By Roberta Lopez,2014-03-06 09:55
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    I. Historical Introduction

    II. Background: puritanism

    III. Early New England literature

    IV. Writers of Colonial Period

    V. Analysis of Some Fragments

I Historical Introduction

     The native Americans and their culture: Indians

     European Explorers and Settlers

     Christopher Columbus discovered the American continent in 1492.

     In 1607, Captain Christopher Newport reached Jamestown in Virginia colony , which became the first

    permanent English settlement in North America.

     Puritans came to the New England area by Mayflower in late 1620. They landed at Plymouth Rock in

    present-day Massachusetts and struggled through the winter to build the Plymouth settlement. Early in the seventeenth century, the English settlements in Virginia and Massachusetts began the main

    stream of what we recognize as the American national history.

     The earliest settlers included Dutch, Swedes, Germans, French, Spaniards, Italians, and Portuguese Negroes

The Land of Promise:

    in the Christian Bible, the Land of Promise is Canaan, the place that God gives to Abraham (who is the

    first ancestor of Jews).(pa4, p2)

    II Background: Puritanism


    Puritans was the name given in the 16th century to the more extreme Protestants within the Church of England who thought the English Reformation had not gone far enough in reforming the doctrines and structure of the church; they wanted to purify their national church by eliminating every shred of Catholic influence. In the 17th century many Puritans emigrated to the New World, where they sought to found a holy Commonwealth in New England. Puritanism remained the dominant cultural force in that area into the 19th century.

     Five points of Calvinism (Puritanism)

     Total depravity

     Unconditional election

     Limited atonement

     Irresistible grace

     The perseverance of the saints

     Influence on literature

     A group of good qualities hard work, thrift, piety, sobriety (serious and thoughtful) influenced

    American literature.

     It led to the everlasting myth. All literature is based on a myth garden of Eden.

     Symbolism: the American puritans metaphorical mode of perception was chiefly instrumental in

    calling into being a literary symbolism which is distinctly American.

     With regard to their writing, the style is fresh, simple and direct; the rhetoric is plain and honest, not

    without a touch of nobility often traceable to the direct influence of the Bible.

III Early New England Literature(p4-5)

     New England: the northeastern colonies of the 13 colonies----Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont Massachusetts,

    Connecticut and Rhode Island, founded by Puritans.

     A literature of ideas: theological, moral, historical and political

     Puritan values: hard work , thrift, piety and sobriety

     John Cotton

     Cotton Mather: more than 450 works

     The American poets---European style + American subject (e.g. Anne Bradstreet)

     Colonial Types of Writing

     diaries, histories ,journals, letters, travel books, autobiographies/biographies, sermons, religious poetry

    IV Writers of Colonial Period (7)

The First American Writer——Captain John Smith

    1. One of the leaders of the Jamestown colony

     2. works:8

    ; A True Relation

    ; A Map of Virginia: with a Description of the Country

    ; General History of Virginia

     3 His Contributions:

    ; The survival of the Jamestown colony

    ; Exploring the rivers and bays around the Chesapeake(切萨皮克; region

    ; foretelling the basic principle of American history: the need of workers

John Winthrop(温斯洛普1590-1659)

    1.the governor of the Massachusetts Bay group

    2. works:

    The History of New England (the complete work printed in 1826) 3. features:

    ; Notable for its candid simplicity and honesty

    ; The most valuable kind of historical source

    ; Attaining literary excellence through a direct and vigorous style

John Cotton (科顿?1584-1652

    1.the Patriarch of New England‖——through his books of puritan argument and the pulpit 2. Ideas

    ; holding the ideal of theocracy (a state ruled by the church)

    ; Suppressing differences of opinion

    ; more concerned with authority than with democracy

    ; firm and devoted to his beliefs

Roger Williams(罗杰?威廉姆斯1603-1683)

    1.Founder of the colony of Providence Plantation; the first governor of Rhode Island colony


    ; A proponent of religious freedom and the separation of church and state

    ; More tolerant

    ; interested in the Indian language:

    A Key into the language of America; or, A Help to the Language of the Natives in That Part of America Called New


    Anne Bradstreet(1612-1672)

    1. a poetess, a wilderness wife and mother

    2. Works:

    ; The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America

     Allusion a reference to a person, a place, an event, or a literary work that a writer expects the reader to recognize and

    respond to. An allusion may be drawn from history, geography, literature, or religion

    Edward Taylor(p12-13)

    1. publication of his poetry in 1960 The best puritan poet, and the most accomplished poetic craftsman of the early


    2. features:

    ; Following the style and forms of the English poets of the mid-17th century ; religious themes, based on Psalms

    ; posthumous

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