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# 32 Sphere and Food Aid & Food Security

By Patrick Sanchez,2014-06-26 22:15
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32 Sphere and Food Aid & Food Security ...

WORKING WITH THE SPHERE MINIMUM STANDARDS AND INDICATORS

InterWorks WORKSHOP GUIDE 3.2 Sphere and Food Aid & Food Security

Trainer’s Note Session at a Glance:

Content Activity Time 1 Introduction Brief Oral Presentation 5 minutes 2 Review of Sphere OH presentation with facilitated plenary 15 minutes

standards and indicators discussion

3 Ration Calculation Ration design exercise 35 minutes

Exercise

4 Logistics math for food Individual calculation exercise in steps with 30 minutes

aid programmes plenary review

5 Conclusions Brief Oral summary of main points 5 minutes

Total Session Time: 90 minutes

Required Materials: 3.2 OH set, well-marked Sphere book (chapter 3), flipcharts, calculators for

quick exercises, prepared nutritional values chart and tables for basic logistics planning, and the

Sphere - based spreadsheet for calculating ration commodities and food tonnage (attached to

this trainers note and the Excel file "The Sphere - Based Ration Calculator.xls").

Trainer’s Notes:

1. Introduction

This session, like the other “Sphere and…” sessions, is intended to make participants open, read, understand, and work with the Sphere Standards and Indicators for this chapter. It is useful at this

point to remind the participants that although this is a very useful tool, it is still far from perfect.

The food security standards are useful, but are treated in this session design rather quickly, with

more emphasis on food aid. If you wish to change the focus more to the food security aspect, you

should drop either the ration calculation or the food logistics exercise to make enough time

available.

Food security, in particular, is a huge field with numerous difficulties and interpretations. It is

important to note that the Food chapter of the 2004 edition of the Sphere standards is rather

"light" in comparison to the other chapters as well as to the topic of food aid itself. Nevertheless,

the document does provide some useful advice and information on this topic. One way to

encourage closer reading of the text and better understanding of its uses and limitations is to

challenge the readers to find and shortcomings, and or points that they find confusing or difficult

to understand. It is important that the facilitator is well prepared to note areas of interest and

critical concern relating to this topic, but which are not adequately addressed in Sphere.

The prepared OHs describe the structure of this Sphere chapter and explain where the standards

are found for the three components of the overall Food chapter: Nutrition, Food Aid, & Food

Security. Since the Nutrition components were already covered in the previous sessions, this

session focuses on Food Aid and Food Security only.

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WORKING WITH THE SPHERE MINIMUM STANDARDS AND INDICATORS

InterWorks WORKSHOP GUIDE

2. Review of Sphere Standards and Indicators

This part of the session is designed to “walk the participants through” each of the standards as well as the key indicators in this sector. It is sometimes useful to have different participants read them out and then recompose them in their own words to ensure that they are clear and that the whole group understands the main points of each standard. In every case, challenge the group to “test” the standard to see whether or not they agree that they are in fact, universal in nature and globally applicable. In many cases there is explanatory material provided to better explain some of the reasoning behind the indicators used.

The Food Security standards are treated first in the session. Keep this part of the session moving quickly. Explain that in this presentation more emphasis will be given to food aid than to food security, but that this doesn’t mean that one aspect if more important than the other. In fact, in

global terms food security is probably much more important than food aid, but the Sphere handbook materials simply provide more “pragmatic” guidance on the area of food aid - perhaps

because there is more general agreement on approaches to this than to food security?

Remember that this session is designed to provide a basic understanding of food aid issues to non-specialists, not a professional training for ration designers or logisticians. As such, providing a general understanding is good enough for our purposes.

3. Ration Calculation Exercise

Take the participants through this exercise step by step. At each step, indicate graphically how much each portion weighs, how big it is, what each means in practical day to day terms of carrying and moving these items. Use the Excel spreadsheet provided to demonstrate the result of changing values in a simple ration on screen. The way the presentation is structured, you will need to escape from the "show" mode in PowerPoint and double click in the cells you want to change to bring up the active Excel file.

4. Logistics Math for Food Aid Programs

The point of this part of the session is to make the indicators “come alive” for the participants. It should be very graphic. This presentation follows the structure of the chapter. Although the information is not particularly difficult, there is math involved, and this often frightens some and puts off other participants. It will be very useful to have several pocket calculators on hand for participants to works out the calculations involved in designing a basic food basket, converting this to tons required for a larger population, and ultimately converting this need to numbers of trucks needed to deliver the food required.

5. Conclusions

Review any questions or problems participants may have found in the chapter. Remind the group that the intent of the session is primarily to familiarize non-specialists with the basics (and basic terminology) of logistics, food aid, and distribution systems.

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WORKING WITH THE SPHERE MINIMUM STANDARDS AND INDICATORS

InterWorks WORKSHOP GUIDE APPROXIMATE NUTRITIONAL VALUES OF VARIOUS FOOD

COMMODITIES PER 100 GRAMS

COMMODITY ENERGY PROTEIN FAT Price per

(kcal) (g) (g) MT in

\$ USD CEREALS

Wheat 330 12.3 1.5 165

Rice 360 7.0 0.5 280

Sorghum/Millet 335 11.0 3.0 200

Maize 350 10.0 4.0 170 PROCESSED CEREALS

Maize meal 360 9.0 3.5 225

Wheat flour 350 11.5 1.5 240

Bulgur wheat 350 11.0 1.5 220 BLENDED FOODS

Corn soya blend 380 18.0 6.0 320

Wheat soya blend 370 20.0 6.0 390

Soy fortified bulgur wheat 350 17.0 1.5 240

Soy fortified maize meal 390 13.0 1.5 270

Soy fortified wheat flour 360 16.0 1.3 240

Soy fortified sorghum grits 360 16.0 1.0 190 DAIRY PRODUCTS

Dried skim milk (enriched) 360 36.0 1.0 1,900

Dried skim milk (plain) 360 36.0 1.0 1,800

Dried whole milk 500 25.0 27.0 2,200

Canned cheese 355 22.5 28.0 1,850 MEAT AND FISH

Canned meat 220 21.0 15.0 1,950

Dried salted fish 270 47.0 7.5 1,500

Canned fish 305 22.0 24.0 2,000 OILS AND FATS

Vegetable oil 885 0 100 750

Butter oil 860 0 98.0 2,300

Edible fat 900 0 100 950 PULSES

Beans 335 20.0 1.2 440

Peas 335 22.0 1.4 375

Lentils 340 20.0 0.6 500 MISCELLANEOUS

Sugar 400 0 0 350

High energy biscuits 450 12.0 15.0 1,250

Black tea 0 0 0 1,235

Iodized salt 0 0 0 150

Dates 245 2.0 0.5 1,900

Dried fruit 270 4.0 0.5 1,200

Note: prices quoted are free-on-board (FOB) and do not include transportation costs. Prices were compared

in 1998 and will vary over time. Updated information may be found from WFP.

ndTable is from UNHCR Handbook for Emergencies, 2 Edition, page 203.

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WORKING WITH THE SPHERE MINIMUM STANDARDS AND INDICATORS

InterWorks WORKSHOP GUIDE

Examples of adequate full rations for the affected population entirely reliant on food assistance(From WFP/UNHCR Guidelines for estimating food and nutritional needs. December 1997)

ITEMS RATIONS

(quantities in grams per person per day)

Type 1* Type 2* Type 3* Type 4** Type 5*

400 420 350 420 450 Cereal

60 50 100 60 50 Pulses

Oil (vitamin A fortified) 25 25 25 30 25

- 20 - 30 - Canned fish/meat

50 40 50 - - Fortified blended foods

15 - 20 20 20 Sugar

5 5 5 5 5 Iodized salt

- - - - 100 Fresh veg./fruit

- - - - 5 Spices

Energy: Kilo calories 2113 2106 2087 2092 2116 Protein (in grams and % of 58g, 11% 60g, 11% 72g, 14% 45g, 9% 51g, 10% total kcal)

Fat (in grams and % of total 43g, 18% 47g, 20% 43g, 18% 38g, 16% 41g, 17% kcal)

* For rations 1,2,3 & 5 the cereal used for the calculation is maize meal

** This ration has rice as a cereal; the low percentage energy for protein is acceptable due to its high

quality; the slightly low fat content is in line with food habits in rice -eating countries.

ndSource: UNHCR Handbook for Emergencies, 2 Edition - page 205

Some Commodity Distribution Guidelines

Distribution

Cereal 10 days Always distribute cereal and beans at the same time to Beans 10 days maximize their nutritional value. Oil Monthly If adequate storage containers are available. Sugar Monthly

Salt Monthly

Vegetables/Fruits 1-10 days Depending on variety. Canned meat/fish Monthly If containers are small (less than 120g). Cereal blend 10 days To avoid loss of nutrient in storage.

From UNHCR EMTP training materials, original citation is missing (sorry!)

Three Combinations of Ration Packages

(From USAID Commodities Reference Guide,

See: http://www.usaid.gov/hum_response/crg/module5.html#step4

Selection 1- Ration Package with Fewer Pulses

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WORKING WITH THE SPHERE MINIMUM STANDARDS AND INDICATORS

InterWorks WORKSHOP GUIDE

Energy Amount Commodity Protein (g) Fat (g) (kcal)

30 g Fortified oil 0 30 270

100g Blended food 17 7 376

Cereal flour or 30-35 3.5-6 1,260 1350g Rice

60g Pulse 13 <1g 204

2Total 60-65 41-44 2,100

Selection 2- Ration Package with Cereal and Legumes

Energy Amount Commodity Protein (g) Fat (g) (kcal) 35 g Fortified oil 0 35 315 100g Blended food 17 7 376

Cereal flour or 300g 25-30 3-5 1,080 1Rice

100g Pulse 22 <1g 340

2Total 64-69 46-48 2,111

Selection 3- Ration Package with No Blended Foods

Energy Amount Commodity Protein (g) Fat (g) (kcal) 40 g Fortified oil 0 40 360

Fortified cereal 400g 35-40 4-7 1,440 3flour

90g Pulse 20 <1g 306

2Total 55-65 44-47 2,106

1. If an unmilled cereal other than rice is used, then 10% more should be included to account for difference

in energy and another 10% for costs/losses during milling.

2. 1g fat = 9 kilocalories

3. Without the blended food to supply micronutrients, only a fortified milled flour should be used.

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WORKING WITH THE SPHERE MINIMUM STANDARDS AND INDICATORS

InterWorks WORKSHOP GUIDE

APPROXIMATE COMMODITY VOLUME PER TONNE

COMMODITY APPROXIMATE VOLUME PER TONNE 3 /1,000kg) (mWATER 1 (exactly)

BAGGED DRY FOOD CEREALS/PULSES 2

BAGGED FLOUR/BLENDED FOODS 2

DSM IN BAGS 2.4

DSM IN TINS INSIDE CARTONS 4

EDIBLE OIL IN TINS INSIDE CARTONS 2

OIL IN DRUMS 1.4

ndAdapted from UNHCR Handbook for Emergencies, 2 Edition, page 374

CARRYING CAPACITIES OF VARIOUS VEHICLES

TRANSPORT CHOICE VOLUME WEIGHT 3(m) (kg) Standard railway car 52 30,000 20 ft. sea/land shipping container 30 18,000 40 ft. sea/land shipping container 65 26,000 Large lorry and trailer varies 20 - 30,000 Large articulated lorry varies 30 - 40,000 Medium lorry varies 5 - 8,000 Typical water tanker 8 8,000 Hand drawn cart varies 300 Camel varies 250 Donkey varies 100 Bicycle varies 100 ndAdapted from UNHCR Handbook for Emergencies, 2 Edition, page 375

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