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(dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane)

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(dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane)

Lesson 8 A Fable for Tomorrow Name: Class

    Part I: About the author: Rachel Carson

    Read the following article and answer the questions:

    Silent Spring, written in 1962 by Rachel Carson (19071964), brought to public attention the results of

    indiscriminate use of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and other pesticides. Carson also criticized industrial society for abusing the natural environment and failing to recognize the threat to industry's own existence when natural processes are seriously disturbed. Far more than earlier calls to use modern technology responsibly, Silent Spring launched a revolution in attitudes at all levels of societyfrom

    schoolchildren to government and industrial leaders. Carson's power did not stem from a charismatic

    personality, but lay in her scientific knowledge and poetic writing.

    Born and raised in Springdale, Pennsylvania, near Pittsburgh, Carson witnessed how coal mining was despoiling the rural setting she loved. Already a devoted writer, as a child she published several stories in the children's magazine St. Nicholas. At Pennsylvania College for Women, now Chatham College, where she had been recruited as a scholarship student for her proven writing ability, she changed her major to biology.

    After graduation she held a summer study fellowship at the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, Massachusetts. There she first became acquainted with the ocean, which later became the topic of several of her best-selling books. She then entered Johns Hopkins University and completed a master's degree in marine zoology while serving as a teaching assistant and part-time instructor in biology at Johns Hopkins

    and the University of Maryland. When her father died, Carson became the sole support of her mother, who

    soon after had to raise two grandchildren when her other daughter died in 1937.

    In writing Silent Spring, Carson was transformed from a beloved nature writer into a crusader, battling in her quiet way with powerful political and economic interests. Although DDT was popularly viewed as a

    miracle of modern technologyespecially because it had been successfully used in World War II to kill fleas, mosquitoes, and other insects that can spread deadly diseasesbiologists had begun to compile

    evidence of the rise of DDT-resistant strains of insect pests and of the harmful side effects of DDT on other species. The U.S. Department of Agricultureand the manufacturers of DDT and similar

    pesticidesnonetheless continued to support strongly the use of these substances. But Carson's gripping

    accounts of ecological disasters were based on a meticulous search and use of scientific literature, and her conclusions were upheld by President John F. Kennedy's Science Advisory Committee, among other

    authorities. Carson, who was diagnosed with breast cancer in 1957, lived only two years after Silent Spring was published and witnessed just the beginning of the groundswell of support for her views.

     (source: http://www.chemheritage.org/classroom/chemach/environment/carson.html)

    Q1: What set Rachel Carson apart from other scientists and made her an influential figure in history?

    Q2: Whats the use of DDT?

    Part II: Before the blight (1): Line 1-9 On Vocabulary

    1. harmony n. without fighting and disagreeing

     * live ___________________ nature 與自然和諧相處

     ______________ adj.

     harmonica n. an instrument (_____________) 2. checkerboard n. a board that you play checkers on

     checkers n. a game (___________)

     cf. a skirt with a pattern of checkers 3. grain 1. n (u) the crops:

     2. n (c) a seed of crops: ___________________________________吃完碗裡每一粒米

     3. n a small piece of a substance

     * take something with ____________________________ 姑且聽之

    4. drift v. move on water or in the air ________________________________白雲飄向山去。

     *My friends and I drifted apart after graduation. ________________ 5. maple n. *____________________楓糖, pancake

    6. flame v. 1. burn brightly: Fire flamed up.

     *Her eyes flamed with anger. Cf. His eyes __________ with fury.(怒火中燒)

     2. become red(glow): _______________________________他的臉頰紅了起來。

     Cf. ____________, ___________(when you are embarrassed)

     n. burning gas 火焰

     * be ______ flames, burst into flames: _____________________________車子突然燒起來。

     _______________ adj. easily set on fire (=inflammable nonflammable) 7. flicker v. 1. burn in an unsteady way

     _____________________and then went out. 蠟燭閃爍幾下然後就熄掉。

     2. move back and forth: The leaves are flickering in the breeze.

     Cf. flick v. flick his fingers

    8. backdrop n. scenery behind

    On Main Idea(either in Chinese or English)

    (Where is the town? How does the town look?) ____________________________________________________________________________________

    ____________________________________________________________________________________

    Other Notes

    Line 1: once= at one time cf. at ________ time ㄧ次;同時

    Line 1: in the _________ of=in the center of.

    Line 1: a town .. __________關代all life seemed to live.

    Line 2: surround v.

     ____________ adj.

    Line 2 lie- ________, __________

     Cf. lay, laid, laid

    Line 3 in the ____________ of =in the middle of ..

    Line 4 orchard n. ___________

    Line 5 white clouds of bloom drifted _________ the green fields. Line 6 set up a __________ of color

    Line 6 a blaze of color that flamed and flickered ______ a backdrop of pines. Part II: Before the blight (line 9-22)

    On Vocabulary

    1. countless adj. numerous, infinite

    2. berry n.

    3. seed n. v.

     Cf. bud __________ root __________ stem ___________ blossom _______ 4. weed n. wild plants

     seaweed n ___________

    5. abundance n. * ______ abundance : There are food and drinks ______ abundance.

     ___________ adj.

     abound v. The forest abounds _______ deer.

    6. migrant n. ___________ birds

     migrate v. _________________ v. 移入 ______________ v. 移出

    7. shady adj. _____________ n. 陰涼處

     Cf. _______________陰影

    8. trout n. 鱒魚 (單複同形)

     Cf. _____________鮭魚

    9. settle v. 1. resolve a problem or argument, decide: ____________________解決爭議(dispute)

     2. start to live in one place: ____________________________他們在新竹定居。

     3. sink, drop: ____________________________________雪降在屋頂上。

     * settle for ___________: They wanted 2000 but settled for 1800.

     * settle sb down ____________: Please settle the baby down. His relentless cry drove me crazy.

     _____________ n. 移民 cf. immigrants emigrants

    10. sink (____________, ____________)

     vi _______________________________________船沉到水裡。

     vt dig a hole: _________________挖井

    11. barn n. for storing crops

    On Main Idea(either in Chinese or English)

    (What attract travelers from far and wide to the place?) ______________________________________________________________________________ Other Notes

    Line 9 delight v. 使心情愉悅 _____________________________________想一些會讓你高興的事。

     ___________ adj.

     delighted adj. *be delighted ______: _______________________________我喜歡她的改變。

    Line 10 through=__________

    Line 12: feed on : eat

     Cf. __________ on: be successful in the situation Line 13 on the seed heads of the dried weeds rising above the snow

     =on the seed heads of the dried weeds ___________________ above the snow Line 16 be famous/known/r_________ned/n___________s for

     Cf. be known as N, be known to N

    Line 16: the abundance and variety of N

     Cf. a wide variety of N, a d__________y of N, a wide range of N, a wide selection of N,

     a wide assortment of N

    Line 17: the ______ of migrants ㄧ群

     Cf. a _______ of birds, a ________ of cattle, a throng (crowd) of spectators, a school of fish

    Line 17. __________ __________湧進

    Line 18: __________ great dances

     Cf. Church bells rang ______ the distance. Line 19. _________ the streams ____________ flowed clear and cold out of the hills

    Line 20. Analyze the sentence:

     So it had been from the days many years ago when the first settlers raised their houses, barns.

Line 21: raise v. __________

     Cf. arouse, rise, arise

    Part III: Anorexic(Line 35-40)

    On Vocabulary

    1. blight n. unhealthy condition of plants

    2. creep (__________, __________) v.

     (an insect or small animals) crawl, move slowly:

     ____________________________________________毛毛蟲爬上我的手臂。

     * make ones flesh creep: 讓我覺得毛毛的(fear or strong dislike)

     creepy adj. ____________

    3. spell n. a magic spell

     __________/break a spell: (over sb)

     _____________________________________________女巫對王子下咒;讓他變成青蛙。

     Cf. an enchanted castle, a haunted house 4. malady n.(old use) an illness , an a________t

    5. puzzle v. perplex, b____________r, baffle

     n. a crossword puzzle_________ , a jigsaw puzzle _________, a sudoku puzzle _______

    On Main Idea(either in Chinese or English)

    (What happened after a strange blight struck?)

    ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Other Notes

    Line 23 crept ________ the area

    Line 24 Some(= _________ ) evil spell __________ on the community. Line 25 mysterious maladies __________ the flocks of chickens Line 26 the cattle and sheep __________ and died. (the cattle 永遠單數;the sheep單複同形)

    Line 26 Analyze the sentence: Everywhere was a shadow of death.

Line 27 speak of __________, think of__________, know of___________, hear of _________

    Line 29 new kinds of illness appearing among their patients.

     = new kinds of illness ________________ among their patients

    Line 30 not only A but also B V B

     =A as well as B ____________

     = A and B alike ____________

     =A along with B ____________

     =Both A and B _____________

     ____________________________________________那個小孩和他的父母都不准進入。 Line 31 strike ___________, __________

     Cf. be stricken sick

    Line 32 while at play, while on duty,..

    Part IV: Birds (Line 33-43)

    On Vocabulary

    1. stillness n. quiet (n)

     still adv. ___________________________________________他還不知道事實。

     adj. 1. not moving __________________________________________站著不要動。

     2. quiet: Still waters run deep. ____________________________

    2. disturb v. 1. bother:_________________________________我吵到你了嗎?

     2. upset: It disturbs sb to V 使我不太舒服

     _________________________________________想到他有可能對我覺得不太舒服。

     disturbing adj. _____________

     disturbed adj. _____________

     ___________________ n.

    3. moribund adj. dying

     Cf. morbid adj. 病態(about death) morbid curiosity

     _____________ adj. 不朽的

    4. tremble v. shake ____________________________________________他站在角落顫抖。

     Cf. shiver, vibrate 5. dawn n. at dawn

     v. It dawns on sb that .. 理解到

     ________________________________________________我突然理解到我不再年輕。 6. chorus n. 1. singing together 2. the singing group(=__________)合唱團

     Cf. ____________和弦; * ________________________ with sb 使人感動

    7. catbirds 貓聲鳥 8. doves 鴿子 (pigeon __________ ) 9. marsh n. wetland

     Cf. ________________ n. 沼澤

    On Main Idea(either in Chinese or English)

    (Why is the book given the title of Silent Spring?)

    ______________________________________________________________________________________

    Other Notes

    Line 35: had been vs. had gone

     __________________________________________我去過美國三次。

    Line 36. Many people spoke of them, puzzled and disturbed.

     _______________________________________那個媽媽看著剛出生的嬰兒;既心滿意足又驕傲。

Line 37 The ___________ station 餵食站

    Line 38 deserted, d___________te, abandoned Line 38 few vs. a few

     The few birds (________________ seen anywhere) were moribund

    Line 40 throb v. _____________________________________我的手指脹痛。

    Line 40 _________ the morning that had once throbbed with the dawn chorus of robins other bird voices)

    Line 40 _________ of=many=plenty of

    Line 41 sound vs. voice

    Line 42 only silence lay ________ the fields..

    Part V: Other animals (Line 43-48)

    On Vocabulary

    1. brood v.. sit on eggs

     n. a family of young birds born at the same time ㄧ窩

    2. hatch v. cause the young to come out eggs

     __________________________________________小企鵝一隻隻地孵出來。

    3. litter n. 1. waste paper, cans people throw away:(cf. trash, rubbish, garbage)

     ____________________________________人們亂丟垃圾。

     2. baby animals a mother gives birth to at the same time _________: a litter of kitten

    4. drone v. make a continuous low sound

     ____________________________________蜜蜂在花間嗡嗡地飛。

    5. pollination n.

     pollen n(u) __________

     pollinate v. fertilize flowers with pollen _____________________________蜜蜂為花朵傳粉。

     *Lets talk about the birds and bees.

    On Main Idea(either in Chinese or English)

    ________________________________________________________________________________

    Other Notes

    Line 46 bloom ___________ vs. blossom ____________ Part VI: Roadsides (Line 48-51)

    On Vocabulary

    1. withered adj. ________________枯葉

     ___________ v. dry up: _____________________________________花在烈日下枯萎。

     Cf. _____________ adj. 有皺紋的

    2. vegetation n. plants in general

     vegetable n.

     _______________________素食主義者

    3. angle n. from a different angle; from a different p____________ve

     v. fish with a hook and line 垂釣

     angler n. __________

    On Main Idea(either in Chinese or English)

    ________________________________________________________________________________________

    Other Notes

Line 48 The roadsides, __________ once so attractive, were now _________ with browned and withered

    vegetation as though _________________ swept by fire

    Line 50 These, too, were silent, __________ deserted by all living things. Line 51: no longer= not anymore= no more

     _______________________________他不再把減重當作自我表現的方式。

    Line 51 Anglers no longer visited them, _________ all the fish had died. Part VII: Conclusion (Line 55-64)

    On Vocabulary

    1. gutter n. edge of the road, edge of the roof

    2. patch n. 1. a small area: a patch of grass

     2. material covering a hole: Both knees of the jeans have patches. 3. lawn n. 草皮

     ___________________ 除草

    4. witchcraft n the magic power of a witch

     Cf. ___________________ n. 手工藝

     craft .n. 1. skill 2. flying vehicles: _________________飛行器

    5. enemy n. foe

     Cf. rival ______________, opponent __________________

    6. counterpart n. sth like the other one

     President Ma yen-jiou will meet his Chinese counterpart ______________ on March 3. 7. misfortune n. ________________________________________David 經歷一連串不幸的事。

     _____________ adj.

    8. substantial adj. considerable (in amount or number): 大量的房屋倒塌(collapse)

     ______________ n. 物質

    6. grim adj. 1. harsh, frightful: _______________________冷酷的表情

     2. unpleasant, make you feel unhappy _______________________他的未來看來不太樂觀。

    7. specter n. a ghost that people are afraid of

    8. stark ajd. 1. unadorned, no decoration, unpleasantly clear

     *the stark realities of life _____________________

     2. utter: stark madness ____________________

    On Main Idea(either in Chinese or English)

    What did the author try to alert people to by inventing an imaginary town or urge people to do? Who is to

    blame?

    ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ Other Notes

    Line 56. in this _________ world

     Cf. poverty-stricken ___________, grief-stricken_________ Line 60 _________ every one of these disasters has actually happened somewhere. Line 61 a number of Ns

     Cf. Name some phrases used to replace many: ________, a myriad of Line 62 A grim specter has crept upon us almost _____________. Line 63 imagined ________ , imaginative ___________, imaginary ____________________

Exercise

    180

    1. _________ 2. __________ 3. __________ 4. __________ 5. __________ 6. __________ 7._________ 8.___________ 9. __________10. __________ 11. __________ 12. __________ 181

    1. _______________________________________________________________________

    2._______________________________________________________________________

    3. _____________________________________________________________________

    4. ______________________________________________________________________

    5. ______________________________________________________________________

Problems threatening Mother Nature (p183)

    1. fossil fuels ____________

    2. dump ______________

    3. population expansion _______________

    4. vehicle exhaust ____________________

    6. pesticide ____________________

    8. habitat _____________________

    9. extinction ____________________

    10. deforestation ___________________

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