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List the Routines in order of Priority for Behavior Support Select routinesBEHAVIORs Rank order the top priority problem behaviors occurring in the


    Practical Functional Behavioral

    Assessment Training Manual

    for School-Based Personnel

     Practical Practical Practical

    Sheldon Loman, PhD, Portland State FBA FBA FBA



    Christopher Borgmeier, PhD, Portland

     State University

    Practical FBA Participant’s Guide

    Page 1

    Table of Contents

     Page #


     Functional Behavioral Assessment and Positive Behavior Support 1

    Purpose of the Workbook 2

     Intended Use and Overview of the Workbook 3-4

    Session 1: Defining & Understanding Behavior 5-15

     Checks for Understanding 13-14

     Task/Key Points 15

    Session 2: Investigating Behavior 17-39

     Checks for Understanding 37-40

     Task/Key Points 41

     Tools Presented:

    FACTS for Staff (Appendix A)

    FACTS for Students (Appendix B)

    Session 3: Observing & Summarizing Behavior 43-69

     Checks for Understanding 63-68

    Task/Key Points 69

     Tools Presented:

     ABC Recording Form (Appendix C)

     Summary of Behavior Table (Appendix D)

Session 4: Function-based Behavioral Support Planning 71-80

     Next Steps/Key Points 81

     Tool Presented:

     Behavior Support Planning Forms (Appendix E)

    AppendicesPractical FBA Tools & Quick Reference

    A. FACTS for Staff 85-86

    B. FACTS for Students 89-90

    C. ABC Observation Form 81-93

    D. Summary of Behavior Table 94

    E. Behavior Support Planning Form 96-97

    F. Practical FBA Quick Reference Guide 99-115

References 116-117

    Practical FBA Participant’s Guide

    Page 2

    to predict common problems and to develop Functional Behavioral Assessment and

    Positive Behavior Support interventions at the school level. At the

    secondary (or targeted group) prevention level, Functional Behavioral Assessment has been

    FBA involves simple and realistic team-driven recommended as an effective proactive

    assessment and intervention strategies aimed at technology that should be used at the first signs

    1. FBA has been established as a students with mild to moderate behavior of misbehavior

    systematic, evidence-based process for assessing problems. Finally at the tertiary (or intensive) the relationship between a behavior and the prevention level, FBA is considered a

    2context in which that behavior occurs. A complex, time-consuming, and rigorous primary goal of FBA is to guide the process focused on students with development of effective positive more chronic, intensive behavior School professionals

    interventions based on the problems for whom primary trained to conduct

     Practical FBAs may function of the behavior (e.g., and secondary level

    strengthen a school‘s tangible, escape, attention, interventions were

    capacity to utilize 3automatic). Interventions unsuccessful. Students research-based FBA

    based on an FBA that exhibit serious technology in a

    result in significant problem pro-active manner.

    change in behaviors in 4student behavior.Thus, an FBA is ―critical to school (about 5% of school population) require the design and successful implementation of an extensive FBA process led by an individual

    5positive behavioral interventions. well-versed in behavioral principles (e.g., school

    psychologist, behavior specialist).

     FBA has been described as a preventative

    practice within schools across the three levels of The logic behind the Practical FBA training the prevention model for School wide Positive resides with the idea that students that exhibit

    6Behavior Support (SWPBS). At the primary consistent minor problem behaviors (10-15% of (or universal) prevention level, FBA can be the school population) benefit from basic and utilized as a collaborative school-wide practice less intrusive FBA procedures that may be

    conducted by a school professional (e.g., 1 Scott et al., 2003; Sugai et al., 2000. counselor, administrator). Practical FBA 2 Blair, Umbreit, & Bos; 1999; Carr et al., 1999; presents and applies the FBA technology for use Lee, Sugai, & Horner, 1999. by school personnel in a proactive manner. 3 Horner, 1994

    4 Carr et al.., 1999; Ingram, Lewis-Palmer, & Sugai,


    5 Watson & Steege, 2003, p.20

    6 Scott & Caron, 2005

    Practical FBA Participant’s Guide

    Page 3

    Purpose of the Participant‘s Guide

    This participant’s guide presents specific For example, Practical FBA methods would be procedures for school-based personnel to appropriate for a student who is calling other conduct practical functional behavioral students names during academic instruction on a assessments (FBA). Practical FBA training daily basis. However, the Practical FBA methods presented in this workbook are methods would not be sufficient for use with a designed to train student who strikes

    When used early for students school-based personnel others or engages in identified at-risk for serious

    with flexible roles in a self-injurious behaviors behavioral problems,

    school (i.e. personnel during a number of Practical FBA methods may prevent

    the escalation of student behaviors not directly responsible routines throughout the

    that, if left untreated, may require school day. for providing regular

    more intrusive methods. instruction for students).

    For students that The Practical FBA training methods are

    exhibit complex or dangerous behavioral specifically designed for use with students that

    problems school personnel should contact a exhibit consistent problems that are not

    behavior specialist in your school or district dangerous and have not been adequately

    who is trained to conduct FBA’s for students addressed through previous assessment and with more challenging behaviors. intervention.

    Practical FBA Methods may be used with students Practical FBA Methods are NOT sufficient for use

    who: with students who:

    Exhibit high frequency behaviors that are NOT Exhibit dangerous behaviors (e.g., hitting, throwing dangerous (e.g., talking out, running, not following objects, property destruction)

    directions, not completing work)

    Exhibits behaviors in 3 or more school routines.

    Have received interventions that did not improve


    Exhibit behaviors that occur in 1 to 2 school

    routines (e.g., specific classrooms/activities, lunch, recess)

    Practical FBA Participant’s Guide

    Page 4

    Intended Use of the Participant‘s Guide

    The activities within this workbook are This participant’s guide is NOT meant to be

    designed to be used by school-based used as a self-instructional handbook. This professionals (e.g., counselors, guide is designed to match with key points administrators) as they are guided through from the presentation activities of the the Practical FBA Training procedures Practical FBA Training. The tools and provided by an individual well-versed in procedures in the appendices of this functional behavioral assessment and workbook can be used after the training to

    guide trained school-based professionals. behavioral analytic principles (e.g., school

    psychologists, behavior specialists).

    Format of the Participant‘s Guide

    Each of the 4 training sessions will include the following elements:

     Objectives: Content and skills participants will learn during the session.

    Review: Review content from the previous session.

    Activities: Practice opportunities to better understand content and develop skills.

     Checks for Understanding & Comments/Questions

     After new content has been taught and practiced, activities to check for understanding or

    identify points that need to be discussed and practiced further. (Please submit to the

    trainer at end of each session)

    Tasks: Real life practice opportunities in your school with actual cases in your school.

    Key Points from each session.

     Presentation Slides: Slides presented in each session can be inserted behind this page.

     Practical FBA Participant’s Guide

    Page 5

    Practical FBA Focus of this

    training seriesPractical FBA vs

    Comprehensive FBAFor: Students with mild to Students with moderate to

    moderate problem severebehavioral

    behaviors (behaviors that problems; may be

    are NOT dangerous or dangerous and/or

    occurring in many settings)occurring in many settingsWhat: Relatively simple and Time-intensive process that

    efficient process to guide also involves archival

    behavior support planningrecords review, family-

    centered planning, and

    collaboration with agencies

    outside of school

    Professionals trained to Conductedby whom: School-based personnel conduct functional (e.g., teachers, counselors, assessments with students administrators)with severe problem behaviors (e.g., school psychologists, behavior specialists)

    Practical FBA process

    D.A.S.H.Today’s Training

    Definebehavior in observable & measurable terms

    Session #2

    Askabout behavior by interviewing staff & student

    -specify routines where& when behaviors occur-summarize where, when, & whybehaviors occur

    Session #3Seethe behavior

    -observe the behavior during routines specified

    -observe to verify summary from interviews

    Hypothesize: a final summary of where, when &

    Session #4whybehaviors occur

    Practical FBA Participant’s Guide

    Page 6

    Session #1: Defining & Understanding Behavior

    By the end of this training session you will be able to:

    1. Define observable behaviors (the WHAT).

    2. Identify events that predict WHEN & WHERE the

    specific behavior occurs.

    3. Identify WHY a student engages in the specific


     4. Construct hypothesis statements that summarize the

    WHAT, WHEN, WHERE, & WHY of a student’s



    Practical FBA

    Always start with the behavior

    Despite the ABC concept, the behavior (B) is

    our starting point!



    ..because (why) ______ When_____ happens….

    Practical FBA Participant’s Guide

    Page 7

    Defining Observable

    Problem Behaviors

    Definitions of behaviors need to be:

    Observable: The behavior is an action that can be


    Measurable: The behavior can be countedor


    Defined so clearly that a person unfamiliar

    with the student could recognize the

    behavior without any doubts!

    Activity 1

    List 5 problem behaviors that occur in your school:






    Are the behaviors listed above: (a) observable,

    (b) measurable, and (c) defined so clearly that a

    person unfamiliar with the student could recognize

    the behavior without any doubts?

    Practical FBA Participant’s Guide

    Page 8

    Activity 2

    Write out the behavior and provide an observable &

    measurable definition for one (1) of the behaviors


1. Jeff is always disruptive in class.

    Disruptive: ______________________________________________________________


2. Hailey is constantly off-task during math.

    Off-task: ________________________________________________________________

    ________________________________________________________________________ 3. Chris is defiant.



    _______________________________________________________________________ 4. Brandon is angry and hostile.



    ________________________________________________________________________ 5. Alexis uses inappropriate language.

    Inappropriate language:



    Practical FBA Participant’s Guide

    Page 9

    Activity 3

    Identify the behavior, antecedent, & routines in the

    following scenarios:

When he goes to math class and peers tease him about his walk, A.J.

    calls them names and hits them.

     Routine: During _________________

     Antecedent/Trigger Behavior

     When: Student does:

Bea stares off into space and does not respond to teacher directions

    when she doesn’t know how to do a difficult math problem.

     Routine: During

    Antecedent/Trigger Behavior

    When: Student does:

    Practical FBA Participant’s Guide

    Page 10

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