12. Industrial Revolution
Transformation in Transportation交通业, 1700-1800
； English land travel was extremely difficult and costly昂贵,water transportation was much cheaper. ; ---Bristol to Philadelphia---6 pounds.
; ---Bristol to 30 mi. inland---6 pounds.
； In 1500, it was much easier to get around环绕France than England (France had built roads for
th； In the late 18 century, the English put large amounts of capital资金into building canals运河and
improving the transportation system.
; ---1750-1820, England builds 3k mi of canals.
Lowers cost of transport.
Lowers cost of goods.
Betters Bridges and Roads
； Iron Bridge, the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution. ； Abraham Darby pioneers先锋者the use of coke煤in iron铁instead of charcoal木炭, allows for
； World’s first cast iron bridge built in 1781.
； England needs better roads as well.
； Building of turnpikes收费高速公路, which require a toll通行费to travel upon, and people invested
投资in them to make money.
; ---1750: 3.4K mi of turnpikes.
; ---1770: 15K mi of turnpikes.
; ---1836: 20K mi of turnpikes.
； England’s public roads were built by private funding资金 基金.
； By 1836, England has by far最多the transportation network in the world.
Revolution in Energy, 1650-1800
； Wood had been the main source of energy before 1650. ； Wood boiled煮沸sea water to make salt, to brew酿beer, heat homes取暖, etc and charcoal木炭.
； Before industrialization, wood is renewable可再生. It could be grown fast enough to sustain维持the
thuse, but by mid-18 century, it is evident显然that wood is in short supply. ； Production of steel钢and iron takes huge amounts of trees. To make 378 tons of cast iron铸铁for a
bridge, it took 4,000 acres英亩 of trees.
； Need new source of energy.
； Without coal, there is no industrial revolution, but there were problems.
； It is possible to make coal from trees, but for 1 ton of coal, you need 1 acre of forest.
； 1830, England had only 14m acres under cultivation耕种, but needed much more for railroads,
iron, etc, had to find a new source of coal.
； By 1870, England is consuming消耗100m tons of coal a year, not enough trees. ； England did not mine for coal until it was forced to by a timber木材shortage.
Invention of Machine Power
； It is difficult to get coal out of the ground because after digging so far, water table fills up tunnel隧道.
； During the Scientific Revolution, people learned about vacuums真空and suction吸入-hearting water
can cause a vacuum.
； Thomas Newcomen invented the steam engine蒸汽机in 1715 to remove water from the mines矿
； It was very slowing, inefficient无效率, and not portable轻便.
； James Watt worked on steam engines and improved Newcomen’s engine.
; ---He created a piston engine活塞发动机.
； Railways had been around for a long time, powered by animals with carts手推车.
； World’s first steam locomotive火车头invented in 1804 in Coldbrookdale, England.
; ---Not long before RR travel becomes available for the masses群众,cheaper prices for freight运
费meant cheaper prices for goods.
Horizontal Loom水平织布机and the Spinning Wheel手纺车
； Since the middle Ages, people make clothes on loom and wheel at home. ； Richard Arkwright creates water frame水力织布机, which is several hundred times faster than
old spinning wheel.
; ---Used water power at first, and then by 1780s, it is connected to a steam engine蒸汽机.
； Transforms改造England, making it a huge exporter出口商of textiles纺织品after 1800.
; ---England makes world’s textiles纺织原料.
; ---Renews更新life in US slavery奴隶with great demand需求for cotton棉花.
； First factories appear in England in 1760.
； Water-powered水力, then steam, so now, factories can be located anywhere. ； All over England, peasants kicked off land, so they went to work in the factories.
； Big textile防治industries as well as steel and iron.
th； By the first decades十年of the 19 century, the industrial Revolution means three things. ; Invention and improvement of the steam engine.
; Application of transportation (RR) and to textiles纺织业(factory).
; Emergence出现of new modes模式of social organization (factory system). ； Brings about huge changes in world.