The HIV/AIDS Response by the Education Sector:
This checklist responds to four key issues:
o Sector policy
o Management and planning
o Orphans and vulnerable children
This checklist is based on experiences from 33 countries in sub-Saharan Africa and 10 countries in Asia. It was developed by Don Bundy, Andy Tembon, Alexandria Valerio and Stella Manda (World Bank), Amaya Gillespie (UNICEF), David Clarke (DfID), Christine Panchaud (UNESCO –IBE), Seung Hee Lee (Save the Children, USA) and Lesley Drake, Matthew Jukes (Partnership for Child Development) It is a product of the UNAIDS Interagency Task Team for Education Working Group to Accelerate the Education Sector response to HIV/AIDS, 2003. It is a work in progress and further contributions are welcomed. Please contact www.schoolsandhealth.org
Sector Policy Checklist
Check Item Comment
National HIV/AIDS Strategy Demonstrates the government’s commitment to responding to
o has been adopted by the government HIV/AIDS. The inclusion of the education sector shows the
o includes education in a multisectoral approach recognition of the role of the sector in the response.
National Education Sector HIV/AIDS Strategy Shows how the sector plans contribute to the response to
o has been adopted by the Ministry of Education HIV/AIDS nationally. Inclusion in the education plan (and
o has been incorporated in the national sector plan EFA) indicates how this strategy will be implemented.
Education sector policy for HIV/AIDS Addresses sector specific HIV/AIDS issues. The policy will
o has been adopted by Ministry of Education only be effective if it is owned by the relevant stakeholders,
o has been shared with all stakeholders and especially the teaching unions, and if it is widely known and
disseminated understood. Addressing curriculum at this stage can facilitate
o addresses gender, curriculum content, planning issues, dialogue and agreement with the community on sensitive
and education needs of orphans and vulnerable issues that can otherwise slow progress in implementation.
children Establishing policy is the essential first step in an effective
o includes workplace policy response.
Workplace policy addresses HIV/AIDS presents major new issues in the workplace (the
o stigma and discrimination in recruitment and career school, the office): recruitment and career progression are
advancement constrained by stigma and discrimination; sick leave policies
o sick leave and absenteeism rarely cope with long-term disease, and encourage
o dissemination and enforcement of codes of practice, undisclosed absenteeism; codes of practice that forbid sexual
especially with respect to the role of teachers in abuse of pupils are rarely enforced; easy access to VCT,
protecting children treatment and psychosocial support. The public sector can
o care, support and treatment of staff often learn from the private sector in developing a workplace
o access to voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) response.
Planning and Management Checklist
Check Item Comments
Management of the sector response requires: Mainstreaming the HIV/AIDS response requires, at least
o an interdepartmental committee initially, mechanisms for involving all departments (the
o department focal points who have HIV/AIDS activities committee) and for implementation (the unit). Keys to
as a specific part of their job description success are: the focal points have space in their work program
o a secretariat or unit that supports the mainstreaming to allocate time to HIV/AIDS; the unit reports to the highest
of the response, and has clear political support level; the unit is led at the department director level. The
o understanding of new sources of financial support sector can now access financial resources (eg MAP, Global
Fund) often thought to be exclusive to the health sector.
For short to medium term planning use the Education Even where an effective EMIS is unavailable, school survey Management Information System (EMIS) or school survey data can be used to assess the impact of HIV/AIDS on the data to assess: education system. This should relate district level education
o HIV/AIDS specific indicators data to the geographical pattern of the epidemic, using
o teacher mortality and attrition data epidemiological data from the health service.
o teacher absenteeism data
o district level data
For long term planning: The effects of the epidemic have a time scale of decades, and
o computer model projection of the impact of HIV/AIDS impacts only slowly become apparent. Long term planning
on education supply and demand similarly requires projection of impact over decades, which is
o assessment of the implications of changes in supply for best achieved using computer projection models, such as
teacher recruitment and training EdSIDA, which combine epidemiological and education data.
o assessment of the implications of changes in the size of Projection allows for the planning of future teacher supply
the school age population and proportion of orphans needs, and where necessary the reform of teacher training
and vulnerable children for education demand schedules.
Check Item Comments
Achieve Education for All Completion of education is a social vaccine vs HIV/AIDS.
Prevention curriculum requirements: The aim is to develop knowledge and protective behaviors:
o formal and non-formal, within the national curriculum start before risky behaviors have become established; match
o begin early, before the onset of sexual activity content to the development stage of the child; use teaching
o use grade and age specific content methods which establish skills, values and practices to help
o develop participatory teaching methods children protect themselves. Use of a single carrier subject (eg
o include a life skills approach social studies) is often more realistic than more complex
o use a carrier subject approaches (eg spiral, diffusion). Failure to involve the
o teach in the context of school health (eg FRESH) community in this potentially sensitive area is one of the
o ensure community ownership and support major causes of delay in implementation.
Teacher training in HIV/AIDS prevention requires Preventive education is more frequently taught as part of in-
development of: service training than pre-service. While it is necessary for
o pre-service training and materials both, new teachers may be more readily trained in the
o in-service training and materials participatory methods that are required to teach the subject.
o messages and approaches that help teachers to protect Teacher training institutions frequently overlook the benefits
themselves of helping teachers to protect themselves.
Complementary approaches: An holistic approach is essential for effective prevention. Peer
o peer education education is particularly important for reinforcing active
o MinEd has input to community IEC strategies learning by youth. IEC strategies ensure consistent messages
o MinEd coordinates with NGO prevention programs to in the school, home and community. Building on existing
provide consistent messages NGO programs speeds up the response. Early and effective
o MinEd assists MoH in promoting youth-friendly treatment of STIs is effective in reducing HIV transmission,
clinics for the treatment of sexually transmitted youth need access to condoms to translate learned behaviors
infections (STIs) and condom distribution into practice.
Orphans and Vulnerable Children Checklist
Check Item Comments
Barriers to education are removed: Achieving EFA enhances access, including for OVC. School
o achieve Education for All fees in particular may prevent OVC from accessing
o abolish school fees education. Abolition provides partial relief, but fees are often
o develop a mitigation strategy to avoid informal and substituted by levies (eg for textbooks, PTA, uniforms).
illegal levies Social funds offering subsidies through schools, PTAs or the
o subsidize payment of informal levies community can help overcome these barriers.
The education system helps maintain attendance: Ensuring that OVC are able to attend school is only the
o offer conditional cash (or food) transfers beginning: they also require support to remain in school. One
o provide school health programs, including effective method is to offer caregivers cash (or food) transfers
psychosocial counseling that are conditional upon attendance. OVC have typically
suffered severe shock, and benefit from school health
programs based on the FRESH framework.
The education sector works with other agencies providing Long term care, support and protection of OVC is typically care, support and protection: the mandate of social programs under Ministries of Welfare
o MinEd coordinates with NGOs of Social Affairs. In practice NGOs are often most directly
o MinEd coordinates with Ministry of Welfare/Social involved in these programs, and offer an immediate point of
Affairs entry. In both cases, it is important that the MinED ensures
that education system programs are complementary with
Materials available from email@example.com or www.schoolsandhealth.org
for supporting the development of the key components of the education sector
response to HIV/AIDS.
o An ILO Code of Practice on HIV/AIDS and the World of Work (ILO, 2001)
o Implementing the ILO Code of Practice: An education and training manual (CD format)
o The Namibia Ministry of Education National Policy on HIV/AIDS and Education
o HIV/AIDS and Education: A Strategic Approach (UNAIDS Inter Agency Task Team on HIV/AIDS and Education, 2002) o Education and HIV/AIDS: A Window of Hope (World Bank, 2002)
Management and planning
o Education and HIV/AIDS: Modeling the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Education Systems: A training Manual (The World Bank and UNAIDS,
o Using school survey data to project the impact of HIV/AIDS on the education sector in Mozambique, as a component of the planning for
the FTI response (Alexandria Valerio and Kamal Desai, 2002)
o Education and HIV/AIDS: A Sourcebook of HIV/AIDS Prevention Programs in Schools (World Bank and Development Cooperation
o UNAIDS Benchmarks for Effective HIV/AIDS Prevention Programs in Schools (UNAIDS IATT Working Group, 2002) o Focusing Resources on Effective School Health: a FRESH Start to Enhancing the Quality and Equity of Education (UNESCO, UNICEF,
WHO and World Bank, 2000)
o Focusing Resources on Effective School Health: a FRESH Approach to achieving Education for All (UNESCO, UNICEF, WHO, World
o Focusing Resources on Effective School Health: a FRESH Start to Enhancing HIV/AIDS Prevention (UNICEF, UNESCO, WHO and the
World Bank, 2002)
Orphans and vulnerable children
o Education and HIV/AIDS: Ensuring Education Access for Orphans and Vulnerable Children – a Training Module (The World Bank and
o Children on the Brink (UNICEF and USAID, 2002)
o The Role of Education in Supporting and Caring for Orphans and other Children Made Vulnerable by HIV/AIDS (UNICEF, UNAIDS and
the World Bank, 2003)