism, the term "the fall" is not recognized and varying interpretations of the Eden narrative are presented. The term "prelapsarian" refers to the sin-free state of
humanity prior to the fall.
4 The Birth of Jesus
; n. The political doctrine of Machiavelli, which denies the relevance of
morality in political affairs and holds that craft and deceit are justified in pursuing
and maintaining political power.
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
； n. The principles or system of statesmanship of Machiavelli; the political
doctrines attributed to Machiavelli—namely, the pursuit of success at any price,
and the systematic subordination of right to expediency (see Machiavellian, n.);
the theory that all means may be justifiably employed, however unlawful and
treacherous in themselves, for the establishment and maintenance of the authority
of the ruler over his subjects; political cunning and unscrupulous artifice. 2
Machiavelli notes that a prince is praised for keeping his word. However, he also notes that a prince is also praised for the illusion of being reliable in keeping his word. A prince, therefore, should only keep his word when it suits his purposes, but do his utmost to maintain the illusion that he does keep his word and that he is reliable in that regard. Therefore, a prince should not break his word unnecessarily. As Machiavelli notes, ―He should appear to be compassionate, faithful to his word, guileless, and devout. And indeed he should be so. But his disposition should be such that, if he needs to be the opposite, he knows how.‖ As noted in chapter 15, the prince
must appear to be virtuous, and should be virtuous, but he should be able to be otherwise when the time calls for it; that includes being able to lie, though however much he lies he should always keep the appearance of being truthful. 3
Since there are many possible qualities that a prince can be said to possess, he must not be overly concerned about having all the good ones. Also, a prince may be perceived to be merciful, faithful, humane, frank, and religious, but most important is only to seem to have these qualities. A prince cannot truly have these qualities
because at times it is necessary to act against them. In fact, he must sometimes
deliberately choose evil. Although a bad reputation should be avoided, it is sometimes necessary to have one.
1 Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher. He is a central figure of modern
philosophy. He argued that human perception structures natural laws, and that reason is the source of morality. His thought continues to hold a major influence in contemporary thought, especially in fields such as metaphysics, epistemology, ethics,
political philosophy, and aesthetics.
Kant's major work, the Critique of Pure Reason aimed to bring reason together with
experience and to move beyond what he took to be failures of traditional philosophy and metaphysics. He hoped to end an age of speculation where objects outside experience were seen to support what he saw as futile theories, while opposing the skepticism of thinkers such as Hume.
In simple terms, Kant pointed out that we all shape our experience of things through the filter of our mind. The mind shapes that experience, and among other things, Kant believed the concepts of space and time were programmed into the human brain, as
was the notion of cause and effect. We never have direct experience of things, the
noumenal world, and what we do experience is the phenomenal world as conveyed by
our senses. These observations summarize Kant's views upon the subject–object
Kant published other important works on ethics, religion, law, aesthetics, astronomy, and history. These included the Critique of Practical Reason , the Metaphysics of
Morals , which dealt with ethics, and the Critique of Judgment , which looks at
aesthetics and teleology. He aimed to resolve disputes between empirical and
rationalist approaches. The former asserted that all knowledge comes through experience; the latter maintained that reason and innate ideas were prior. Kant argued that experience is purely subjective without first being processed by pure reason. He also said that using reason without applying it to experience only leads to theoretical illusions. The free and proper exercise of reason by the individual was a theme both of the Enlightenment, and of Kant's approaches to the various problems of philosophy. 2 Kant answers the question in the first sentence of the essay: ―Enlightenment is man‘s emergence from his self-incurred immaturity.‖ He argues that the immaturity is
self-inflicted not from a lack of understanding, but from the lack of courage to use one‘s reason, intellect, and wisdom without the guidance of another. He exclaims that the motto of enlightenment is ―Sapere aude‖! – Dare to be wise! Kant, whose moral
philosophy is centred around the concept of autonomy, here distinguishes between a
person who is intellectually autonomous and one who keeps him/herself in an intellectually heteronomous, i.e. dependent and immature status. Kant understands the majority of people to be content to follow the guiding institutions of society, such as the Church and the Monarchy, and unable to throw off the yoke of their immaturity due to a lack of resolution to be autonomous. It is difficult for individuals to work their way out of this immature, cowardly life because we are so uncomfortable with the idea of thinking for ourselves. Kant says that even if we did throw off the spoon-fed dogma and formulas we have absorbed, we would still be stuck, because we have never ―cultivated our minds.‖ The key to throwing off these chains of mental
immaturity is reason. There is hope that the entire public could become a force of free thinking individuals if they are free to do so. Why? There will always be a few people, even among the institutional "guardians", who think for themselves. They will help the rest of us to ―cultivate our minds.‖ Kant shows himself a man of his times when he observes that ―a revolution may well put an end to autocratic despotism . . . or power-seeking oppression, but it will never produce a true reform in ways of thinking.‖
Private and public use of reasoning
Private use of reason is doing something because we have to. For example: rational workers in a specific occupation use private reasoning to complete tasks. Public use of reason is doing something on the public sphere because we choose to improve our private function. Although someone may find their job or function disagreeable, the task must be completed for society to flow consistently. They may, however, use public reasoning in order to complain about the function in the public sphere.
A military officer is required to obey the orders of his superiors. A clergyman is required to teach the doctrines of the church that employs him. But the responsibilities
of their office do not preclude them from publicly voicing any opinions that may conflict with those responsibilities. We expect office holders to stay in character at all times, but Kant gives examples. A clergyman is not free to make use of his reason in the execution of his duties, but as ―a scholar addressing the real public through his writings, the clergyman making public use of his reason enjoys unlimited freedom to use his own reason and to speak in his own person.‖
Emile attempts to ―find a way of resolving the contradictions between the natural man
who is ‗all for himself‘ and the implications of life in society.‖ The famous opening
line does not bode well for the educational project—―Everything is good as it leaves
the hands of the Author of things; everything degenerates in the hands of man.‖ But
Rousseau acknowledges that every society ―must choose between making a man or a
citizen‖ and that the best ―social institutions are those that best know how to denature man, to take his absolute existence from him in order to give him a relative
one and transport the I into the common unity.‖ To ―denature man‖ for Rousseau is
to suppress some of the ―natural‖ instincts that he extols in The Social Contract,
published the same year as Emile, but while it might seem that for Rousseau such a
process would be entirely negative, this is not so. Emile is not a panegyric颂词 for
the loss of the noble savage, a term Rousseau never actually used. Instead, it is an effort to explain how natural man can live within society.
9 Adam Smith
Books I and II focus on developing the idea of the division of labor, and describing how this division adds to the opulence of a given society by creating enormous surpluses, which can be exchanged among members. The division of labor also fuels
technological innovation, by giving intense focus to certain tasks, and allowing workers to brainstorm ways to make these tasks more efficient. This, again, adds to efficiency and grows surpluses. Surpluses, Smith writes, may be either traded or re-invested. In the latter case, technologies are likely to improve, leading to even greater efficiencies.
Division of Labour: Division of labour has caused a greater increase 1 Of the
in production than any other factor. This diversification is greatest for nations with more industry and improvement, and is responsible for "universal opulence"普遍富裕
in those countries. Agriculture is less amenable than industry to division of labour; hence, rich nations are not so far ahead of poor nations in agriculture as in industry. Of the Principle which gives Occasion to the Division of Labour: Division of
labour arises not from innate wisdom, but from humans' propensity to barter. The
apparent difference in natural talents between people is a result of specialisation, rather than any innate cause.
2 the invisible hand
It shows Smith's belief that when an individual pursues his self-interest, he indirectly promotes the good of society. Self-interested competition in the free market, he argued, would tend to benefit society as a whole by keeping prices low, while still building in an incentive for a wide variety of goods and services. Nevertheless, he was wary of businessmen and warned of their "conspiracy against the public or in some
other contrivance to raise prices". Again and again, Smith warned of the collusive
nature of business interests, which may form cabals or monopolies, fixing the highest
price "which can be squeezed out of the buyers". Smith also warned that a
business-dominated political system would allow a conspiracy of businesses and industry against consumers, with the former scheming to influence politics and legislation. Smith states that the interest of manufacturers and merchants "...in any particular branch of trade or manufactures, is always in some respects different from, and even opposite to, that of the public...The proposal of any new law or regulation of commerce which comes from this order, ought always to be listened to with great precaution, and ought never be adopted till after having been long and carefully examined, not only with the most scrupulous, but with the most suspicious attention 10 尼采
1 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche was a German philosopher, poet, composer,
cultural critic, and classical philologist. He wrote critical texts on religion, morality,
contemporary culture, philosophy, and science, displaying a fondness for metaphor,
irony, and aphorism.
Nietzsche's key ideas include the "death of God,"the eternal recurrence, the
Apollonian and Dionysian dichotomy, perspectivism, and the will to power. Central to
his philosophy is the idea of "life-affirmation", which involves questioning of all doctrines that drain life's expansive energies, however socially prevalent those views
might be. His radical questioning of the value and objectivity of truth has been the focus of extensive commentary, especially in the continental tradition.
Nietzsche began his career as a classical philologist before turning to philosophy. In
1889, at the age of forty-four, he suffered a collapse and a complete loss of his mental faculties. T He lived his remaining years in the care of his mother until her death in 1897, then under the care of his sister until his death in 1900
2 According to Nietzsche the Judeo-Christian tradition, for example, made suffering tolerable by interpreting it as God‘s intention and as an occasion for
atonement. Christianity, accordingly, owed its triumph to the flattering doctrine of personal immortality, that is, to the conceit that each individual‘s life and death have cosmic significance. Similarly, traditional philosophy expressed the ascetic ideal when it privileged soul over body, mind over senses, duty over desire, reality over appearance, the timeless over the temporal. While Christianity promised salvation for
the sinner who repents, philosophy held out hope for salvation, albeit secular, for its sages. Common to traditional religion and philosophy was the unstated but powerful motivating assumption that existence requires explanation, justification, or expiation. Both denigrated experience in favour of some other, ―true‖ world. Both may be read as symptoms of a declining life, or life in distress.
Nietzsche‘s critique of traditional morality centred on the typology of ―master‖ and ―slave‖ morality。Nietzsche maintained that the distinction between good and bad was originally descriptive, that is, a nonmoral reference to those who were privileged, the masters, as opposed to those who were base, the slaves. The good/evil contrast arose when slaves avenged themselves by converting attributes of mastery into vices. If the favoured, the ―good,‖ were powerful, it was said that the meek would inherit the earth. Pride became sin.. Crucial to the triumph of slave morality was its claim to being the only true morality. This insistence on absoluteness is as essential to philosophical as to religious ethics.
3 His major premise in The Birth of Tragedy was that the fusion of Dionysian and
Apollonian "Kunsttrieben" ("artistic impulses") forms dramatic arts, or tragedies. He goes on to argue that this fusion has not been achieved since the ancient Greek tragedians. Apollo represents harmony, progress, clarity and logic whereas Dionysus represents disorder, intoxication, emotion and ecstasy. Nietzsche used these two forces because, for him, the world of mind and order on one side, and passion and
chaos on other formed principles that were fundamental to the Greek culture.
Apollonian side being a dreaming state, full of illusions; and Dionysian being the state of intoxication, representing the liberations of instinct and dissolution of boundaries. In this mold, man appears as the satyr. He is the horror of the annihilation of the
principle of individuality and at the same time someone who delights in its
destruction. Both of these principles are meant to represent cognitive states that
appear through art as the power of nature in man.
In the book, Weber wrote that capitalism in northern Europe evolved when the Protestant (particularly Calvinist) ethic influenced large numbers of people to engage
in work in the secular world, developing their own enterprises and engaging in trade
and the accumulation of wealth for investment. In other words, the Protestant work
ethic was an important force behind the unplanned and uncoordinated mass action that
influenced the development of capitalism. This idea is also known as the "Protestant
He is not arguing that Protestantism caused the capitalistic spirit, but rather that it was
one contributing factor. He also acknowledges that capitalism itself had an impact on the development of the religious ideas.
Weber found that, according to Protestant religions, individuals were religiously compelled to follow a secular vocation with as much enthusiasm as possible. A person living according to this worldview was more likely to accumulate money. Further, the new religions, such as Calvinism and Protestantism, forbade wastefully using hard earned money and labeled the purchase of luxuries as a sin. These religions also frowned upon donating money to the poor or to charity because it was seen as promoting beggary. The way these issues were resolved, Weber argued, was to invest the money, which would give a large boost to capitalism. In other words, capitalism evolved when the Protestant ethic influenced large numbers of people to engage in work in the secular world, developing their own enterprises and engaging in trade and the accumulation of wealth for investment. The Protestant ethic was therefore the driving force behind the mass action that led to the development of capitalism. 1
The Protestant work ethic (or the Puritan work ethic) is a concept in theology,
sociology, economics and history which emphasizes hard work, frugality and
diligence as a constant display of a person's salvation in the Christian faith, in contrast
to the focus upon religious attendance, confession, and ceremonial sacrament in the
2 He defines spirit of capitalism as the ideas and esprit that favour the rational
pursuit of economic gain: "We shall nevertheless provisionally use the expression 'spirit of capitalism' for that attitude which, in the pursuit of a calling , strives
systematically for profit for its own sake in the manner exemplified by Benjamin
Weber points out that such a spirit is not limited to Western culture if one considers it
as the attitude of individuals, but that such individuals – heroic entrepreneurs, as he
calls them – could not by themselves establish a new economic order
:54–55(capitalism). He further noted that the spirit of capitalism could be divorced from religion, and that those passionate capitalists of his era were either passionate
:23against the Church or at least indifferent to it. Desire for profit with minimum
effort and seeing work as a burden to be avoided, and doing no more than what was
:55enough for modest life, were common attitudes. As he wrote in his essays:
In order that a manner of life well adapted to the peculiarities of the capitalism… could come to dominate others, it had to originate somewhere, and not in isolated individuals alone, but as a way of life common to the whole groups of man
2theory of consciousness