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3G19

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3G19

    19

    阅读理解

第十九篇;

    Prolonging Human Life

    Prolonging human life has increased the size of the human

    1population. Many people alive today would have died of childhood

    2diseases if they had been born 100 years ago. Because more people live

    3longer, there are more people around at any given time. In fact, it is a

    decrease in death rates, not an increase in birthrates, that has led to the population explosion.

    4Prolonging human life has also increased the dependency load. In all

    societies, people who are disabled or too young or too old to work are dependent on the rest of society to provide for them. In hunting and gathering cultures, old people who could not keep up might be left behind

    5to die. In times of famine, infants might be allowed to die because they

    could not survive if their parents starved, whereas if the parents survived they could have another child. In most contemporary societies, people feel a moral obligation to keep people alive whether they can work or not. We have a great many people today who live past the age at which they want to work or are able to work; we also have rules which require people to retire at a certain age. Unless these people were able to save money for their retirement, somebody else must support them. In the United States many retired people live on social security checks which are so little that they must live in near poverty. Older people have more illness than young or middle-aged people; unless they have wealth or private or government

    6insurance, they must often “go on welfare” if they have a serious illness.

    When older people become senile or too weak and ill to care for

    7themselves, they create grave problems for their families. In the past and

    in some traditional cultures, they would be cared for at home until they died. Today, with most members of a household working or in school, there is often no one at home who can care for a sick or weak person. To meet

    8this need, a great many nursing homes and convalescent hospitals have

    9been built. These are often profit-making organizations, although some are

    sponsored by religious and other nonprofit groups. While a few of these

    10institutions are good, most of them are simply “dumping grounds” for the

    dying in which “care” is given by poorly paid, overworked, and underskilled personnel.

    练习;

    1. The writer believes that the population explosion results from A) an increase in birthrates.

    B) The industrial development.

    C) A decrease in death rates.

    D) Cultural advances.

    2. It can be inferred from the passage that in hunting and gathering cultures A) it was a moral responsibility to keep old-aged people alive. B) Infants could be left dead in times of starvation.

    C) Parents had to impart the cultural wisdom of the tribe to their children. D) Death was considered to be freedom from hardships.

    3. According to the passage, which of the following statements about retired people in the United States is true?

    A) Many of them have a very hard life.

    B) They cannot live a decent life without enough bank savings. C) They rely mainly on their children for financial support. D) Most of them live with their children and therefore are well looked after.

4. In Paragraph 3, the phrase “this need” refers to

    A) the need to prolong the lives of old people

    B) the need to enrich the life of the retired people

    C) the need to build profit-making nursing homes.

    D) The need to take care of sick and weak people

    5. Which of the following best describes the writer’s attitude toward most of the nursing homes, and convalescent hospitals?

    A) Sympathetic.

    B) Unfriendly.

    C) Optimistic.

    D) Critical.

第十九篇;

    Prolonging 延长, 拖延Human Life

    Prolonging human life has increased the size of the human

    1population. Many people alive today would have died of childhood

    2diseases if they had been born 100 years ago. Because more people live

    3longer, there are more people around at any given time. In fact, it is a

    decrease in death rates, not an increase in birthrates, that has led to the

    population explosion.

    4Prolonging human life has also increased the dependency load. In all

    societies, people who are disabled or too young or too old to work are dependent on the rest of society to provide for them. In hunting and

    gathering cultures, old people who could not keep up might be left

    5behind to die. In times of famine, infants婴儿 might be allowed to

    die because they could not survive if their parents starved, whereas if the parents survived they could have another child. In most contemporary societies, people feel a moral obligation to keep people alive whether they can work or not. We have a great many people today who live past the age at which they want to work or are able to work; we also have rules which require people to retire at a certain age. Unless these people were able to save money for their retirement, somebody else must support them. In the

    United States many retired people live on social security checks

    which are so little that they must live in near poverty. 贫穷, 贫困

    Older people have more illness than young or middle-aged people; unless they have wealth or private or government insurance, they must often “go

    6on welfare” if they have a serious illness.

    When older people become senile老年的 or too weak and ill to care

    7for themselves, they create grave problems for their families. In the past

    and in some traditional cultures, they would be cared for at home until they died. Today, with most members of a household working or in school, there is often no one at home who can care for a sick or weak person. To meet

    8this need, a great many nursing homes and convalescent hospitals have

    9been built. These are often profit-making organizations, although some are

    sponsored by religious and other nonprofit groups. While a few of these

    institutions are good, most of them are simply “dumping

    10grounds” for the dying in which “care” is given by poorly paid, overworked, and underskilled personnel.

    练习;

1. The writer believes that the population explosion results from

    A) an increase in birthrates.

    B) The industrial development.

    C) A decrease in death rates.

    D) Cultural advances.

2. It can be inferred 推断from the passage that in hunting打猎 and

    gathering cultures

    A) it was a moral responsibility to keep old-aged people alive.

    B) Infants婴儿 could be left dead in times of starvation. 饥饿

    C) Parents had to impart the cultural wisdom of the tribe to their children.

    D) Death was considered to be freedom from hardships.

    3. According to the passage, which of the following statements about retired people in the United States is true?

    A) Many of them have a very hard life.

    B) They cannot live a decent life without enough bank savings. C) They rely mainly on their children for financial support. D) Most of them live with their children and therefore are well looked after.

4. In Paragraph 3, the phrase “this need” refers to

    A) the need to prolong the lives of old people

    B) the need to enrich the life of the retired people C) the need to build profit-making nursing homes.

    D) The need to take care of sick and weak people

5. Which of the following best describes描写 the writer’s attitude态度

    toward most of the nursing homes, and convalescent hospitals? A) Sympathetic. 有同情心的

    B) Unfriendly. 不友善地

    C) Optimistic. 乐观的

    D) Critical. 批评的

    1第二十四篇 Underground Coal Fires—— a Looming Catastrophe

    Coal burning deep underground in China, India and Indonesia is

    2threatening the environment and human life, scientists have warned, These

    large-scale undergrond blazes cause the ground temperature to heat up and kill surrounding vegetation, produce greenhouse gases and can even ignite

    3forest fires, a panel of scientists told the annual meeting of the American

    4Association for the Advancement of Science in Denver. The resulting

    release of poisonous elements like arsenic and mercury can also pollute local water sources and soils, they warned.

    “Coal fires are a global catastrophe,” said Associate Professor Glenn Stracher of East Georgia College in Swainsboro, USA. But surprisingly few people know about them.

    5Coal can heat up on its own, and eventually catch fire and burn, if

    there is a continuous oxygen supply. The heat produced is not caused to disappear and under the right combinations of sunlight and oxygen, can

    6trigger spontaneous catching fire and burning. This can occur underground,

    7in coal stockpiles, abandoned mines or even as coal is transported. Such

    89fires in China consume up to 200 million tones of coal per year, delegates were told. In comparison, the U.S. economy consumes about one billion tones of coal annually, said Stracher, whose analysis of the likely impact of coal fires has been accepted for publication in the International Journal of

    10Coal Ecology. Once underway, coal fires can burn for decades, even

    centuries. In the process, they release large volumes of greenhouse gases, poisonous fumes and black particles into the atmosphere.

    The members of the panel discussed the impact these fires may be having on global and regional climate change, and agreed that the underground nature of the fires makes them difficult to protect. One of the members of the panel, Assistant Professor Paul Van Dijk of the International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation in the Netherlands, has been working with the Chinese government to detect and monitor fires in the northern regions of the country.

    Ultimately, the remote sensing and other techniques should allow scientists to estimate how much carbon dioxide these fires are emitting.

    11One suggested method of containing the fires was presented by Gary

    Colatizzi, of the engineering firm Goodson, which has developed a

    12heat-resistant grout (a thin mortar used to fill cracks and crevices), which

    13 is designed to be pumped into the coal fire to cut offthe oxygen supply.

    练习;

    1. According to the first paragraph, one of the warnings given by the scientists is that

    A) underground fires loom large in the forests.

    B) Coal burning deep underground is found in China.

    C) Poisonous elements released by the underground fires can pollute water

    sources.

    D) Arsenic and mercury are the most poisonous elements to water sources.

    2. According to the third paragraph, what will happen when the underground heat does not disappear?

    A) Coal heats up on its own and catches fire and burns

    B) The underground oxygen will be used up.

    C) Poisonous fumes and greenhouse gases will be accumulated

    underground.

    D) There will be an increase of abandoned mines.

    3. What did Stracher analyze in his article published in the International Journal of Coal Ecology?

    A) Annual consumption of coal in U.S.

    B) Annual consumption of coal in China.

    C) How long coal fires has lasted in the northern region of China. D) Coal fires can have an impact on the environment.

    4. Which of the following statements about Paul Van Dijk is NOT true? A ) He was one of the scientists who have warned against the threats of

    underground fires.

    B) He has detected and monitored underground fires in Netherlands. C) He has worked with the Chinese government on the underground fires issue.

    E) He works for a research institute in Netherlands.

    5. According to the fifth paragraph, what is the suggested method to control underground fires?

    A) Using remote sensing technique.

    B) Controlling the release of carbon dioxide.

C) Making the soil heat resistant.

    D) Cutting off the oxygen supply.

第二十四篇 Underground地下的Coal Fires失火—— a Looming

    迫近Catastrophe大灾难, 大祸

    Coal burning燃烧 deep underground in China, India and Indonesia is threatening the environment and human life, scientists have warned.These

    large-scale undergrond blazes燃烧 cause the ground temperature to heat

    up and kill surrounding vegetation, []植被, produce greenhouse二氧化

     gases and can even ignite使燃烧 forest fires, a panel座谈小组 of

    scientists told the annual meeting of the American Association for the

    4Advancement of Science in Denver. The resulting release of poisonous

    elements like arsenic [], 砒霜 and mercury水银 can also pollute

    local water sources and soils, they warned.

    “Coal fires are a global catastrophe,” said Associate Professor Glenn Stracher of East Georgia College in Swainsboro, USA. But surprisingly few people know about them.

    5Coal can heat up on its own, and eventually catch fire and burn, if

    there is a continuous oxygen supply. The heat produced is not caused to disappear and under the right combinations of sunlight and oxygen, can

    6trigger spontaneous catching fire and burning. This can occur underground,

    7in coal stockpiles, abandoned mines or even as coal is transported. Such

    89fires in China consume up to 200 million tones of coal per year, delegates were told. In comparison, the U.S. economy consumes about one billion tones of coal annually, said, whose analysis of the Stracher

    likely impact of coal fires has been accepted for publication in the

    10International Journal of Coal Ecology. Once underway, coal fires can

    burn for decades, even centuries. In the process, they release large volumes of greenhouse gases, poisonous fumes and black particles into the atmosphere.

    The members of the panel discussed the impact these fires may be having on global and regional climate change, and agreed that the underground nature of the fires makes them difficult to protect. One of the

members of the panel, Assistant Professor Paul Van Dijk

    of the International Institute学会, 学院, 协会 for Geo-Information

    Science and Earth Observation in the Netherlands, has been working

    with the Chinese government to detect and monitor fires in the northern regions of the country.

    Ultimately, the remote sensing and other techniques should allow scientists to estimate how much carbon dioxide these fires are emitting.

    11One suggested method of containing the fires was presented by Gary

    Colatizzi, of the engineering firm Goodson, which has developed a

    12heat-resistant grout (a thin mortar used to fill cracks and crevices), which

    13 is designed to be pumped into the coal fire to cut offthe

    oxygen supply. 练习;

    1. According to the first paragraph, one of the warnings given by the scientists is that

    A) underground fires loom large in the forests.

    B) Coal burning deep underground is found in China.

    C) Poisonous有毒的 elements released by the underground fires can

    pollute water sources.

    D) Arsenic and mercury are the most poisonous elements to water

    sources.

2. According to the third paragraph, what will happen when the

    underground heat does not disappear?

    Coal heats up on its own andA) catches fire and B) The underground oxygen will be used up. burns

    C) Poisonous fumes and greenhouse gases will be accumulated

    underground.

    D) There will be an increase of abandoned mines.

    3. What did Stracher analyze in his article published in the International Journal of Coal Ecology?

    A) Annual consumption of coal in U.S.

    B) Annual consumption of coal in China.

    C) How longs lasted in the northern region of coal fires ha

    China.

D) can have an impact on...有影响 the Coal fires

    environment.

    4. Which of the following statements aboutis Paul Van Dijk NOT true?

    A) A ) He was one of the scientists who have warned against the threats

    of underground fires.

    B) He has detected查明;发现或弄清楚事实真相and monitored监视

    underground fires in Netherlands.

    C) He has worked with the Chinese government on the underground fires

    issue.

    D) He works for a research institute in Netherlands.

    5. According to the fifth paragraph, what is the suggested method to control underground fires?

    A) Using remote sensing technique. B) Controlling the release of carbon dioxide. C) Making the soil heat resistant. D) Cutting off the oxygen supply.

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