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COMMISSION EUROPEENNE - DG X

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Free-lance translation 10/1362/99 EUROPEAN COMMISSION - DG X EUROPEAN NETWORK OF SPORT SCIENCE INSTITUTES EUROPEAN OBSERVATORY OF EMPLOYMENT IN SPORT PR-div/99-09/C6 SPORT AND EMPLOYMENT IN EUROPE FINAL REPORT SEPTEMBER 1999 This docu..

Free-lance translation

     10/1362/99

    EUROPEAN COMMISSION - DG X

    EUROPEAN NETWORK OF SPORT SCIENCE INSTITUTES EUROPEAN OBSERVATORY OF EMPLOYMENT IN SPORT

    PR-div/99-09/C6

    SPORT AND EMPLOYMENT

    IN EUROPE

    FINAL REPORT

    SEPTEMBER 1999

    This document was drawn up by:

    Nathalie LE ROUX, Pascal CHANTELAT and Jean CAMY (Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, France)

The information was collected by:

H. Blum (Federal Chancellery, International Sports Affairs, Austria)

    J. Camy (Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, France)

    P. Chantelat (Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, France)

    R. Claude (ENEPS, Luxembourg)

    L. Clijsen (Fit!Vak!, Netherlands)

    J. Eyckmans (KU, Leuven, Belgium)

    A.M. Eerola (University of Jyväskylä, Department of Social Sciences of Sport, Finland) M. Gehartl, (University of Salzburg, Institut of Sportscience, Austria) N. Le Roux (Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, France)

    A. Madella (CONI, Italy)

    A. Pilkington (SPRITO, United Kingdom)

    M. Tasks (KU, Leuven, Belgium)

    T. Willens (KU, Leuven, Belgium)

Acknowledgements to:

    ; Eurostat (Ana Franco)

    ; National Statistics Institutes of the 15 European Union Member States

    We should also like to thank all those whose contribution made this study possible (list appended).

    European Network of Sport Science Institutes - European Observatory of Employment in Sport - Sept. 1999

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    CONTENTS

    (SEPTEMBER 1999)

    SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................................................... 5

    INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................................... 10

    I- SUPPLY AND DEMAND FOR SPORTING ACTIVITIES IN EUROPE ............................................... 13 I-1. DEFINITIONS. SPORT AS AN ECONOMIC ACTIVITY: THE SPORTS-RELATED SECTORS AND THE SPORTS SECTOR13

    I-2- SPORTING ACTIVITIES (THE SPORTS SECTOR) ........................................................................................... 14 I-3- SPORTS-RELATED ACTIVITIES (THE SPORTS-RELATED SECTORS) ............................................................... 17 II- EMPLOYMENT SITUATION IN THE SPORTS SECTOR AND THE SPORTS-RELATED SECTORS IN EUROPE

     ....................................................................................................................................................................... 20

    II-1- EMPLOYMENT SITUATION IN THE SPORTS SECTOR IN EUROPE .................................................................. 21 II-1-1- Employment in the sports sector in Europe: total job numbers and trend .................................... 21 II-1-2- Trend in the total volume. ........................................................................................................... 22

    II-2- CHARACTERISTICS OF EMPLOYMENT IN THE SPORTS SECTOR IN EUROPE................................................... 23

    II-2-1- Part-time employment in the sports sector ................................................................................... 23

    II-2-2- Young people and employment in the sports sector in Europe. .................................................... 24 II-2-3- Women and employment in the sports sector in Europe. .............................................................. 25 II-2-4- Self-employed work in the sports sector in Europe. ..................................................................... 26

    II-2-5- Unpaid workers and professionals............................................................................................... 27

    II-2-6- Other characteristics of employment in sport. ............................................................................. 28

    II-2-7- Additional information on the sector ........................................................................................... 28

    II-2-8- Additional information on the sports-related sectors ................................................................... 29

    II-3- THE ORGANISATION OF WORK AND THE PROFESSIONS. ............................................................................ 31 II-3-1- Definitions: sport as a profession. ............................................................................................... 31

    II-3-2- Difficulties in counting professionals in sports and sports-related fields. .................................... 33 II-3-3- European estimates by occupation .............................................................................................. 34

    II-3-4- The occupational structure of the sports sector in Europe. .......................................................... 35

    II-4- POLICIES FOR EMPLOYMENT IN SPORT.................................................................................................... 36 II-4-1- Training facilities for professions in sport. .................................................................................. 36

    II-4-2- Access to employment in sport .................................................................................................... 37

    II-4-3- Arrangements for the recognition of qualifications ..................................................................... 37

    II-4-4- Policies to promote the development of employment in sport....................................................... 38 III- NATIONAL STRUCTURES .................................................................................................................. 42

    III-1- RECAP OF THE EUROPEAN MODELS OF SPORT......................................................................................... 42 III-1-1- At legislative level ..................................................................................................................... 42

    III-1-2 - The European model for financing sport ................................................................................... 44

    III-2- NATIONAL STRUCTURES AND EMPLOYMENT. ........................................................................................ 46 IV- UNCERTAINTIES AND SCENARIOS FOR EMPLOYMENT ........................................................... 50 IV-1- FROM PREDOMINANT TRENDS TO UNCERTAINTIES AND MAJOR STAKES ................................................... 50

    IV-1-1- Predominant trends relating to the demand for sport ................................................................. 51

    IV-1-2- Predominant trends relating to employment in sport .................................................................. 54

    IV-1-3. Institutional and political regulation of sport and employment in sport ..................................... 57 IV-1-4- Uncertainties and major stakes .................................................................................................. 58

    IV-2. THE SCENARIOS AND HOW THEY PROGRESS ........................................................................................... 62 IV-2-1- Standardised personalisation of sports services and the entrepreneurial model .......................... 63 IV-2-2. Scenario 2: The duality of sports services and the mixed model (entrepreneurial and bureaucratic) 65

    European Network of Sport Science Institutes - European Observatory of Employment in Sport - Sept. 1999

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    IV-2-3. Scenario 3: The new alliance between sports services and the articulated model (entrepreneurial, bureaucratic and

    mission-based) ....................................................................................................................................... 69

    V- CONCLUSION AND PUBLIC POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS....................................................... 76 V-1- DEVELOP THE SECTOR BY ORGANISING THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE SPORTS OPERATORS. ............... 76

    V-2- BOOST THE SKILLS OF THE HUMAN RESOURCES IN THE ASSOCIATIVE SECTOR TO PROMOTE SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT. 77

    V-3- CONSTRUCT A PROFESSIONAL SPORTS SECTOR AND SPORTS-RELATED SECTORS AS A PREREQUISITE FOR IMPROVING THE

    QUALITY OF EMPLOYMENT IN SPORT.............................................................................................................. 78 V-4- IMPROVE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRAINING AND EMPLOYMENT AND THE CAPACITY FOR OCCUPATIONAL INTEGRATION IN

    THE SPORTS SECTOR ..................................................................................................................................... 78

    BIBLIOGRAPHY ......................................................................................................................................... 80

    ANNEXES ..................................................................................................................................................... 86

    European Network of Sport Science Institutes - European Observatory of Employment in Sport - Sept. 1999

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    SUMMARY

    ; The purpose of this study, requested by DG X of the European Commission, is not only to take stock of employment (volume and characteristics) in the field of sport in the European Union, but also to obtain a better understanding of the institutional regulatory mechanisms at work in this very specific field. The

    aim is to propose a discussion with a prospective slant, enabling the operators of the European Union to target their strategies more effectively, with a view to developing employment and ensuring working conditions which are favourable to both employees (or self-employed workers) and entrepreneurs in sporting activities, whilst respecting the specific nature of sport.

    ; The first part presents the sports sector and sports-related sectors. The economic activities directly related to sport are identified (operation of sports facilities, supervision of sporting activities), as well as those necessary to, or generated by, sporting activities (production, distribution of sports goods, sports journalism, etc.). The term “sporting activities” covers several sub-sectors of varying degrees of

    importance. Professional sport for entertainment accounts for only a limited proportion of the abundance of jobs produced, although it is growing rapidly. The most important branch is that of leisure and tourism organised under the sectors of associative sports, leisure associations, and leisure and sports-related tourism companies. It draws 30% to 40% of the population of the EU. The organisation of sports competitions within clubs, which is at the heart of the sports movement, concerns under 10% of the EU population. Growth in the number of people employed in this segment is slow. Finally, we considered all the uses of sport to promote the integration of groups of the population in difficulty. This is a field which seems to be growing, but poses problems of identification and measurement which are difficult to resolve. The activities relating to sports are very numerous and fragmented. They range from the construction of sports facilities or equipment, to the manufacture and sale of sports goods, to all the related services (press, television, transport and special accommodation, public administration, education and training, health care, etc.). We show the economic importance of these activities and their growth accompanying that of the practice of sports. The data relating to these fields should, however, be considered with caution as it is still difficult to isolate the corresponding activities in the public statistics.

    ; The second part focuses on a preliminary comparative stock-taking of employment in sport in the EU Member States. Three quantitative statements can be made. The sports sector officially represents just under one million jobs (main occupation) in the 15 EU Member States.

    European Network of Sport Science Institutes - European Observatory of Employment in Sport - Sept. 1999

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    The number of jobs has risen very sharply in the past 10 years (on average over 50% more jobs), clearly confirming that sport, in its various forms, constitutes an interesting source of employment. The situation differs considerably from country to country, even taking account of the differences in the volume of activity (which varies considerably between the north and south of Europe). This depends not only on the role played by the various sports operators (associative, public, commercial). The existence of a large commercial sector seems to promote employment, even though it poses problems with regard to the consistency of supply in the sports sector and its ability to respond to all the social demands. From the qualitative point of view, the “sports professions” form a group, with each occupation having its own background, which is specific to each country and in the process of emerging for a large number of them. Training and the national regulations on the subject are an additional source of difficulty for forging "European occupational identities". Nevertheless, a convergence process is under way. It should be based on the recent development, in a still limited number of countries, of a social dialogue between employers and employees which is essential to standardise working conditions and to ensure better adaptation to the needs of enterprises. The public authorities, which start out from different situations and ideas as regards employment initiatives and regulations, also seem to be engaged in a convergence process.

    ; The third part aims to give an outline presentation of the kinds of balance to be observed in the various Union Member States between the sports system operators. The three configurations identified correspond to three dominant types:

    - The first, which we have termed "bureaucratic", is mainly run by the public

    authorities (central governments and local and regional authorities). It is characterised by

    voluntarist employment policies conducted with the active participation of a large number of

    public sector staff.

    - The second, which we have termed "entrepreneurial", adjusts to the various

    forms of demand and is based on initiatives conducted in an associative or commercial

    context. It is little regulated by the public authorities and the overall consistency of the

    sports system is sometimes in jeopardy. It nevertheless allows a high level of employment.

    - The third, which we term "mission-based", is characterised by the very marked

    presence of associative operators. The public operators leave it to them to define and

    implement the sports policy and the scope left to the commercial operators is relatively

    limited. This leads to a situation where employment in sport is little developed and where a

    certain resistance to the professionalisation of sports supervision is emerging.

    European Network of Sport Science Institutes - European Observatory of Employment in Sport - Sept. 1999

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    ; The fourth part offers a prospective analysis of employment in sport in Europe up to the year 2010. It identifies three scenarios, three pictures of the future, on the basis of which the participants in the development of sports can position themselves and direct their actions. Beyond the predominant trends (making sporting activities more widely available and diversification of the practice of sports, overall growth in employment, etc.), several uncertainties have a bearing on the development of the system of employment in sport and are capable of threatening the foundations on which sports ethics are based. The first refers to the revelations of the “scandals” in the world of sport, whether involving doping or corruption. These in fact seem to be becoming increasingly systematic and are liable to alienate spectators and television viewers and cause financiers and unpaid volunteers to withdraw. The second relates to the role of virtual games in the field of practising sports. Absorbed with the “video culture", are the new generations not liable to abandon sports for the pleasure of the make-believe? Will video games not take the place of practising “real” sports? The third uncertainty relates to the future of the professionalisation of sports associations. In fact, although the transformations in the demand for sports draw the associations towards the production of quality sports services, the rationalisation of these organisations seems essential. However, the form which the professionalisation will take still has to be devised and cannot simply reproduce the enterprise model. What is at stake in this development depends on the ability of the sporting world and its partners to professionalise the sports associations without them losing their identity. The final great uncertainty concerns the configuration of the relations between all the sports operators and their ability to cooperate with one another. The three scenarios combine these four uncertainties and major stakes in different ways. The first (standardised individualisation of sports services), which is certainly the most pessimistic, describes a society in which virtual sport has stolen a march over the practising of sports, where the sports ideal collapses and where commercial regulation dominates the new sector of jobs in sports, which on the whole require few qualifications. The second (duality of sports services), which is more mitigated, considers the survival of the sports ethic in a movement of resistance to professionalisation. “Two-speed” sports services are then produced, which in turn refers to a dual functioning of the employment markets in the sports sector: on the one hand, skilled, well-paid jobs in the large enterprises, on the other, jobs involving little skills and poorly paid in the small structures. The final scenario, which is certainly the most optimistic (new alliance of sports services), evokes a revival of the sports ideal combined with account taken at public policy level of the predominant trends in the development of the practice of sports (self-organised sport, sport as a leisure activity, etc.). The latter implies strong diversification of the sectors for occupational integration. Under such a scenario, the regulation of employment in sport is based on a balance between the bureaucratic, entrepreneurial and mission-based approaches.

    European Network of Sport Science Institutes - European Observatory of Employment in Sport - Sept. 1999

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    Collective bargaining allows the relationship between training and employment to be optimised and a

    good level of qualifications to be ensured. On the other hand, there is the professionalisation of the

    sports associations with a view to redefining their task and identity.

    ; In conclusion, we propose that the persons responsible concentrate their activities in four main

    directions:

1- Develop the sector by organising the relationships between the sports operators

    This involves building a system ensuring complementary relations between associative operators (sports movement) public operators (local and regional authorities, central governments) and commercial operators (sports entertainment or leisure companies). The specific tasks of these operators must be specified or reaffirmed.

    2- Boost the skills of the human resources in the associative sector to promote social development. A certain form of professionalisation of the associative sports movement is undoubtedly a response to the crisis it is experiencing almost throughout Europe. However, any professionalisation leading to a

    weakening in associative spirit (to give way to a user or customer mentality) would be counter-productive.

    The many initiatives taken in the European Union Member States to develop employment in the associative sports sector, especially in the highly suitable context of the ILDE, should be conducted in this spirit.

    3- Construct a professional “sports” sector as a prerequisite for improving the quality of employment in sport.

    The world of sport based on unpaid volunteers has not always sized up the requirements of the move towards professionalisation, especially with regard to respect of labour law. The uncontrolled increase in

    the number of part-time jobs, the almost total lack of collective consideration of the seasonal nature of sport, the inadequacy of measures for retraining top-level sportsmen are a consequence of the low level of recognition of the potential role of the social partners and the social dialogue in the sports sector. A public

    initiative should facilitate the emergence of representation of the sector at national and European levels

    (based on what happens in the United Kingdom and France, for example).

    European Network of Sport Science Institutes - European Observatory of Employment in Sport - Sept. 1999

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    4- Improve the relationship between training and employment and the capacity for occupational integration in the sports sector

    The occupational integration of young people in sports companies and associations often takes place under difficult conditions. On the other hand, the sports movement rarely has the means to provide the training to meet the needs. The result is that the number of people engaging in a profession in the sports sector without suitable training is very high in most EU Member States. Better adaptation of training to

    employment in a sector of very small enterprises entails systematic development of schemes combining training and work defined and negotiated by the social partners.

    Although it corresponds to general principles common to all the services sectors, the respect of the social functions assigned to sport must lead to the development of employment in the sports sector being undertaken in a way which is in keeping with this specific character.

    European Network of Sport Science Institutes - European Observatory of Employment in Sport - Sept. 1999

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INTRODUCTION

     Today, on average one European in two engages in a “sport”, of whom one in five within federated associations, and almost all watch sports events live or on television. Very widely organised on an associative basis, sport relies on the public authorities to differing degrees depending on the country and has acquired an increasingly commercial slant in recent years. Beyond its immediate confines, it has an impact on a series of activities which affect a large number of different sectors: construction of facilities, sports goods, clothing, food, health care services, information and communication).

     Sport has been identified as a growth area offering job creation potential (White Paper, etc.). The

    1statistical data available in several European countries in fact show that since 1980, the number of jobs

    classified under sporting activities (NACE code 92.6) has tripled and that this trend seems to be ongoing.

     Three main reasons can be put forward:

    - the development of sporting activities themselves affect different groups of the population (the elderly, youngsters getting back into society, the disabled, etc.) and meet a variety of needs (leisure, health, entertainment, education);

    - the indirect effects of raising the standard of living of Europeans, who devote a growing proportion of their income to expenditure on leisure and health (especially leisure activities in the sports field) ; - the change in the “supply of sport” which is becoming increasingly professional (the commercial facet of sports activities is growing; associative sport draws a growing number of professionals).

     The question is how this development can be accompanied, facilitating job creation, but without at the same time weakening associative sport and its effects on strengthening social links. The policy of developing employment in sport in Europe appears entirely in keeping with the introduction of a “European

    model of sport”, which aims for optimum combination of the intervention of the associative and commercial

    2operators (local and national).

     1 Data collected and compared in France, the United Kingdom, Italy and Belgium - OEES, publication in progress.

     2 The European Model of Sport, DG X

    European Network of Sport Science Institutes - European Observatory of Employment in Sport - Sept. 1999

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