Part I The Anglo

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Part I The Anglo

    Part I The Anglo-Saxon Period(449-1066)

I Background

    449 the Teutons ( the Jutes, the Anglos, the Saxons) II Literature

    The literature of this period falls into two divisionspagan and Christian

    Two Anglo-saxon Christian poets:

    Caedmon ~凯德蒙?公元7世纪盎各鲁?萨克逊基督教诗人?who lived in the latter half of the th7 century and who wrote a poetic Paraphrase of the Bible. Cynewulf ~基涅武甫,盎各鲁――萨克逊诗人?生活在公元9世纪?其古英语诗稿于10世纪被发现?有

    《埃琳娜》,《使徒们的命运》?《基督升天》和《朱莉安娜》?, the author of poems on religious subjects

    III The Song of Beowulf( Beowulf, 公元7-8世纪之交开始流传于民间的同名史诗中的主人公?曾与水


Status: Englands national epic

    Written at the beginning of the tenth century Composed much earlier


    The whole song is essentially pagan in spirit and matter. Features : alliteration; metaphors; understatement Subject matter

     Part II The Anglo-Norman Period (10661350)

    I historical background: The Norman Conquest II. The Literature

    The literature which they brought to England is remarkable for its bright, romantic

    tales of love and adventure.

    III. Romance

    1. Romance was the prevailing form of literature in feudal England. 2. Definition and features(理解)

IV. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight

    a late-14th century middle-English outlining an adventure of Sir Gawain, a knight of

    King Arthurs Round Table.

    It was a verse romance of 2530 lines, considered as the best of Arthurian romances.

    Part III Geoffrey Chaucer(1340?-1400) I Major works

    The Romaunt of the Rose《玫瑰传奇》 is a translation from a French poem. His masterpiece: The Canterbury Tales

    II Contributions

    1. Chaucerthe forerunner of Renaissance

2. Chaucer a master of realism

    3 Chaucer—“father of English poetry

    ?In contradistinction to the alliterative verse of the Anglo-Saxon poetry, Chaucer

    chose the metrical form which laid the foundation of the English tonic-syllabic verse.

    He introduced from France the rhymed couplet (two successive lines of verse ?

    equal in length and with thyme) of iambic pentameter which is to be called later the

    heroic couplet

    III the Canterbury tales

    1. status

    The Canterbury Tales is Chaucer's masterpiece and one of the monumental works in

    English literature

    2. It contains

     (1) a general prologue (over 800 lines)

     (2) 24 tales

     (3) separate prologues and the links that accompany some of the tales

    Part IV The Renaissance

    I. The Renaissance


    ? A thirsting curiosity for the classical literature. ? The keen interest in the activities of humanity. Essence: humanism

    II. The 16th century England

    III. The Renaissance Literature in England


    1/ Thomas More (1478-1535, 托马斯?莫尔) the Forerunner of utopian socialism

     Utopia《乌托邦》 (1516)

    2/ France Bacon (1561-1626,弗朗西斯?培根?--the scientist, philosopher and essayist 3/ Thomas Wyatt (1503?-1542, 托玛斯?维亚特?--a poet, the first to introduce the sonnet into English literature

    4/. Edmund Spenser (1552-1599,埃德蒙?斯宾塞)?a great poet

    The Faerie Queene 《仙后》~1590?

    5/ Christopher Marlowe(1564-1593)the greatest pioneer of English drama Contributions:

    He reformed the genre of drama in England and perfected the language and verse of

    dramatic works.

    He made blank verse the principal vehicle of expression in drama 6/ Prose writers

    John Lily(1553-1606?约翰?黎利) Eupheus ~尤弗伊斯?gives the term of euphuism

    Thomas Loge (1558-1625?托马斯?洛奇)

    Thomas Deloney (1543-1600,托马斯?德罗尼?

    Thomas Nashe~1567-1601?托马斯?纳西?

William Shakespeare (1564-1616)

    I. status: the greatest of all English authors; one of those rare geniuses of

    mankind; landmark in the history of world culture; one of the first founders of

    realism; a masterhand at realistic portrayal of human characters and relations

the greatest dramatist in human history and the supreme poet of the English

    languagehe wrote poems and plays

II works


    sonnets: 154

    2 narrative poems

    Venus and Adonis 《维纳斯和阿多尼斯》

    The Rape of Lucrece 《鲁克莉斯受辱记》

    ? plays(38)


    Romeo and Juliet

    4 great tragedies (Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, Macbeth )


    Mid- Summer’ Night’s Dream


    III. Selected reading

    ? Hamlet

     Sonnet 18 ?

Francis Bacon (1561-1626)

    I title( Philosopher, scientist (the inventor of scientific method); Statesman

    Jurist(法学家?; essayist

    II. works

    Bacons works may be divided into three classes:

a. the philosophical works:

     Advancement of Learning (1605, in English)

     Novum Organum (1620, in Latin)

     De Augmentis (1623, in latin)

b. the literary works:

     Essays( 1597,1612, 1625)

c. the professional works:

     Maxism of the Law

     Reading on the Statute of Uses 用益权法

Part V The 17th Century The period of Revolution and Restoration

    I. Social Background

    1. The 17th century was one of the most tempestuous[动荡的] periods in

    English history.

    2. In 1642, the civil war (English revolution/ Puritan revolution) broke out

    between Charles I and the parliament.

    3. The restoration (1660)

    4. The glorious revolution(1688)

    II. Puritan and Puritanism

    III. Literature of the 17th century

    1. The revolution period

    General Characteristics

    ? The Revolution Period was one of confusion in literature due to the breaking

    up of the old ideals. The Puritans believed in simplicity of life. They

    disapproved of the sonnets and the love poetry written in the previous period. ? The Puritan influence in general tended to suppress literary art. Yet this hard,

    stern sect produced a great poet, John Milton, and a great prose writer, John


    ? Literature in the Puritan Age expressed sadness. Even its brightest hours

    were followed by gloom and pessimism.

    ? John Milton, whose work would glorify any age and people, and in his work

    the indomitable~不屈服的?revolutionary spirit found its noblest expression.

    For this reason, this period is also called Age of Milton?

    ? The main literary form of the period was poetry. Besides Milton, there were

    two other groups of poets, the Metaphysical Poets and the Cavalier Poets.

2. Literature of the Restoration

    general characteristics

    ? a sudden breaking away from old standards

    ? Restoration literature is deeply influenced by French classical taste. It is a period of French influence.

     rimed couplets-blank verse

     The unities

     A more regular construction

     The presentations of types rather than individuals ? restoration comedies

    Restoration created a literature of its own that was often witty and clever, but on the whole immoral and cynical. The most popular genre was that of comedy whose chief aim was to entertain the licentious aristocrats. The comedies are coarse in language and their view of the relations between men and women is immoral and dishonest.

?John Dryden (1631-1670)

     critic, poet, and playwright

     the most distinguished literary figure of the time

()John Donne (1573-1631)

     The founder of the Metaphysical School and very influential upon modern I ?


    ?a preacher famous for his magnificent sermons at his time

    III Major Works

    Early works: Songs and Sonnets

    ( written before 1600, 55 love poems)

     The Flea 《跳蚤》

     Song: Go and Catch a Falling Star

     Woman’s Constancy 《女人的忠贞》

     A Valediction : of Weeping《别离辞(哭泣》

     A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning《别离辞(节哀》

    late works: Religious poems and sermons () John Milton(1608-1674)

    I status ?A great puritan poet

    ? his work would glorify any age or people, and in him the indomitable puritan spirit finds the

    noblest expression.

    II Miltons Works

    Three literary periods:

    ? early period: poems written in Cambridge and at Horton

    ? middle-aged period: prose pamphlets

    Areopagitica (Speech for the Liberty of Unlicensed Printing,1644 )

    Eikonoklastes ( Image Breaker, 1649)

    Defense for the English People (1650)

    ? the period of his old age :great poems

     Paradise Lost (1658-1664)

     Paradise Regained (1671)

     Samson Agonistes (1671)

    III Paradise Lost

    ? status:

     the only great epic since Beowulf

     one of the greatest poems of the English language


The theme is ― the fall of man,‖ i.e. man's disobedience and the loss of paradise , with its cause

    Satan .

() John Bunyan 16281688

    I status

     He received spiritual independence from the Reformation

     the chief Puritan writer of prose

     He gave us the only great allegory ——The Pilgrim’s Progress

    II The Pilgrim’s Progress (1678)

    ? It is about Christian’s journey from his hometown ―the city of Destruction‖ to the ―Celestial

    City‖, and his experiences and adventures on his journey.

     It depicts the pilgrimage of a human soul in search of Salvation.

    ?It was written in the form of allegory and dream. ?Christians journey in 10 stages (scenes)

Slough of Despond

    The House of Interpreter

    The Hill of Difficulty

    House Beautiful

    Valley of Humiliation

    The valley of the Shadow of Death

    Vanity Fair

    Doubting Castle

    The Delectable Mountains

    Celestial City

    ?vanity fair

     Vanity Fair is one of the most remarkable passages of The Pilgrim’s Progress

     ―Vanity‖ means ―emptiness‖ or ―worthless‖, hence

     the fair is an allegory of worldliness & the corruption of the religious life through the

    attractions of the world

     the great critical realist of the 19th century, W. M. Thackeray, employed ―Vanity Fair

    as the title for his masterpiece that gives a comprehensive satirical picture of the

    aristocratic bourgeois society of 19th century England

    Part VI The 18th century The Age of Enlightenment in England ~the age of reason)

    I. Historical background

    The Enlightenment

     Version 1: p 165-166

II. Literature

    1. Neoclassicism


     John Dryden(1631-1700)

     Alexander Pope(1660-1744)

     散文《论批评》An Essay on Criticism

     讽刺史诗《夺发记》The Rape of the Lock

     Samuel Johnson (1709-1784)

     《英文大词典》A Dictionary of the English Language

    2. Essays

    ; Joseph Addison (1672-1719)

    ; Richard Steele (1667-1745)

The Tatler

    The Spectator

    3.modern English novel


Daniel Defoe (1661-1731) Robinson Crusoe

    Henry Fielding (1707-1754) The History of Tom Jones, A Foundling T. G. Smollet (1721-1771) satirical novels Samuel Richardson (1689-1761) Pamela

    Oliver Goldsmith (1728-1774) The Vicar of Wakefield Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) Gulliver's Travels

    Lawrence Sterne (1713-1768) Sentimental Journey

    thRobinson Crusoe was one of the forerunners of the English 18 century realistic novel. But it was

    Henry fielding and Tobias George Smollet who became the real founders of the genre of the

    bourgeois realistic novel in England and Europe. 4. Drama

     Oliver Goldsmith (1728-1774)

     She stoops to Conquer

     Richard Brinsley Sheridan (1751-1816)

     the Rivals

     the School for Scandal

    5. Sentimentalism


    Samuel Richardson Pamela 帕米拉

    Laurence Sterne Sentimental Journey


    Thomas Gray (1716-1771) Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard

    Oliver Goldsmith (1728-1774) The Deserted Village George Crabbe (1754-1832) The Village

    6 Gothic novel


     Horace Walpole (1727-1797)

     The Castle of Otranto奥特伦托城堡

     Ann Radcliff (1764-1823)

     The Mysteries of Udolpho 尤道弗之谜

    7. pre-romanticism

    the poets

     William Blake (1757-1821)

     Robert Burns (1759-1796)

    ~一? Daniel Defoe (1661-1731)


    1. Pamphlet

     The Shortest Way with the Dissenters

    2. Fiction (picaresque novel)

Robin Crusoe (1719)

    Captain Singleton (1720)

    Duncan Campbell (1720)

    Memoirs of Cavalier (1720)

    Colonel Jack (1722)

    Moll Flanders (1722)

    Journal of the Plague Year (1722)

    Account of Jonathan Wild (1725)

    The History of the Devil (1726)

    ~二?Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) I ?A satirist

    ?The supreme prose master in the first part of the 18th century is Swift.

    II The works of Swift:

    The Battle of the Books书的战争~1704?

    A Tale of A Tub一只桶的故事~1704?

    The Journal to Stella斯特拉日记~1710-1713?

    A Modest Proposal一个温和的建议~1729?

    Drapiers Letters布商的信~1724?1725?

    Gullivers Travels格列佛游记~1726?

    III Gullivers Travels

    four voyages of Lemuel Gulliver

    The first part : Lilliput

The second part: Brobdingnag

    The last part: the land of Houyhnhnms The third part: Laputa

    IV A Modest Proposal (1729)

    A Modest Proposal is the best and most famous political satire of Swift.

~三?Joseph Addison(1672-1719)

    Richard Steele (1672-1729)

    1. The Tatler

     started by_______

     containing: news,gossip,stories and jokes

     published ______times a week

     _______small pages

     run about ______years

    2.The Spectator

     Published every morning

     Containing only familiar essays

     form: The spectator was supposed to be edited by a small club run by Mr Spectator, including

    mainly Sir Roger de Coverley and several others.

     Content: comment on books; earnest efforts after reform; Character sketches of sir Roger

3. The purpose

    4. the meaning and influence of the T and the S

    5. The style of Addison

     P 230

    6. The literary genre of essay

     p228 L7-L13

~四?Henry Fielding(1707-1754)

    I chiefly a novelist

     then a dramatist

     the founder of English realistic novel

     Father of English novel

    II works

    ?The History of the Adventure of Joseph Andrews and His Friend Mr. Adams 1742《约瑟?安德鲁斯》 a parody of Richardson’s Pamela

    ?Jonathan Wild, the Great 1743《大伟人乔纳森?威尔德传》 the story of a rogue ?The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling 1749《弃儿汤姆琼斯的历史》 masterpiece ?The History of Amelia 1751《艾米利亚》

~五?Thomas Gray(1716-1771)

Elegy written in a Country Churchyard

    ?Type: elegy (a somber poem or song that praises or laments the dead) ?Key dates: Gray began writing the poem in 1742, put it aside for a while, and finished it in 1750. He was meticulous: everything he wrote had to be just right. He believed that one imprecise

    word could ruin an entire work. Consequently, In ―Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard,‖ he labored on until all the words were right

    ?setting : Churchyard at Stoke Poges in Buckinghamshire, England. Gray was buried in that churchyard.

? format: four-line stanzas in iambic pentameter.

     In each stanza, the first line rhymes with the third and the second rhymes with the fourth. ?status: one of the greatest poems in the English language. It knits structure, rhyme scheme,

    imagery and message into a brilliant work that confers on Gray everlasting fame.

     ?school: sentimental poetry

     the graveyard school

~六?Oliver Goldsmith(1728-1774)

    I ? an Irish Writer

    ?a representative of Sentimentalism

    ?One of the most versatile of authors and made distinguished contributions in several literary forms.

    II Works

    ; A novel

     The vicar of Wakefield 1761-1762


    ; comedies

     She stoops to Conquer 1773 委曲求全

     Good-natured Man 1768 好性情的人

    ; A series of essays

     The Citizen of the World 1762世界公民

    ; Poems:

     The Traveler 1764 旅行者

     The Deserted Villiage1770 荒村

~七?Richard Brinsley Sheridan(1751-1816)

    I ? the most important English playwright of the 18th century.

? His plays, especially The Rivals and The School for Scandal, are generally regarded as

    important links between the masterpieces of Shakespeare and those of Bernard Shaw.

    II. Dramas of Sheridan

    ; The Rivals 情敌1775

    ; The School for Scandal造谣学校1777

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