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Victorian Literature

By Paula Smith,2014-02-17 13:58
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Victorian Literature

    Victorian Literature

    ; Novel

    o (Critical) realist novel: reveal the social reality and criticize the injustice,

    poverty and religious hypocrisy

    ; Charles Dickens

    ; Oliver Twist

    ; Great Expectations

    ; Hard Times

    ; William Makepeace Thackeray

    ; Vanity Fair

    ; Elizabeth C. Gaskell

    ; Mary Barton

    ; Cranford

    ; Anthony Trollope

    ; Barchester Towers

    ; Charlotte Bronte

    ; Jane Eyre

    ; Emily Bronte

    ; Wuthering Heights

    ; George Eliot

    ; Adam Bede

    ; The Mill on the Floss

    ; Silas Marner

    ; Middlemarch

    ; Thomas Hardy

    ; Return of the Native

    ; Mayor of Casterbridge

    ; Tess of D??Urbervilles

    ; Jude the Obscure

    o Naturalist: a higher form of realism

    e.g. Emile Zola (1840-1902), Henry James (1843-1916), Thomas Hardy

    ; People should give up the religious and remote world and to

    embrace the present, real world in which we lived

    ÏÖʵÖ?ÒåÎÄÑ??Û

    ; upheld the principle of pure and faithful records of facts from

    physiological, pathological, experimental medical points of view,

    paying great attention to detailed description of the trivial and

    common life scenes and environmental scenes in attempt to

    reveal the most natural in human nature and life ÏÖʵ + ?ÆÑ?

    ; pure description/imitation without imagination, idealization, a

    return to facts, to reveal Nature and Man in their natural state in

    search for the eternal essence ÏÖʵºÍ?ÆÑ?µÄ×?È? / ??È?ÐÔ

    ; used the concrete in place of the abstract Ï??Ú

    ; used the ordinary in place of the particular Ò??ã

    ; emphasis of the negative or bestial side of human nature and life

    ÊÞÐÔ?É?Ö

    ; emphasis of refined art and form ?ÆÑ?

    ; Gustave Courbet (1819-1877): poetry speaks in a different way

    from the world and shows the pretension of aristocracy, while

    novel is closer to people ?óÖÚ??

o Aestheticist writers

    e.g. Matthew Arnold (1822-88), Walter Pater (1834-94), Oscar

    Wilde (1856-1900), Baudelaire [Fr] (1821-67) and Edgar Allan Poe, who

    believed in ??art for art??s sake??

    ; Beauty is the purpose of art; the ultimate and highest and absolute

    goal.

    ; The purpose of art is found in art itself or beauty of art, not in truth.

    ; Art is independent of reality or life; its value lies outside social

    value/morality.

    ; Art is above life.

    ; Art is objective creation of a subjective world; a product of spiritual

    loneliness and isolation.

    ; Prose

    o Thomas Carlyle

    e.g. On Heroes and Hero Worship

    o John Ruskin

    e.g. Modern Painters

    o Matthew Arnold

    e.g. Culture and Anarchy

    ; Poetry

    o Alfred Tennyson (1809-1892): poet laureate and the representative or

    spokesperson of the age

    ; In Memoriam

    ; Idylls of the King

    ; ??Ulysses??

    ; ??Break, Break, Break??

    o Robert Browning (1812-1889): the most innovative poet of the age

    ; ??dramatic monologue??

    ; The Ring and the Book

    ; ??My Last Duchess"

    o Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1806-1861)

    ; Sonnets from the Portuguese

    o Matthew Arnold (1822-1888)

    ; ?? Dover Beach??

    o The Pre-Rhaphaelites (the Rossettis, sacred inspiration)

    ; Drama

    o Oscar Wilde

    ; The Importance of Being Earnest

    ; Salom??

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