o (Critical) realist novel: reveal the social reality and criticize the injustice,
poverty and religious hypocrisy
; Charles Dickens
; Oliver Twist
; Great Expectations
; Hard Times
; William Makepeace Thackeray
; Vanity Fair
; Elizabeth C. Gaskell
; Mary Barton
; Anthony Trollope
; Barchester Towers
; Charlotte Bronte
; Jane Eyre
; Emily Bronte
; Wuthering Heights
; George Eliot
; Adam Bede
; The Mill on the Floss
; Silas Marner
; Thomas Hardy
; Return of the Native
; Mayor of Casterbridge
; Tess of D??Urbervilles
; Jude the Obscure
o Naturalist: a higher form of realism
e.g. Emile Zola (1840-1902), Henry James (1843-1916), Thomas Hardy
; People should give up the religious and remote world and to
embrace the present, real world in which we lived
; upheld the principle of pure and faithful records of facts from
physiological, pathological, experimental medical points of view,
paying great attention to detailed description of the trivial and
common life scenes and environmental scenes in attempt to
reveal the most natural in human nature and life ÏÖÊµ + ?ÆÑ?
; pure description/imitation without imagination, idealization, a
return to facts, to reveal Nature and Man in their natural state in
search for the eternal essence ÏÖÊµºÍ?ÆÑ?µÄ×?È? / ??È?ÐÔ
; used the concrete in place of the abstract Ï??Ú
; used the ordinary in place of the particular Ò??ã
; emphasis of the negative or bestial side of human nature and life
; emphasis of refined art and form ?ÆÑ?
; Gustave Courbet (1819-1877): poetry speaks in a different way
from the world and shows the pretension of aristocracy, while
novel is closer to people ?óÖÚ??
o Aestheticist writers
e.g. Matthew Arnold (1822-88), Walter Pater (1834-94), Oscar
Wilde (1856-1900), Baudelaire [Fr] (1821-67) and Edgar Allan Poe, who
believed in ??art for art??s sake??
; Beauty is the purpose of art; the ultimate and highest and absolute
; The purpose of art is found in art itself or beauty of art, not in truth.
; Art is independent of reality or life; its value lies outside social
; Art is above life.
; Art is objective creation of a subjective world; a product of spiritual
loneliness and isolation.
o Thomas Carlyle
e.g. On Heroes and Hero Worship
o John Ruskin
e.g. Modern Painters
o Matthew Arnold
e.g. Culture and Anarchy
o Alfred Tennyson (1809-1892): poet laureate and the representative or
spokesperson of the age
; In Memoriam
; Idylls of the King
; ??Break, Break, Break??
o Robert Browning (1812-1889): the most innovative poet of the age
; ??dramatic monologue??
; The Ring and the Book
; ??My Last Duchess"
o Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1806-1861)
; Sonnets from the Portuguese
o Matthew Arnold (1822-1888)
; ?? Dover Beach??
o The Pre-Rhaphaelites (the Rossettis, sacred inspiration)
o Oscar Wilde
; The Importance of Being Earnest