1.Tourist Resort Explanation
(1)、The Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall
Sun Yat-Sen was the forerunner of the Chinese bourgeois democratic revolution. He was born on November 12, 1866 in a farmer’s family in the
Cuiheng Village in Xiangshan County (the present-day Zhongshan City) in Guangdong Province. At the age of 12, he went to Honolulu, where his elder brother sent him to a missionary school. Later, he came back to Hongkong to study in a college of Western medicine and, after graduation, practiced medicine in Guangzhou and Macao. So ever since he was a child ,he had been influenced by the Western ideas of Christianity and democracy and this had helped him make up his mind to cure the ills of the old feudal China and turn it into a democratic and strong nation. At first, he had illusions about the Qing government and hoped to save this moribund regime through reforms. But China defeats by foreign invaders and the corruption and incompetence of the Qing government intensified his patriotic indignation. He decided that the Qing court was rotten to the core and must be overthrown and replaced by a democratic republic.
So, in 1894, together with some twenty Chinese shop-keepers and farm-owners in Honolulu, he established the fist Chinese bourgeois revolutionary organization—the Society for the Revival of China (the Xing Zhong Hui). In the following spring, he returned to Hongkong and staged the fist armed uprising against the Qing Dynasty in Guangzhou; but it ended in failure. Then, in 1905, he went to Japan, where he founded China’s first political party called “China
Revolutionary League” (the Tong Meng Hui), which later developed into the
Nationalist Party (the Guomintang). Since then he had made successive attempts to topple the Qing regime and finally succeeded in the Wuchang Uprising that broke out in October 1911. The Qing regime was overthrown and he was elected the provisional president of the interim government of the Republic of China in Nanjing. This political power, however, was soon taken over by the warlords. Then in 1920, Sun Yat-Sen came back to Guangzhou to set up a new government called the South Revolutionary Government. In 1921, he proclaimed his extraordinary presidency in Guangzhou. In 1925, he died of illness in Bejing and was buried later in Nanjing.
Sun Yat-Sen had devoted all his life to the cause of the Chinese democratic revolution, and the 1911 revolution he led had put an end to the feudal monarchy that had existed in China for several thousand of years. To commemorate his great contributions to the Chinese revolution, people of Guangzhou had his memorial hall built in 1929-1931, at the original site of the former presidential house of the South Revolutionary Government, which was burned down in 1992 by a rebel warlord, Chen Jiongming by name.
The Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall is an octagonal palace-like reinforced concrete structure, 58 miters high with a floor space of 12 thousand square
- 1 -
meters. It looks like a traditional Chinese palace in appearance but was constructed with modern architectural technique. In front of the hall stands a bronze statue of Sun Yat-Sen, which is 5.5 miters high and weighs 3.9 ton. Up on the façade below one of the eaves is written Sun Yat-Sen’s motto, meaning
“China Belongs to the People” in English (or literarily “Let Public
). Inside the building is a conference hall with a Spiritedness Rule under the sky”
seating capacity of 3,238 people. And, thanks to the ingenious designing of the architect, the acoustics of the hall are excellent and there is no pillar to obstruct the spectator’s view because the eight pillars sustaining the four long-spanned steel trusses supporting the huge domed roof, are hidden in the walls. Today, the Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall is still one the main places for mass meetings or theatrical performances in Guangzhou.
The magnificent Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall was designed by a young Chinese architect, by the name of Lu Yan-zhi, who was born in Tianjin, graduated from the Qinghua University in Bejing and later studied architecture in the Cornell University in the USA. He died of lung cancer in 1929, at the age of 36, before the hall was completed.
(2)、The world Geology Park ----The Danxia Mountain
Located in the northeast of Shaoguan city in Guangdong Province .the Danxia Mountain is 45 kilometers away from downtown Shaoguan.The Danxia Mountain Area was originally a huge inland bash 25,000,000 years ago. There was severe uplifting of the area around the basin, which resulted in the development of the deep red bed on the basin after the accumulation of a mass of detrital matter The red bed was gradually eroded because of the earths crust uplifting. Then the running water undercuts the corrosion, then formed the present Danxia Mountain. Set off by the green trees, clear water and the blue sky, the red rock and red cliffs are as if they were the rosy cloud in the sky. therefore, people name it The Rosy Cloud Mountain, that is ,the Danxia Mountain in Chinese. In the 1930s. Professor Chen Guoda an academician of Chinese Academy of Science of Sun yat-sen University ,having made deep researches to the Danxia Mountain and the red stone mountains in South China,he named the rosy rock landform as "Danxia Landform" which was soon admitted and adopted by the academe. Since then all the landform consisting of rosy rock and with features of red cliff and stratum are acknowledged as Danxia landform. There are many Danxia landforms in every continent except Antarctica such as Great Canyon in USA and Saxons in Germany; of its type, the Shanguan Danxia Mountain is the one with largest area, the most typical characteristics, the richest landform and the most beautiful scenery.
With an area of nearly 319 square kilometers, the Danxia Scenic Area contains more than 600 stone pillars big and small, making it as it were a ruby carving garden, so the mountain has earned the reputation of "Chinese Redstone Paik". And in the year of 1995.Danxia Mountain was approved to be the national
- 2 -
geological nature protection zone by the State Council and which was, in the year of 2000, autherized by the United Nation Educational. Scientific and Cultural Organization for the world geology park.
【The Gate of the Danxia Mountain】
Now we've come to the gate of the Danxia Mountain. It is built by red sandstone from the Danxia Mountain. Look at these Chinese characters; they are the name of the park: China Red Stone Park. The two characters "Danxia" over the gate are inscribed by Guan Shanyue who is Chinese famous calligraphy painter. Well, now, along this stone path we are going to climb to the highest peak in the Danxia Mountain range-the Zhanglao Peak which is 408 meters above the sea level.
【Elephants crossing a River and a Young Girl blocking a River】
We are now getting into the central scenic spot of the Danxia Mountain. The Danxia Mountain lists the first among the four well-known mountains in Guangdong Province and its unique natural scene brings people endless imaginations Well everybody, please look at the peaks on the other side of the Jinkjang River ,those peaks look like elephant crossing the river and are walking towards us. With the trunks the ivories ears and eyes, they are alike elephants not only in appearance but also in manners. So it is called "Elephant" crossing a Rive. (Standing on the Yangyuan Bridge) Please look to the right: the hill over there like a young girl Who is having a sound sleep., It shaped in a natural proportion with a clear adumbration from the right to the left, from her head extending to her neck ,to her breasts and her abdomen. Therefore, it is named "a Sleeping Beauty" or "a Young Girl blocking a River".
【The Yangyuan Mountain】
This mountain is called the Yangyuan Mountain that is a "male mountain". And this stone pillar is named the Yangyuan stone which is 28 meters high and 7 meters in diameters as it is just alike male genitals stone .According to geologists' studies showed that it belongs to the Yangyuan stone column is part of the cliff. Thanks to the superlative Craftsmanship of nature, it is separated from the cliff well before about 300 thousand year and created its unique shape today. In the old times, people wish to be prosperous in the male member in the family and the male descendent would ever last. So the Yangyuan stone is frequently worshipped by people.
As we have Just Seen Yangyuan stone, now We've come to the stone called "Yinyuan stone "it resembles the female genitalia. it has formed its shape for 10 thousand years. God create Adam and Eva in the Garden of Eden, while nature created this couple stones in the Danxia Mountain. How supernatural the universe is!
- 3 -
【The Jinshi Cave】
This grotto is called Jinshi Cave, there is a Budddhist temple inside with Qianfo Palace (Thousand Buddhas Palace), Guanyin Palace, Daxiong etc, among which Guanyin palace cave is the largest one which is 30 meters deep and 4 meters high. It can hold nearly hundred of people to visit and worship at one time; there are 32 Guanyin Carved in the cave different vivid appearance and various expressions and manners. There is stone wall in the Daxiong palace looks like a dragon Whose color becomes different owing the different seasons it changes to light green in spring, dark green in summer, olivine in autumn, but it is brown and yellow in winter. So it is called chameleon. How does this supernatural phenomenon come into being? There is a lower alga growing in the cave, which has high water absorption When climate is humid it will grows brown and yellow. The Cliffside outside is carved with two characters: "Jinyan cave", which is inscribed by Zhao Erlai in southern song Dynasty(1127-1279).So it is the earliest cliffs carving by climbing the cliff in the Danxia Mountain.
【The Biechuan Temple】
The Biechuan Temple is established in the first year of the reign of Emperor KangXi in Qing Dynasty the year of 1662 and it earned high reputation at that times ,so it is one of top there Buddhist Temples in the north of Canton area( one is Famen Temple in Ruyuan and the other is Nanhua Temple in Qujiang. Entering the gate of Biechuan Temple ,we can see a lot of stone carvings on the rosy red cliff, among them the two characters "Danxia "carving is about five or six feet with fine calligraphy, which was written by. Wang Ling from central China in qing Dynasty The four characters "Biechuan Temple" over the gate is inscribed by Li Hahn who was the chairman of Guangdong province in the period of Republic of China .The structure of Biechuan Temple is similar with other Buddhist temples, there in a Heavenly King Hall ,a bell and drum-tower, a Daxiong Palace and Guanyin shrine etc.
Now, you have half an hour free time, and then We are going to get together at the gate of the temple after half an hour and go down the mountain along the way we came up. Finally, we are going to board a boat at the dock to have a boat trip on the Jinjiang River. Everyone can enjoy the beautiful scene on either side along the river
(3)、Kaiping Diaolou and Li Yuan
【General Introduction】—【Architectural style of Diaolou】—【Diaolou Clusters
in Zili Village】—【Yinglonglou in Chikan Town】—【Ruishilou in Xiangang
Town】—【Denglou of the Fang’s Family in Tangkou Town】—【Kaiping Liyuan】
- 4 -
Ladies and gentlemen, welcome to Kaiping.
Kaiping city is located in the southwestern part of the Pearl River Delta. It is 100 KM away from Guangzhou in the northeast.
Kaiping is one of the renowned homes to overseas Chinese. It is famous for the multifunctional village houses with their own style. Shall I spare a few
s go on. minutes to give a brief background of these constructions? OK. Now let’
Chinese people, especially overseas Chinese, have long been known to have a strong homesick complex. Many of them sent their savings back home. Quite a lot returned to hometown to buy a piece of land build their own house and get married .In the late Ming and the early Qing Dynasties, they started to build multi-storey, defensive house called Diaolou. Do you have any ideas why they made their houses in that way? Haha, here come two main reasons. One is that floods frequently struck this city as it was in a relatively low-lying place. The other is that the city used to have bad social order. Those returned overseas Chinese or those who had relatives abroad were pretty well-off. They suffered a lot from the rampant bandits or gangsters Diaolou, or watchtower, to put in the other way , was constructed to solve the aforementioned two problems.
A combination of Chinese and exotic architectural styles is one of the features of this kind of building.
Diaolou in Kaiping appeared on a large scale. The total number of buildings reached 3,300 in its peak time. Nowadays the number of registered houses is 1,833.
Diaolou is well recognized. Some titles were awarded to it. One is Classic Works Representing the Culture of Overseas Chinese. The second is Showcase of World’s Architectural Art. Diaolou are inscribed upon the list of the National Protection Cultural Relics by the State Council of China. On June 28th, 2007, Kaiping Diaolou and Villages were inscribed on the UNESCO’s World Heritage
List, and it is the first heritage from Guangdong.
【Architectural style of Diaolou】
Kaiping Diaolou enjoys its diversity in function, building materials and styles. When we talk about its function, buildings of this kind take three forms. Firstly, they are residential towers built by individual rich families and used as fortified residences. Secondly, they are mainly stone, pise, brick or concrete. As I just mentioned, Kaiping people had migrated to live in different parts of the world. Those returned overseas Chinese brought back home exotic ideas and applied them to village house building. This is reflected in the architecture styles of Diaolou. Their watchtowers not only boast ancient Greak and Roman flavors, but also blend Gothic. Islamic、baroque and the preference of the house owners.
I have been talking quite a lot about the diversity of these watchtowers in terms of function, building materials and architectural style. What is their shared part, then? Do you still remember the problems the local rich people suffered hundreds of years ago? “Yes”; “Good”; “No”; “Oh. No”.
To fulfill its function to defend against bandits, all the watchtowers have
- 5 -
narrow iron doors, small steel windows, and solid walls with embrasures. In some watchtowers, hornworks , locally called“ swallow nests”, thrust outward
on the four corners of the top floor. Those“ swallow nests” exert
Omni-directional control over the surrounding areas. On the top floor of the watchtowers often stand observation post, equipped with primitive firearms, electric generators, sirens, searchlights, stones, gongs and other defensive devices. From their similar looks and styles, we may say that those watchtowers were mainly used to guard against bandits’ attack at that time.
Kaiping watchtowers have played different roles in different historical periods. In the later stage of China’s War of Resistance against Japanese
Aggression, some were used as military strongholds. The most famous one was South Watchtower in Tengjiao village, Chikan town. In the 1920s and 1930s, Kaiping Diaolou were served as a secret site for the Chinese Communist Party to take up underground revolutionary activities. The most renowned two were Shilu and Zhongshanlou.
With my long-wound introduction to Diaolou, I am now guiding you to see watchtower clusters. One thing I have to point out is that they differ quite a lot in styles, as towers of this kind were built in different periods of time.
【Diaolou Clusters in Zili Village】
A showcase of Diaolou Clusters is in Zili Village. This village lies in Tangkou Town, about 12 kilometers from Kaiping city center. It enjoys the most exquisite, best-preserved, densely located buildings of such kind. Fifteen houses in existence in this village are all ranked as cultural relics of national importance under the protection of the state. Mingshilou, a five-storey residential house, is the fanciest. It was built in 1925, made of armored concrete. At its top stands a hexagonal observation tower, displaying a fusion of Chinese and western structural and decorative forms. On every corner of its fifth floor rises a hornwork. Local people called them “Swallow nest”. As you can see, this house
has a massive body, solid iron doors and windows. It has quality designed furnishings and complete living facilities.
【Yinglonglou in Chikan Town】
The oldest is Yinglonglou( Dragon Meeting Tower) in Chikan Town. It was built in the period of Jiajing, Ming Dynasty(1522-1566). The design and construction of this house was free from the exotic architectural influence.
【Ruishilou in Xiangang Town】
The highest and most luxurious Diaolou in Xianggang Town is Ruishilou. The nine-storey tower is 25 meters height, made of armored concrete. The indoor elegant furnishings are arranged in a traditional Chinese style. It is ranked as NO.1 tower in Kaiping.
【Denglou of the Fang’s Family in Tangkou Town】
- 6 -
The most typical Diaolou belongs to the Fang’s clan. It was built in 1920,
made of armored concrete. Located in an open area, this typical vigil-tower was designed to watch neighborhood security. It was equipped with such defensive devices as electric generators for emergency searchlights and firearms.
Did you notice that we are back to Tangkou Town? Anything else to see in this town? Yes, a garden called Liyuan.
Liyuan is located in Beiyi Village, Tangkou town. This village is known as the hometown of many overseas Chinese. Completed in 1936, it is a stately home with a canal, two gardens and many other things. Liyuan takes in and displays the elements from both Chinese and western garden designs. The two Chinese Characters “LiYuan” are there on the tall arched gate.
Liyuan is divided into three areas: villa area, big garden area and small garden area. Its main constructions include a archway with the two Chinese characters “Li Yuan”, a decorated archway with the four Chinese characters “Xiu Shen Li Ben” four pavilions on the bridges, and two ancient roman-style structures (“birds nest” and “vine pavilions”). Couplets and calligraphy from
famous people that we see here and there create traditional Chinese cultural milieu in Liyuan.
A canal was dug to bring together the aforementioned three areas. Long cloisters go along with the water. Spotted in the canal are small bridges, kiosks and pavilions. The design of the canal is the most eye-catching feature in Liyuan. Walking along the cloister with colored paintings for 100 meters, we will come to Li Yuan’s villa area. “Pan Li” and “Pan Wen” are the two most spectacular
villas among the total of six.
From the design of the villas, we can see the combination of Chinese and western elements. The roof of the villa follows the architectural styles of Ancient Chinese palaces while its body adopts western architectural patterns. The stairs, floors, the decorations of the walls are not the exception. Telling examples are the western-style fireplaces, droplights, Italian ceramic tiles, Chinese-style mahogany furniture, folktale frescos and gilded woodcarvings.
Liyuan enjoys not only an exquisite art of architecture, but also rich traditional Chinese culture. The host of Liyuan held the philosophy of life that self-cultivation is the most important thing in one’s life. So when he places
emphasis on cultivating lofty virtues, he encouraged to have high quality leisure time.
(4)、The Ancestral Temple in Foshan
The Ancestral Temple,was first built during the Northern Song Dynasty (1078-1085), is an ancient structure in Foshan City. The original structure was destroyed by fire during the Yuan Dynasty (1206-1368) and was rebuilt in the
- 7 -
Ming Dynasty. The temple was formerly called “Ancestral Hall” and was a
shrine for the metal-casting industry to worship their ancestral masters. It was turned into a Deoist temple during the Ming Dynasty, because the Ming emperor believed in Daoism. Now it houses the foshan City Museum.
The temple is built in the Chinese traditional architecture. Its building complex is compactly laid out with the halls interspaced by courtyards and
connected with corridors. Its roofs are constructed in the traditional“Xieshan”
style, that is , each roof has a horizontal ridge at the top , which is joined at both ends by four inclined but bent-up ridges, with a slope on each of the four sides. The roof structure is supported by a wooden system of brackets inserted between the tops of columns and the crossbeam. These wooden brackets are connected by mortise and tenon joints and not a single nail is used for connection.
While being constructed in the national architectural style the temple structure is unique in the way .It is decorated, the way that is characteristic of Guangdong Province. Pottery sculptures, lime sculptures, brick carvings, wood carvings and other works of art can be found on the ridges, the caves, the walls or elsewhere. There works of art are not only used for the purpose of decoration but are also depletions of various scenes from Chinese folk stories and legends. They are delicately made to be life and are all master piece of ancient Chinese folk art, so the temple is known as The Palace of Criental Folk Art
【The Tripe Doorway Entrance】
The structure with three doorways is the main entrance to the temple and was built in 1450 during the Ming Dynasty. On the ridge, about 30 meters long, there are 152 pottery figurines and below the cave is a row of golden wood-carvings, depicting different Chinese folk stones. Please follow me to the temple ,I will show you more detail.
【The Front Hall】
The Bronze Bell:
This bronze bell was cast during the Ming Dynasty and weight 900 kilo. In the old days, when the pilgrims wanted to show their piety to the North God, they would pay a sum of money to the temple keeper who would then sound the bell to call for silence. The God,it is said, would then be aroused and get ready to receive the pious worshippers.
The Iron Tripod:
This iron tripod was used for burning incense and paper ingots. It was cast during the Ming Dynasty and weighs 1.5 tons. On its body are cast the names of the donators and two verses of prayers.
May the state proper and the people live in peace!
May the wind and rain nourish the crops!
- 8 -
The Holy Table:
The decorative wood-carving on the holy table, on which 126 persons are carved. tells the story about a Tang Dynasty general Li Yuanba taming a fierce horse. This horse is said to be extremely fierce and nobody but Li Yuanba ,, who was noted for his great strength, could ever get it under control. The table was made in the later stage of the Qing Dynasty when China was subjected to invasion and humiliation by the Western colonialists. So the picture is actually an
s struggle against made either to implicit illustration of the Chinese people’
fall on their backs or go down on their knees begging for mercy. 【The Camphor Wood Screen】
This is a camphor wood screen or which several lions are carved and its two sides are made to look exactly the same. The lion looking after a baby-lion is female and the other playing an embroidered ball is male. In the Chinese mythology, the lion is always a symbol of dignity and power . That’s why you
can always see a couple of stone lion at the entrance to a temple or in a house of the rich.
【Between the Front Hall and the Main Hall】
The Daoist Idols:
These idols , 24 in all, are the Daoist generals under the North God . They are made of papermache and are very light-each weighing less than 5 kilos. They are made to lean forward so as show respect to the North God and look frightening to the common people.
This pavilion is just like a table standing on the flour—the four pillars do
not strike into the ground. It has lasted for over 400 years but still remains intact.
【The Main Hall】
This nail was built during the Ming Dynasty and is oldest structure of the temple. The statue in the middle is the North God–the supreme master of the
temple. According to the Daoist dogma, the North God is the deity that dominated the Northern World and commands all the aquatic being. He is said to be able to dispel disasters of flood and fire and to lengthen people’s lives . In
the old days, on every March 3 in the lunar calendar, people would carry the small statue at the side and these weapons to parade the streets so as to pray for a favorable weather for the crops
The Jinxiang Pond:
This pond, called Jinxiang Pond, was constructed in 1513. The stone turtle and serpent in the pond are said to be the incarnations of two general under the North God . Legend has it that whenever the North God wear ride on their backs, one foot on the turtle and the other on the serpent.
The Wanfu Stage:
- 9 -
This structure was a stage for performing Cantonese Opera. It was constructed in Qing Dynasty is the oldest and best preserved stage in Guangdong Province. In the past in the every March 3 after the parade, the people would put the idol of the North God in the front of the stage to watch Cantonese opera.
The Buang Feihoung Memorial Hall:
Huang Felhong was a well-known Chinese kungfu master. He had a strong sense of justice and was always ready to challenge the bully and assist the weak and helpless. He was born in Foshan in 1856 and dield in 1925 at yhe age of 69. His life was full of legends and was reproduced in more than 100 movies. The memorial hall, in which exhibits about his life and deeds are on display, was built and open to the public in 2001 and has now become the ancestral home of his disciples in and out of China.
- 10 -