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By Floyd Williams,2014-05-14 21:24
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    第二十六篇 Male and Female Pilots Cause Accidents Differently

    1Male pilots flying general aviation (private) aircraft in the United

    States are more likely to crash due to inattention or flawed decision-making, while female pilots are more likely to crash from mishandling the aircraft. These are the results of a study by researchers at the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health.

    The study identifies the differences between male and female pilots in

    2terms of circumstances of the crash and the type of pilots error involved.

    “Crashes of general aviation aircraft account for 85 percent of all aviation

    3deaths in the United States. The crash rate for male pilots, as for motor

    4vehicle drivers, exceeds that of crashes of female pilots,” explains Susan P.

    Baker, MPH, professor of health policy and management at the Bloomberg School of Public Health. “Because pilot youth and inexperience are

    56established contributors to aviation crashes, we focused on only mature

    pilots, to determine the gender differences in the reasons for the crash.”

    The researchers extracted data for this study from a large research project on pilot aging and flight safety. The data were gathered from general aviation crashes of airplanes and helicopters between 1983 and 1997, involving 144 female pilots and 267 male pilots aged 40-63. Female pilots were matched with male pilots in a 1:2 ratio, by age, classes of medical and pilot certificates, state or area of crash, and year of crash. Then the circumstances of the crashes and the pilot error involved were categorized and coded without knowledge of pilot gender.

    The researchers found that loss of control on landing or takeoff was the most common circumstance for both sexes, leading to 59 percent of female pilots’ crashes and 36 percent of males’. Experiencing mechanical

    7failure, running out of fuel, and landing the plane with the landing gear up

    were among the factors more likely with males, while stalling was more likely with females.

    The majority of the crashes95 percent for females and 88 percent

     1

    for malesinvolved at beast one type of pilot error. Mishandling aircraft kinetics was the most common error for both sexes, but was more common among females (accounting for 81 percent of the crashes) than males (accounting for 48 percent). Males, however, appeared more likely to be

    8guilty of poor decision-making, risk-taking, and inattentiveness, examples

    9of which include misjudging weather and visibility or flying an aircraft

    with a known defect. Females, though more likely to mishandle or lose control of the aircraft, were generally more careful than their male

    10counterparts.

    练习,

    1. What is the research at Johns Hopkins University about?

     ACauses of aircraft crash.

     BGender difference in relation to types of aircraft crashes.

     CCauses of mishandling aircraft.

     DGender discrimination in general aviation in the United States.

    2. Which of the statements is NOT true according to the second paragraph?

     ACrashes of general aviation aircraft is a major source of aviation

    accidents in the United States.

     BMale pilots, like male vehicle drivers, are more likely to have

    accidents than female pilots.

     CIt is commonly known that aircraft crashes are mostly caused by

    young and inexperienced pilots.

     DOnly mature pilots are studied to determine the gender differences in

    the reasons for aircraft crash.

3. How did the researchers carry out their study?

    A) They studied the findings of several previous research projects. B) They conducted a questionnaire with 411 pilots.

    C) They collected data from the database at the Johns Hopkins University. D) They analyzed the circumstances of the crashes involved.

    4. What is the most common circumstance of crash with female pilots?

     AMechanical failure and running out of fuel.

     BLoss of control on landing or takeoff and stalling.

     CLoss of control on landing or takeoff and running out of fuel.

     2

     DStalling and landing with the gear up.

5. In the comparison of female and male pilots,

     Afemale pilots are found to be more courageous and risk-taking.

     BMale pilots are found to be more professional and attentive.

     CFemale pilots are found to make more errors out of carelessness.

     DMale pilots are found to make more errors in decision-making.

    第二十六篇 Male and Female Pilots Cause Accidents Differently

    1Male pilots flying general aviation (private) aircraft in the United

    States are more likely to crash坠毁 due to inattention疏忽 or flawed有缺

    陷的 decision-making, 决策while female pilots are more likely to crash

    from mishandling违反运行规程 the aircraft. These are the results of a

    study by researchers at the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg

    School of Public Health.

    The study identifies the differences between male and female

    pilots in terms of circumstances of the crash and the type of pilots error

    2involved. “Crashes of general aviation aircraft account for 85 percent of all

    3aviation deaths in the United States. The crash rate for male pilots, as for

    4motor vehicle drivers, exceeds that of crashes of female pilots,” explains

    Susan P. Baker, MPH, professor of health policy and management at the Bloomberg School of Public Health. “Because pilot youth and inexperience

    56are established contributors to aviation crashes, we focused on only

    mature pilots, to determine the gender differences in the reasons for the crash.”

    The researchers extracted data for this study from a large

    research project on pilot aging and flight safety. The data were

    gathered from general aviation crashes of airplanes and helicopters between 1983 and 1997, involving 144 female pilots and 267 male pilots aged 40-63. Female pilots were matched with male pilots in a 1:2 ratio, by age, classes of medical and pilot certificates, state or area of crash, and year of crash. Then the circumstances of the crashes and the pilot error involved were categorized and coded without knowledge of pilot gender.

     3

    The researchers found that loss of control on landing or takeoff

    was the most common circumstance for both sexes, leading to 59

    percent of female pilots’ crashes and 36 percent of males’.

    Experiencing mechanical failure, running out of fuel, and landing the plane

    7with the landing gear up were among the factors more likely with males,

    while stalling was more likely with females.

    The majority of the crashes95 percent for females and 88 percent

    for malesinvolved at beast one type of pilot error. Mishandling aircraft kinetics was the most common error for both sexes, but was more

    common among females (accounting for 81 percent of the crashes) than males (accounting for 48 percent). Males, however, appeared more likely

    8to be guilty of poor decision-making, risk-taking, and inattentiveness,

    9examples of which include misjudging weather and visibility or flying an

    aircraft with a known defect. Females, though more likely to mishandle or lose control of the aircraft, were generally more careful than their

    10male counterparts.

    练习,

    1. What is the research at Johns Hopkins University about?

     ACauses of aircraft crash.

     BGender 性的类别difference in relation to types of aircraft crashes.

     CCauses of mishandling aircraft.

     DGender discrimination in general aviation in the United States.

2. Which of the statements is NOT true according to the second paragraph?

     ACrashes of general aviation aircraft is a major source of aviation

    accidents in the United States.

     BMale pilots, like male vehicle drivers, are more likely to have

    accidents than female pilots.

     CIt is commonly known that aircraft crashes are mostly caused by

    young and inexperienced pilots.

     DOnly mature 成熟pilots are studied to determine the gender

    differences in the reasons for aircraft crash.

3. How did the researchers carry out their study?

     4

A) They studied the findings of several previous research projects.

    B) They conducted a questionnaire with 411 pilots.

    C) They collected data from the database at the Johns Hopkins University. D) They analyzed the circumstances of the crashes involved.

4. What is the most common circumstance环境, 详情, 境况of crash

    with female pilots?

     AMechanical failure and running out of fuel.

     BLoss of control on landing or takeoff and stalling失速.

     CLoss of control on landing or takeoff and running out of fuel.

     DStalling and landing with the gear up.

5. In the comparison 比较of female and male pilots,

     Afemale pilots are found to be more courageous and risk-taking.

     BMale pilots are found to be more professional and attentive.

     CFemale pilots are found to make more errors out of carelessness.

     DMale pilots are found to make more errors 错误, 过失in

    decision-making.

    第二十七篇Driven to Distraction

    1Joe Coyne slides into the driver’s seat, starts up the car and heads to

    2town. The empty stretch of interstate gives way to urban congestion, and

    Coyne hits the brakes as a pedestrian suddenly crosses the street in front of him.

    But even if he hadn’t stopped in time, the woman would have been safe. She isn’t real. Neither is the town. And Coyne isn’t really driving. Coyne is demonstrating a computerized driving simulator that is helping

    3researchers at Old Dominion University (ODU) examine how in-vehicle

    4guidance systems affect the person behind the wheel.

    The researchers want to know if such systems, which give audible or written directions, are too distractingor whether any distractions are

    5offset by the benefits drivers get from having help finding their way in

    6unfamiliar locations.

     5

    “We’re looking at the performance and mental workload of drivers,” said Cary1 Baldwin, the assistant psychology professor leading the research, which involves measuring drivers’ reaction time and brain

    7activity as they respond to auditory and visual cues.

    8The researchers just completed a study of the mental workload

    involved in driving through different kinds of environments and heavy vs. light traffic. Preliminary results show that as people “get into more challenging driving situations, they don’t have any extra mental energy to respond to something else in the environment,” Baldwin said.

    But the tradeoffs could be worth it, she said. The next step is to test different ways of giving drivers navigational information and how those methods change the drivers’ mental workload.

    “Is it best if they see a picture…that shows their position, a map kind

    9of display?” Baldwin said. “Is it best if they hear it?”

    Navigational systems now on the market give point-by-point directions that follow a prescribed route. “They’re very unforgiving,” Baldwin said. “If you miss a turn, they can almost seem to get angry.”

    That style of directions also can be frustrating for people who prefer more general instructions. But such broad directions can confuse drivers who prefer route directions, Baldwin said.

    Perhaps manufacturers should allow drivers to choose the style of directions they want, or modify systems to present some information in a

    10way that makes sense for people who prefer the survey style, she said.

    Interestingly, other research has shown that about 60 percent of men prefer the survey style, while 60 percent women prefer the route style, Baldwin said. This explains the classic little thing of why men don’t like to stop and ask for directions and women do, Baldwin added.

    练习,

    1. Which statement is true of the description in the first two paragraphs? A) If Coyne had stopped the car in time, he wouldn’t have hit the woman.

    B) The woman would have been knocked over, if Coyne had followed the

    traffic regulations.

    C) Coyne is not really driving so it is impossible for him to have hit the

    woman.

    D) If the woman had not crossed the street suddenly, Coyne would not have

    hit her.

     6

    2. What do researchers want to find out, according to the third and fourth paragraphs?

    A) Whether or not audible or written directions are distracting. B) How long it will take the driver to respond to auditory and visual

    stimuli.

    C) How the driver perform under certain mental workload. D) All of the above.

    3. What are the preliminary results given in the fifth paragraph? A) Drivers are afraid of getting into challenging driving situations. B) In challenging driving situations, drivers still have extra energy to

    handle other things.

    C) In challenging driving situations, drivers do not have any additional

    mental energy to deal with something else.

    D) Drivers’ mental load remains unchanged under different situations.

    4. The sixth paragraph mainly state that the researchers A) is designing a visual navigational information system. B) Is designing an audio navigational information system. C) Is designing an audio-visual navigational information system. D) Want to determine the best ways of giving navigational information

    system.

5. What kind of directions do men and women prefer?

    A) Women prefer more general directions and men prefer route directions. B) Men prefer more general directions and women prefer route directions. C) Both men and women prefer general directions.

    D) Both men and women prefer route directions.

    第二十七篇 Driven to Distraction分心

    1Joe Coyne slides into the driver’s seat, starts up the car and heads to

    town. The empty stretch伸展 of interstate 州际gives way to urban

    congestion拥塞,, and Coyne hits the brakes as a pedestrian!步行者

    suddenly 突然地 crosses the street in front of him.

    But even if he hadn’t stopped in time, the woman would

     7

have been safe安全的. She isn’t 真实的. Neither is the town. And real

    Coyne isn’t r. Coyne is demonstrating a eally driving

    computerized driving simulator that is helping researchers at Old

    3Dominion University (ODU) examine how in-vehicle guidance systems

    4affect the person behind the wheel.

    The researchers want to know if such systems, which give audible or written directions, are too distractingor whether any distractions are

    5offset by the benefits drivers get from having help finding their way in

    6unfamiliar locations.

    “We’re looking at the performance and mental workload of drivers,” said Cary1 Baldwin, the assistant psychology professor leading the research, which involves measuring drivers’ reaction time and brain

    7activity as they respond to auditory and visual cues.

    8 The researchers just completed a study of the mental workload

    involved in driving through different kinds of environments and heavy vs.

    (prep.) light traffic. Preliminary results show that as people “get into

    more challenging driving situations,they don’t have any extra mental energy to respond to

    something else in the environment,” Baldwin said.

    But the tradeoffs(公平)交易,折衷,权衡 could be worth it, she said.

    The next step is to test different ways of giving drivers navigational

    information and how those methods change the drivers’ mental workload.

    “Is it best if they see a picture…that shows their position, a map kind

    9of display?” Baldwin said. “Is it best if they hear it?”

    Navigational systems now on the market give point-by-point directions that follow a prescribed route. “They’re very unforgiving,” Baldwin said. “If you miss a turn, they can almost seem to get angry.”

    That style of directions also can be frustrating for people who prefer more general instructions. But such broad directions can confuse drivers who prefer route directions, Baldwin said.

    Perhaps manufacturers制造业者, 厂商 should allow drivers to

    choose the style of directions they want, or modify systems to present

    10some information in a way that makes sense for people who prefer the

    survey style, she said.

    Interestingly, other research has shown that about 60 percent of men

    prefer the survey调查style, while 60 percent prefer the women

     8

    route style, Baldwin said. This explains the classic little thing of why men don’t like to stop and ask for directions and women do, Baldwin added.

    练习,

    1. Which statement isof the description in the first two true

    paragraphs?

    A If Coyne had stopped the car in time, he wouldn’t have hit the

    woman.

    B The woman would have been knocked over, if Coyne had followed

    the traffic regulations.

    C Coyne is not really driving so it is impossible for him to have hit

    the woman.

    D If the woman had not crossed the street suddenly, Coyne would not

    have hit her.

    2. What do researchers want to find out, according to the third and fourth paragraphs?

    A) Whether or not audible or written directions are distracting. B) How long it will take the driver to respond to auditory and visual

    stimuli.

    C) How the driver perform under certain mental workload. D) All of the above.

3. What are the preliminary预备的, 初步的 results结果 given in the fifth

    paragraph?

    A) Drivers are afraid of getting into challenging driving situations.

    B) In challenging driving situations, drivers still have extra energy to

    handle other things.

    C) In challenging driving situations, drivers do not have any additional

    mental energy to deal with something else.

    D) Drivers’ mental load remains unchanged under different situations.

4. The sixth paragraph mainly state that the researchers

    A is designing a visual navigational information system.

    B Is designing an audio navigational information system.

    C Is designing an audio-visual navigational information system. D Want to determine the best ways of giving navigational航行的,

     9

    海的 information system.

5. What kind of directions指导 do men and women prefer?

    A Women prefer more general directions and men prefer route directions.

    B Men prefer more general directions and women prefer route

    directions.

    C Both men and women prefer general directions.

    D Both men and women prefer route directions.

第二十八篇,

    1Sleep Lets Brain File编档保存 Memories

    21To sleep. Perchance恐怕 to file? Findings published online this week

    3by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences further support the theory that the brain organizes and stows memories formed during the day while

    4the rest of the body is catching zzz’s.

    52Gyorgy Buzsaki of Rutgers University and his colleagues analyzed the

    brain waves of sleeping rats and mice. Specifically, they examined the electrical

    6activity emanating散发 from the somatosensory(耳、目、口等以外的)体觉的

    7neocortex[](大脑) 皮层 (an area that processes sensory information) and

    8the hippocampus, which is a center for learning and memory. The scientists found that oscillations in brain waves from the two regions appear to be intertwined. So-called sleep spindles (bursts of activity from the neocortex) were

    9followed tens of milliseconds later by beats in the hippocampus known as

    ripples. The team posits that this interplay between the two brain regions is a key step in memory consolidation.

    3A second study, also published online this week by the proceedings of

    10the National Academy of Sciences, links age-associated memory decline to

    high glucose levels.

    4Previous research had shown that individuals with diabetes suffer from increased memory problems. In the new work, Antonio Convit of New York University School of Medicine and his collaborators studied 30 people whose average age was 69 to investigate whether sugar levels, which tend to increase

    11with age, affect memory in healthy people as well. The scientists administered

    recall tests, brain scans and glucose tolerance tests, which measure how quickly sugar is absorbed from the blood by the body’s tissues. Subjects with the poorest memory recollection, the team discovered, also displayed the poorest glucose

     10

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