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KEY TO THE EXERCISES

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KEY TO THE EXERCISES

    博士研究生英语综合教程答案及参考译文

    KEY TO THE EXERCISES

    Unit One Science

    Text 1 Can We Really Understand Matter?

I. Vocabulary

    1. A 2. B 3. A 4. C 5. D 6. B 7. B 8. C

    II. Definition

    1. A priority 2. Momentum 3. An implication 4. Polarization

    5. the distance that light travels in a year, about 5.88 trillion miles or 9.46 trillion km.

     6. a contradictory or absurd statement that expresses a possible truth

    7. a device that speeds up charged elementary particles or ions to high energies III. Mosaic

    1. The stress: (Omitted)

    Pronunciation rule: An English word ended with tion or sion has its stress on the last

    syllable but one.

    2. molecule

    3. A 4. B 5. C 6. B 7. A 8. A

    IV. Translation

    A. (Refer to the relevant part of the Chinese translation)

    B. In September 1995, anti-hydrogen atoman anti-matter atomwas successfully

    developed in European Particle Physics Laboratory in Switzerland. After the startling news

    spread out, scientists in the West who were indulged in the research of anti-matter were

    greatly excited. While they were attempting to produce and store anti-matter as the energy

    for spacecraft, they raised a new question: Many of the mysterious nuclear explosions in

    the recent one hundred years are connected with anti-matter. That is to say, these

    hard-to-explain explosions are tricks played by anti-matter. They are the ―destruction‖

    phenomenon caused by the impact between matter and anti-matter.

    V. Grouping

    A. Uncertainty:

    what if, illusory, indescribable, puzzle, speculation, seemingly, in some mysterious way

    B. Contrast:

    more daunting, the hardest of hard sciences, do little to discourage, from afar, close

    scrutiny, work amazingly well

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C. Applications of Quantum mechanics:

    the momentum of a charging elephant, building improved gyroscopes

    1. probabilities 2. illusory 3. discourage 4. scrutiny

    VI. Topics for Discussion and Writing

    (Omitted)

    WRITING•STRATEGY•DEFINITION

    I. Complete the following definitions with the help of dictionaries.

    1. To bribe means to influence the behavior or judgment of others (usually in positions of power) unfairly or illegally by offering them favors or gifts.

    2. Gravity is defined as the natural force by which objects are attracted to each other, especially that by which a large mass pulls a smaller one to it.

    3. The millennium bug refers to the computer glitch that arises from an inability of the software to deal correctly with dates of January 2000 or later.

    4. Globalization is understood as the development so as to make possible international influence or operation.

    II. Write a one-paragraph definition of the following words.

    1. hypothesis

    A hypothesis is an idea which is suggested as a possible way of explaining facts, proving an argument, etc. Through experiments, the hypothesis is either accepted as true (possibly with improvements) or cast off.

    2. science

    Science is defined as the intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behavior of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment.

    3. superstition

    Superstition refers to a belief which is not based on reason or fact but on old ideas about luck, magic, etc. For example, it is a common superstition that black cats are unlucky.

    4. pessimism

    Pessimism is a tendency to give more attention to the bad side of a situation or to expect the worst possible result. A person with pessimism is a pessimist who thinks that whatever happens is bad.

    5. individualism

    Individualism is the idea that the rights and freedom of the individual are the most important rights in a society. It has a bad sense in that little attention is paid to the rights of the collective or a good one in that independence is emphasized rather than dependence on others.

    Text 2 Physics Awaits New Options as Standard Model Idles

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I. Vocabulary

    1. C 2. A 3. B 4. A 5. C 6. D 7. D 8. B

    II. Definition

    1. A refrain 2. A spark 3. A jingle 4. Symmetry

     5. develops or studies theories or ideas about a particular subject.

    6. studies the origin and nature of the universe.

    7. studies the stars and planets using scientific equipment including telescopes. III. Mosaic

    1. gravity 2. anti-/opposite

    3. D 4. B 5. A 6. A 7. B 8.A

    IV. Translation

    A. (Refer to the relevant part of the Chinese translation)

    B.The Standard Model of particle physics is an unfinished poem. Most of the pieces are there,

    and even unfinished, it is arguably the most brilliant opus in the literature of physics. With

    great precision, it describes all known matter all the subatomic particles such as quarks

    and leptons as well as the forces by which those particles interact with one another.

    These forces are electromagnetism, which describes how charged objects feel each others

    influence: the weak force, which explains how particles can change their identities, and the

    strong force, which describes how quarks stick together to form protons and other

    composite particles. But as lovely as the Standard Models description is, it is in pieces,

    and some of those pieces those that describe gravity are missing. It is a few shards of

    beauty that hint at something greater, like a few lines of Sappho on a fragment of papyrus. V. Grouping

    A. Particle physics:

    supersymmetry, equation, superpartners, string

    B. Strangeness:

    bizarre, beyond the ken of

    C. Antonyms:

    gravityantigravity

     1. novelty 2. revelatory 3. Symmetry 4. gravity

    VII. Topics for Discussion and Writing

    (Omitted)

    WRITING • STRATEGY • EXEMPLIFICATION AND ILLUSTRATION

    (Omitted)

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    Text 3 Supporting Science

I. Vocabulary

    1. D 2. C 3. A 4. C 5. C 6. A 7. B 8. A 9. C 10. D 11. B 12. A II. Definition

    1. A portfolio 2. A vista 3. Cryptography 4. Paleontology

    5. a business or an undertaking that has recently begun operation

    6. a group of people having common interests

    7. a person with senior managerial responsibility in a business organization III. Rhetoric

    1. pouring money into 2. column 3. unbridled 4. twilight 5. blossomed into IV. Mosaic

    1. phenomenon criterion datum medium

    (because these words originated from Latin and retain their Latin plural form)

    2. A 3. A 4. B 5. B 6. B 7. C 8. B

    V. Translation

    A. (Refer to the relevant part of the Chinese translation)

    B. The five scientists who won the 1996 Nobel Prize point out that the present prosperity

    and development are based on the fruits of basic scientific research and the negligence of

    basic scientific research will threaten human development of the 21st century.

    EU countries noticed that one of their weaknesses is ―insufficient investment in

    research and development.‖ Korea and Singapore do not hesitate to pour money into

    research and development. The developed countries in the West have used most of the

    scientific and technological development resources for the research and development of

    new and high technology. This has become an obvious trend at present. It is evident from

    the experiences of various countries that new and high technology can create and form

    new industries, open up and set up new markets. The innovation of traditional industries

    with new and high technology is a key method to strengthen the competitive competency

    of an enterprise.

    VI. Grouping:

    A. Negligence of basic research:

    corporate breakups, cut back on research, ignore it, subject to a protracted dissection and

    review, second-guessing, dropped dramatically, subjected to a scrutiny, skirking our

    support

    B. Significant examples of basic research:

    computing, biotechnology, the Internet, number theory, complex analysis, coding theory,

    cryptography, dinosaur paleontology, genetics research)

    C. Ways to intensify arguments:

    moved support for science from a ―want to have‖ squarely into the ―need to have‖

    column

    1. resounding 2. second-guessing 3. downsized 4. subjected

    VII. Topics for Discussion and Writing

    (Omitted)

     4

WRITING • STRATEGY • COMPARISON, CONTRAST, AND ANALOGY

     (Omitted)

    Text 4 Why Must Scientists Become More Ethically Sensitive Than

    They Used to Be?

I. Vocabulary

    1. B 2. B 3. A 4. C 5. B 6. D 7. D 8. A 9. D 10. B 11. B 12. D II. Definition

    1. A constraint 2. Algorithm 3. A prerequisite 4. Ethics

    5. an important topic or problem for debate or discussion

    6. a person‘s principles or standards of behaviour; one‘s judgement of what is important in

    life.

    7. a formal plan put forward for consideration to carry out a project III. Rhetoric

    1. brushed under the carpet 2. smell 3. hands and brains

    4. battle front 5. module . . . module

    IV. Mosaic

    1. /z/ /s/ /s/ /z/ /s/

    /s/ /iz/ /z/ /s/ /z/

    /iz/ /z/ /s/ /z/ /z/

    /z/ /s/ /s/ /z/ /z/

    /s/ after voiceless consonants

    /z/ after voiced consonants

    /iz/ after a word ended with es

    2. B 3. D 4. A 5. D 6. A 7. C

    V. Translation

    A. (Refer to the relevant part of the Chinese translation)

    B. Scientists and medical ethicists advocate the prohibition of human cloning as a way to

    produce life. They all agree that human cloning exerts severe threats on human dignity.

    Social critics point out that cloned children will lack personality and noumenon. G. Annas,

    professor of health laws in Boston university, points out that ―human cloning should be

    banned because it may fundamentally alter the definition of ourselves.‖

    VI. Grouping:

    A. The change of attitudes towards ethical consideration:

     occupy media slots and Sunday supplements, latest battle front, can no longer be swept

    aside, more sensitive

    B. Academic science:

     a worldwide institutional web, peer review, respect for priority of discovery,

    comprehensive citation of the literature, meritocratic preferment, smuggle ethical

    considerations from private life, from politics, from religion, from sheer humanitarian

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    sympathy

    C. Industrial science:

     intimately involved in the business of daily life

    D. Post-academic science:

     a succession of ―projects‖, compound moral risks with financial risks, largely the work of

    teams of scientists

     1. individualistic 2. energized 3. comprehensive 4. heterogeneous

    VII. Topics for Discussion and Writing

    (Omitted)

    CAUSE AND EFFECT WRITING • STRATEGY •

     (Omitted)

    Text 5 Beauty, Charm, and Strangeness: Science as Metaphor

I. Vocabulary

    1. B 2. A 3. C 4. B 5. C 6. B 7. A 8. B 9. A 10. C

    II. Rhetoric

    1. pitch 2. landscape 3. unblinking 4. yawn 5. wrings

    III. Mosaic

    1. physical poetic political scientific optical atomic

    2. (Omitted)

    3. B 4. B 5. A 6. C 7. D

    IV. Translation

    A. (Refer to the relevant part of the Chinese translation)

    B. There are only two forms of human spiritual creation: science and poetry. The former

    gives us convenience; and the latter gives us comfort. In more common words, the former

    enables us to have food to eat when we are hungry; and the latter makes us aware that eating

    is something more than eating, and it is very interesting as well. To have science without

    poetry, atomic bomb will be detonated; to have poetry without science, poets will starve to

    death.

     Scientists should not despise poets; and poets should not remain isolated from scientists.

    If the two fields conflict each other, human beings would be on the way to doom. In fact, the

    greatest scientists like Newton, Einstein and Mrs. Currie were all endowed with poetic spirit.

    I assert that in observing the apple falling to the ground, Newton not only discovered the

    gravity of the earth, he also wrote a beautiful poem.

    V. Grouping

    A. Human reason:

    guilty of hubris, cramped imagination, commonsense logic, an ignorant man

    B. Differences between art and science:

    different in their methods and in their ends, a scientific hypothesis can be proven, new

    combinations of old materials, transform the ordinary into extraordinary, a practical

    extension into technology, the sense of an ending

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    C. Similarities between art and science:

    in their origin, quest to reveal the world

     1. indistinguishable 2. transform 3. poetic 4. extension 5. subdue

    VI. Topics for Discussion and Writing

    (Omitted)

    WRITING • STRATEGY • DIVISION AND CLASSIFICATION

    I. Organize the following words into groups.

    People: physician; driver; boxer; mother; teacher

    Schools: school; college; institute; kindergarten; university

    Colors: brown; purple; violet; black; yellow

    Prepositions: along; toward; upon; without; into

    Verbs: listen; read; write; hear; look

    II. Complete the following lists.

    1. College students can be classified according to:

    A. academic achievement

    B. attitude toward politics, friendship, etc.

    C. sex

    D. height

    E. place of origin

    F. value of life

    G. major

     2. Transportation means can be classified according to:

    A. speed

    B. size

    C. use

    D. fuel

    E. comfort

    F. history

    G. water, land, or air III. Write a paragraph of classification on the books which you like to read.

    (Omitted)

    Text 6 Is Science Evil?

I. Vocabulary

    1. C 2. A 3. D 4. B 5. B 6.A 7. C 8. C 9. D 10. A II. Definition

    1. Canon 2. Validity 3. A premise 4. Disillusionment

    5. the process of establishing the truth, accuracy, or correctness of something

    6. a mode of thinking based on guessing rather than on knowledge III. Mosaic

    1. 1) / / illusion dis-=not -ment=noun ending

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     2) / / science pseudo-=false

     3) / / conscious -ness=noun ending

     4) / / question -able=adjective ending

     5) / / extenuate -ation=noun ending

     6) / / indict -ment=noun ending

     7) / / rebut -al=noun ending

     8) / / perpetrate -ion=noun ending

     9) / / problem -ic=adjective ending

     10) / / dissolute -ion=noun ending

    2. Para. 13: Only when scientific criticism is crippled by making particulars absolute can a

    closed view of the world pretend to scientific validity and then it is a false

    validity.

    Para.14: Out of dissatisfaction with all the separate bits of knowledge is born the desire to

    unite all knowledge.

    Para. 15: Only superficially do the modern and the ancient atomic theories seem to fit into

    the same theoretical mold.

    1) Para. 13: Only + adverbial clause of time + inverted order

    Para. 14: Prepositional phrase + inverted order

    Para. 15: Only + adverb + inverted order

    2) Inverted order is used to emphasize.

    3. C 4. B 5. A 6. C

    IV. Translation

    A. (Refer to the relevant part of the Chinese translation)

    B. At present there exist two conflicting tendencies towards the development of science and technology. The opponents of science hold that the development of modern science has not brought blessings to human beings, instead it has brought human beings to the very edge of disaster and peril. On the other hand, the proponents of scientific and technological progress maintains that the crises facing human beings todaysuch as environmental

    pollution, ecological unbalance, natural resource exhaustionare the natural

    consequences of the development of science, and the solution to which lies in the further development of science. Both of the above tendencies are reasonable in a sense with their respective one-sided view. If we view the development of modern science and technology from the point of view of our times and with dialectic viewpoints, we can find out that the problem facing modern science and technology is not how to understand the progress of modern science and technology, but how to find out the theoretical basis for the further development of science and technology in order to meet the needs of the times.

    V. Grouping

    A. Attitudes toward science:

    expect to be helped by science and only by science, the superstition of science, the hatred of science, the one great landmark on the road to truth

    B. Characteristics of science:

    powerful authority, solve all problems, thoroughly universal

    C. Scientific knowledge:

    a concrete totality, cannot supply us with the aims of life, cannot lead us

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    D. Contrast between ancient and modern science:

    progress into the infinite, making particulars absolute, not as an end in itself but as a tool

    of inquiry

    1. corruption 2. totality 3. inquiry 4. superstition 5. landmark

    VI. Topics for Discussion and Writing

    (Omitted)

    WRITING • STRATEGY • GENERALIZATION AND SPECIFICATION

    WRITING • STRATEGY • COMBINATION OF WRITING STRATEGIES

    (Omitted)

    Unit Two Engineering

    Text 7 Engineers’ Dream of Practical Star Flight

I. Vocabulary

    1. D 2. C 3. B 4. D 5. A 6. C 7.C

    II. Definition

     1. Annihilation 2. A skeptic 3. A cosmic ray 4. Anti-matter 5. A workshop

    6. the curved path in space that is followed by an object going around another larger object

    7. any one of the systems of millions or billions of stars, together with gas and dust, held

    together by gravitational attraction

    III. Mosaic

    1. 闭音节, 字母 u / / 的音,如A, C and D.

    2. (Omitted) 3. (Omitted)

    4. C 5. C 6. B 7. A 8. B

    IV. Translation

    A. (Refer to the relevant part of the Chinese translation)

    B. Human beings have long been attempting sending unmanned devices, called interstellar

    probes, into the outer space to understand the changes of climates, geological structures

    and the living beings on the stars and planets out there. A probe is usually sent into the

    orbit of the earth by ―riding‖ a spacecraft or carrier rockets. After its orbital adjustments

    are made, the rocket engine is ignited and the probe continues its journey to the orbit of

    the other star or planet. With the rocket engine broken off, the probe immediately spreads

    its solar-cell sails and antenna, controlling its posture with sensors. When convinced that

    it is in the orbit of the targeted star, the probe starts its propeller and flies to the preset

    destination.

    V. Grouping

    A. Astronomical phenomena:

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interstellar medium, a wind of particles, galaxy, reserves of comets, the Kuiper Belt,

    orbit, Pluto, the Oort Cloud, the bombardment photon B. Space equipment:

    interstellar probe, gravitational lens, chemical rocket, thruster, reflective sail

    C. To explore the universe:

    scoop, bend, sample

    D. Challenges and solutions in interstellar flights:

    carry its own supply of propellant, matter-antimatter, nuclear power 1. gravitational 2. propulsion 3. probed 4. interstellar

    VI. Topics for Discussion and Writing

    (Omitted)

    SIMILE AND METAPHOR WRITING • RHETORIC •

    I. Complete the following similes with the words given, using one word once only.

1. as drunk as a ___ bear 11. as cool as ___ cucumber______

    2. as faithful as a ___ dog_____ 12. as white as ____ snow ________

    3. as greedy as ____Jew_____ 13. as cunning as a ____ fox__________

    4. as rich as _____ king_____ 14. to fight like a ____ _lion_________

    5. as naked as a ___ frog_____ 15. to act like a stupid __ ass_________

    6. as red as a _ _lobster_ 16. to spend money like __ water_______

    7. as beautiful as a _ butterfly__ 17. to eat like a _ wolf________

    8. as busy as a ____ bee______ 18. to sleep like a _____ log ______

    9. as firm as a ____ rock _____ 19. to swim like a ____ fish________

    10. as rigid as a ___stone____ 20. to tremble like a _____ _ leaf_________

    II. Explain the following metaphors.

    1. Creaking doors hang the longest.

    creaking door: anything or anybody in a bad condition

    2. I could hardly put up with his acid comment.

    acid comment: bitter remark.

    3. Her eyes were blazing as she stormed at me.

    blazing: filled with anger

    stormed: shouted; screamed

    4. She burnt with love, as straw with fire flames.

    burnt with love: extremely excited with love

    5. The talk about raising taxes was a red flag to many voters.

    a red flag: a danger signal (that might stop the support of many voters) 6. The charcoal fire glowed and dimmed rhythmically to the strokes of bellows.

    glowed and dimmed: became bright and gloomy

    7. The city is a jungle where nobody is safe after the dark.

    a jungle: a disorderly place

    8. To me he is powerhe is the primitive, the wild wolf, the striking rattlesnake, the

    stinging centipede.

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